BIO LAB FINAL

Terms Definitions
mitochondria
pith
very center
Fermentation?
respiration with O2
location of the villi
Mucosa
oogenesis
formation of an ovum
TREPPE
INCREASE IN STRENGTH OF CONTRACTION
homozygous
possessing two identical forms (alleles) of a particular gene, one inherited from each parent
Allele
alternate form of a gene
Baroreceptor Reflex
Helps to control blood pressure
 
by manipulating the 3 of the 4 factors that determine heart rate if one should fail
what kingdom does cyanobacteria belong to?
monera
action potential
electrical impulses intiated by neurons in the spinal cord
The dark reactions require ____ energy from the light reactions
chemical
testes
organ in which sperm are produced
the cell cycle
describes a cell's life
Cnidaria
-- the jellyfish-- corals & anemones (polyp body style)-- corals secrete CaCo3, feed with tentacles, many havedinoflagellate symbionts
What muscle extends the toes?
extensor digitorum longus
meristem 
plant tissue that remains embryonic as long as the plant lives, allowing for indeterminate growth. 
subjective observations
are those that are observer-specific and may not be interpreted in the same way by different people. (opinion/feelings)
anaphase I
homologous pairs seperate and each homolog is pulled to the opposite pole; chromtids are still whole. each homolog contains 2 sister chromatids. because of crossing over the sister chromatids are no longer identical
What group of organic compounds are all hydrophobic
Carbohydrates
"test of efficiency""scramble competition"
no direct confrontationswinner=the animal that acquires the critical resource the fastest
reduced
oxidized molecule gains an electron to become reduced
Dicot venation
vein branch is in a net-like pattern
Pancreatic islets
specialized cells which are the alpha cells that occur in clusters
what is the nutrition of a flowering plant?
autotroph
potometer
device used to measure rate of water uptake by a shoot.
What is an organism that obtains its own nutrients from organic materal of other living organisms? ( affects food source, often causing death)
Parasites
Dissecting microscope
used for low magnification of plate cultures ;have 2 lights: from above, has lighter background, more 3-D, brighter from below, has darker background
oxidation
process by which a compound loses an electron
Stomata
Tiny pores that the plant can open and close through the action of guard cells
A person with blood type B has what kind of agglutinins (antibodies)?
Anti-A
Gene Pool
the total number of alleles for a specific gene in a population
Division Coniferophyta: Common Types
pine, fir, spruce, hemlock, redwood, sequoia, cypress, cedar
relationship between photosynthesis and aerobic cellular respiration.
they are oppposite of each other

 
What are the arrows pointing at?
 
BONUS: What is produced here?
Lab 6: Non-Vascular Plants; HepatophytaGenus Marchantia (liverworts): Archegonia.
Vector.
Neck.
 
BONUS: Eggs.
receptacle
the base of a flower, the part of the stem that is the site of attachment of the floral organs.
How would you recognize Blights?
-term blight properly applies to rapidly spreading and extensive necrosis of plant foliage due to generalized invasion by a pathogen-word 'blight' is often used in the names of diseases more appropriately classified as leaf spot/limited lesion diseases-blights are mostly caused by fungi and bacteria
Gap 1 (G1)
During this stage, the cell is diploid (2n), and is growing and preparing to replicate all its DNA. For most cells, Gap 1 is the longest stage of the cycle. The chromosomes are in a non-duplicated form.
how to find chi score
the sum of ((observed- expected)^2 / expected)
The difference between karyokinesis and cytokinesis
karyokinesis os the replication of DNA and cytokinesis is the actual division of the cytoplasm into two new cells
How would you recognize Yellows and Mosaics?
-caused by phytoplasms, viruses or non parasitic factors-above ground plant structures, expecially leaves, turn wholly or partly yellow or develop some other abnormal colour, usually in a characteristic pattern
What would happen if the Hardy-Weinberg assumptions were violated?
Well, they usually are not true, and thats the point. allelic frequencies can and do change over time. But often times, these are just fluctuations. some traits could theoretically be eliminated from a population as well. (perhaps if there was a very few number of individuals or the trait was extremely disadvantageous.)
What vessels take blood to the left femoral vein?
Great Saphenous and Left deep femoral vein
From what you know the functions of lymph nodes, make a prediction of the difference between the lymph entering a node and lymph leaving a node. What materials may be missing from the lymph leaving the node?
The lymph node is a filter so cellular debris, suspended bacteria, other particulates would be removed.
Sugars
Carbohydrates
Reduced Guaiacol
clear
spermatogenesis
formation of sperm
peritoneum
lines the abdominal cavity
MAXILLA(2)MANDIBLEVOMERLACRIMAL(2)NASAL (2)PALATINE(2)ZYGOMATIC(2)INFERIOR NASAL CONCHA(2)
THERE ARE 14 FACIAL BONES
Lux I
Encodes for the autoinducer
What is the substrate?
hydrogen peroxide
Crista Ampullaris
sense organ of semicircular canals
basidiocarp
elaborate fruiting body of dikaryotic mycelium of a club fungus
DNA
nucleic acid monomer. built by connecting large numbers of nucleotides linked by phosphodiester bonds. consists of a 5-carbon sugar (deoxyribose), a phosphate group, and 4 nitrogenous bases (adenine, gaunine, cytosine and thymine). 2 strands held together by hydrogen bonding between complentary bases. T pairs w/ A using 2 hydrogens bonds and C pairs w/ G using 3 hydrogen bonds. double helix
Class of organic moleculesdo enzymes belong>
Proteins
interneuron
connects sensory neuron to motor neuron lies completely within the spinal cord
Synthesis (S)
The chromosomes replicate, creating twice the genetic material. The cells are still 2n, but each chromosome is now attached to an exact copy of itself. Each chromosome and its duplicate are sister chromatids and remain attached to each other at a point called the centromere. The terms sister chromatids and duplicated chromosome refer to the same thing.
Characteristics of Phylum Nematoda
1. Pseudocoelomates2. Triploblastic3. Has a complete digestive tract.
Which is the most common blood cell?
Erythrocyte
ascomycetes
fungi in the phylum Ascomycota - uniqueness: production of sexual spores in saclike asci; usually called sac fungi
duodenum
The first loop of the small intestine
triploblastic
organisms that have a third major tissue layer, the mesoderm, that develops between the embryological ectoderm and endoderm.
3 Different classes of Carbohydrates
1. Monosaccharides2. Polysaccharides3. Disaccharides
gamete
sex cell (sperm cells and egg cells)
Ribosomes
One of the things prokaryotes and eukaryotes have in common. Small particles that help decode DNA into proteins (proteins ultimately equate into characteristics of an organism)
Bacteria
-- all of the classic bacteria --> bacilli, cocci, spirochetes-- includes pathogens (to humans, plants, insects, etc.)-- includes the cyanobacteria (blue green algae):photosyntheticbacteria
What is another name for leukocyte?
White blood cell
Chloroplast
absorbs sunlight and uses it to drive the synthesis of organic compounds from carbon dioxide and water
non-random mating happens when
there is no mating preference
haploid
an organism with one copy of each type of chromosome
Occurs when a population undergoes a drastic reduction in size as a result of chance events (e.g. volcanic eruption,hurricane)
Bottleneck effect
Photosystem II
light absorbed by this system causes the oxidation of a special chlorophyll molecule (p680) and the subsequent reduction of another molecule, PQ

 
What is this?
 
BONUS: What is produced here?
Lab 6: Non-Vascular Plants; HepatophytaGenus Marchantia (liverworts): Sporangium.
 
BONUS: The case or sac in which spores are produced, also called spore case .
 
Where do the great cardiac vein and the small cardiac vein take blood?
Coronary sinuses
How do population sizes grow?
Population sizes often increase exponentially as a function of the size of the population so that the larger the population, the larger the degree of increaseAnimals and other organisms cannot live forever, so we must take into consideration the mortality rate of the population
What causes Ascochyta blight of lentil and chickpea?
Pathogen: Ascochyta lentis/rabiei (Deuteromycetes with pycnidia/sporogonium)-ascochyta blight is the most damaging disease of chickpea in Canada-symptoms occur on aerial plant parts at any growth stage-circular, necrotic lesions on leaflets and pods are a light tan or grey color and often have a discrete tan coloured margin-centres of lesoins are speckeld with dark brown or black pycnidia, which may form in concentric rings
What term means to walk with only the very tip of the toe(s) on the ground?
unguligrade
canal of Schlemm
takes aqueous humor and  and puts in blood stream
three limitations of the biological species concept
fossils, hybrids, and asexual reproduction
All matter is composed of ____ which is composed of _____
1. Elements2. Atoms
What are four strategies employed by medications acting at synapses?
1.  Blocking the neurotransmitter receptor.
2.  Blocking the reuptake transporter molecules.
3.  Increasing the amount of neurotransmitter released.
4.  Inhibiting the enzymes that destroy neurotransmitters.
Why is fungus placed into the "Imperfect fungi?"
it has no sexual stage
equation for photosynthesis
6CO2 + 6H2O + light --> 6O2 + Glucose
1. Hooke2. Leeuwenhoek3. Shleiden & Schwann4. Virchow
1. term cell2. organisims in pond water3. plants and animals4. Pre-existing cells
Three enzymes needed to generate the long chain aldehyde that Luciferase will oxidize
1. Acyl Transferase
2. Acyl - Protein Synthetase
3. Acyl- Reductase
Give some examples of how fungi enrich our lives
mushrooms of the fields, blue cheese, citric acid in soft drinks
DELTOID
ABDUCTS ARM
Genus
First, Capitalized, italisized
chemoautotrophs
use inorganic molecules
p
frequency of dominant allele
Org SubPhylum Sarcodina
Ameoba sp
outer surface of the stomach
Serosa
Cell wall function
support and protection
Org in Phylum Tardigrada
WATER BEAR!!
7
how many cervical vertebrae are there
carpel
the ovule producing reproductive organ of a flower, consisting of the stigma, style, and ovary. They make megaspores and their products (female gametophytes)
kinetochore
the protein structure on chromosomes where spindle fibers attach during division to pull the chromosome apart
glass, used to stir solutions
Stirring Rods
diastolic
pressue when the heart is relaxed
archenteron
the primitive enteron or digestive cavity of a gastrula.


Characteristics of Cardiac Cycle:
Stage 3. Onset of ventricular systole: isovolumic ventricular contraction


First stage of ventricular systole
Ventricles contract
A-V valves close passively
Continued contraction w/blood neither coming in or going out
Superficial veins contain valves. Inactive people may have problems with their veins in that blood pools in the veins. Can you propose a mechanism by which blood from the veins may by returned to the heart (other than standing on your head!)?
Support hose (stockings)
antheridium
in plants, the male gametangium, a moist chamber in which the gametes develop.
Life Tables
Life tables take into consideration: survivorship (l), the percentage of individuals that live to a certain age; and fecundity (b), the average number of female offspring one female has during her time in that age bracket.Multiplying l x b gives the age class specific contribution to reproduction (lb) for each age group.To find the net reproductive rae (R), we sum up all the l x b values.If the population size is stable, the R value is one. If it is growing, it will be greaer than one. If the population is in decline, it will be less than one.
An organism that is incapable of producing its own food
Heterotrophic
Fermentation
The anaerobic conversion of sugar to CO2 to alcohol by yeast.
homologous
two chromosomes in a diploid organism which carry genes for the same traits
mitosis
one diploid parent cell produces two diploid daughter cells, each genetically identical to the parent cell. Occurs in the vast majority of the body's cells. Responsible for the growth that took you from being one cell (at conception) to your present size. Helps in healing, such as repairing cuts, and routine maintenance, like replacing the dead skin cells you lose daily.
Intraventicular Septa
"wall" separating the left and right hearts
What blood vessels nourish the heart tissue?
Coronary arteries
pollen (grains)
the structure that contains the male gametophyte of the seed plants
hans christian gram
developed a staining procedure, gram staining, that is used to distinguish the bacterial groups. staining is based on the vary composions of cell walls in diff bacteria species
What are some characteristics to Pyrenomycetes?
-ascomycetes with perithecia
once pinnately compound
leaflets arise directly from the central axis
endoplasmic reticulum
an organelle. Functions as a workbench for protein assembly.
What are the Arachnoid Villi?
finger-like processes that project into the lumen of the dural sinuses and that absorb CSF
What is the name of the large cartilage of the anterior larynx?
Thyroid cartilage
cytokinesis mitosis
not part of mitosis. division of the cytoplasm and its content (except DNA); overlaps the last part of mitosis. complete with the seperation of cells
Draw and label Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Disease and Host?
Disease: Crown gallHost: Wide varietyDid you get:-healthy tisse-gall area (hypertrophy vs. hyperplasia)
crossing-over
when the ends of two of the chromatids from neighboring chromosomes in a homologous pair trade places. occurs during prophase I and metaphase I of meiosis. It's a form of genetic recombination and is another way to increase the genetic variability in an organism's gametes and, by extension, its offspring.
What are the 3 layers of Artery/Vein walls?
Tunica Adventitia
Tunica Media
Tunica Intima
 
Factors affecting nucleic acid precipitations
1. Cations for Charge Shielding
2. Temperature during the precipitation step
3. Concentration of the nucleic acids
4. Time and speed of Centrifugation
First law of Thermodynamics
Energy cannot be created or destroyed, but only transformed.
What and where is the Arbor Vitae?  What gives it that appearance?
 
"Tree of Life"
Cerebellum
Gray matter on outside, white matter on inside
 
What causes Pythium spp as plant pathogens?
Pathogens: P. debaryanum (damping off), P. arrhenomanes (browing root rot of wheat)(Class Oomycetes [Kingdom Chromista])-cause a variety of soild borne diseases (damping off, root rot)-sporangia are pear shaped to spherical and sometimes difficult to distinguish from oogonia-sexual reproduction involves fusion of one or more antheridia with an oogonium to form a thick walled oospore containing a distinct oil globule-symptoms of Pythium include: leaf yellowing, necrosis, stunting and tip discoloration of he crown roots
Give an example of and explain how:
Drugs blocking the neurotransmitter receptor.
-Reduces the effectiveness of the neurotransmitter.
-Drugs based on curare block acetylcholine receptors at the neuromuscular junction.
How to determine the direction and rate of osmosis into and out of cells in hypotonic, hypertonic, and isotonic environments
depends primarily on the concentration gradient between the two areas
Define central nervous system (cns) and peripheral
• Central Nervous System (cns) - The complex of ne
What is the structural difference between white ma
White matter is made up of bundles of axons each c
start codon
AUG
ingroup
group being analyzed
Cornea
transparent covering around eye
Paramecium
-single-celled-live in fresh water-locomotion: cilia-food taken in through the oral groove
postcentral gyrus
represents the somatosensory area
Gene flow
migration between populationseffects of natural selection on gene frequencies
describes appearance of an organism
phenotype
Systematics
the biological field of naing organisms, classifying organisms, viewing patterns of diversity, and observing and noting evolutionary relationships between organism
Distal convoluted tubules flow directly into what structures?
Collecting ducts
aortic arch
the curve of the aorta
vacuole and vesicle
storage of various substances
gynoecium
female reproductive part of the flower(the whole middle part of the flower)
Where do dark reactions take place?
Stroma
Fascicle
A tight bundle or cluster (consider the arrangement of pine needles)
ORIGIN
THE ATTACHMENT POINT OF THE MUSCLE THAT DOES NOT MOVE DURING MUSCULAR CONTRACTIONS.
what is the motility of the euglenoid?
motile
caecum
blind sac, where the small intestine meets the large intestine
centromere
the region of a duplicate chromosome where 2 sister chromatids are joined and where spindle microtubles attach during mitosis and meiosis. divides at the onset of anaphase during mitosis and anaphase II during meiosis
Each pigment is capable of absorbing specific wavelengths of light energy withing in the visible __ .
spectrum
small scale changes in the genetic structure of populations from generation to generation
microeveolution
cytokinesis
chromosomes are at opposite poles and begin to decondense back to chromatin. nuclear membrane begins to reform around this and two distinct nuclei will appear
amnion
the innermost of the embryonic or fetal membranes of reptiles, birds, and mammals; the sac in which the embryo is suspended.
suspensory ligaments
attached to the ciliary processes and hold lens in position
The segments or pouches of the large intestine have what particular name?
Haustra
gubernaculum
the ligament which joins the testes to the scrotal sac
Shotgun cloning
is the practice of randomly digesting a large piece of DNA to smaller pieces that can be ligated into plasmids for transport to other organisms
Reagents?Negative Control?Positive Control?
-indicators-Will not react w/ test reagents-will react
layers of artery and vein
connective tissuesmooth muscleelastis layerendothelium
Classes in Phylum Mollusca (5)
Classes Amphineura, Scaphopoda, Gastropoda, Bivalvia, Cephalopoda
List these in order of highest pressure:
 
Systemic Artery, Systemic Vein, Pulmonary Artery, Pulmonary Vein
Systemic Artery
Pulmonary Artery
Systemic Vein
Pulmonary Vein
accessory fruit
an assemblage of fruits in which the fleshy parts are derived largely or entirely from tissues other than the ovary.
Acyl - Reductase
Reduces the activated fatty acid to form the necessary aldehyde
NADPH DEPENDENT 
3 most significant hazards in Bio lab
1) Biohazard2)Broken Glass3)Chemicals

What is this?
 
BONUS: What is produced here?
Lab 6: Non-Vascular Plants; HepatophytaGenus Marchantia (liverworts): Archegonia.
 
BONUS: An archegonium (pl: archegonia), a multicellular structure or organ of the gametophyte phase of certain plants, producing and containing the ovum or female gamete is produced here.
Atrial and Ventricular Diastole
Relaxation of the atria and ventricles respectively
Draw and label Albugo candida. Disease and Host?
Disease: Blister BlightHost: Brassica sppDid you get:***********Oospores*************-host cell-oospore with spiny cell wall, does NOT lie inside the cell, lies inbetween them******Sporangial Pustule******-intercellular hypae (green)-intracellular haustoria -subepidermal sporangial pustule-sporangiophore-sporangia in chains************Leaf**************-pustule (creamy color)-green island effect//////////////////////////////Disease: StagheadHost: MustardDid you get:-pustule of sporangia-staghead (swollen and malformed; may contain oospores; region is brown)
What did Robin Hill do?
showed that chloroplasts can reduce nonphysiological electron acceptors
Name the parts of the nephron.
Renal corpuscle, PCT, Nephron loop, and DCT
Revolving Nose Peice?
Can be rotated to postition any 1 of several objective lenses.
what is epithlial tissue? an example?
tissue with tightly packed cells in irregular, cube or column shapes.
skin, organs
What is the function of the aortic semilunar valve?
Prevents blood from flowing backwards from the aorta into the left ventricle.
vessel elements (both types of sclerenchyma, and parenchyma located in xylem)
have openings in cell walls that allow direct flow of water, more critical role in structural support
What 4 points should you keep in mind when classifying diseases?
1)-some diseases may not readily fit into any of the groups presented-merely emphasises the fact that classification is an artificial process-in order to accommodate all diseases more readily, some groups might be split or new groups added2)-some diseases may fit more than one group, again illustrating how artificial classification is3)-some diseases may fit into one or anothe group according to environment conditions-predisposition of the host by weather favourable to the pathogen may result in more severe symptoms4)-some groups are not only based on symptoms, but also on parasite taxonomy-in several cases, members o particular taxa of fungi all induce similar symptoms on the host
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