Bio Lab Midterm Flashcards

Terms Definitions
TRANSVERSUS ABDOMINIS
visual area
occipital lobe
Synapomorphic character
Shared derived characters
describe trematoda
-parasitic-usually anterior mouth-undivided body-one or more suckers for attachment within their host
Axillary
meristems responsible for leaf growth
lichen
symbiotic association between a photosynthetic microorganism and a fungus in which millions of photosynthetic cells are held in a mass of fungal hyphae.
Lipids (3)
-Hydrophobic-Consist almost entirely of carbon &Hydrogen with no polar functional groups.-Will not dissolve in a polar solvent
Evergreen
Leaves remain on trees throughout stressful seasons
SMPHYSIS
FIBRO CARTILAGE; JOINT BETWEEN TWO VERTEBRAL BODIES.
Down's syndrome
Characteristic facial features; low mental ability; stocky build; sometimes heart defects
Hypothesis
An objective, an educated guess, falsifiable
Entropy
Amount of disorder in the universe.
light dependent reactions
releases O2 produces ATP
Once-compound
Leaf is divided into many smaller leaflets
Visceroceptive senses
associated with changes in the internal environment
 
example: blood pressure by detecting stretch of walls in aorta
Major Calyx
Leads directly to the renal pelvis
pacinian corpuscles
nerve fiber endings encapsulated and sensitive to pressure and vibration
What does green algae or cyanobacteria provide in the relationship in lichen?
photosynthesis
Electromagnetic Spectrum
Represents all the wavelengths of energy.
fermentation
glucose is completely broken down and much energy remains in organic molecule that results. small amounts of chemical energy is converted to ATP
recessive
allele that codes for a recessive trait
Corpus Callosum
Huge band of white matter that connects the two cerebral hemispheres
What vessels take blood to the kidneys?
Renal arteries
"cri du chat"
catlike cry; severe physical and mental abnormalities; non-lethal
enzymes
they are adapted to the enviornment in which they are active. protein catalysts that regulate the rate of chemical reactions within cells
What causes Septoria/stagonospora leaf and glume blotch of wheat and grasses?
Pathogen: Septoria tritici and Stagonospora spp (Deuteromycetes with pycnidia/sporogonium)-attack wheat world wide, inducing symptoms on leaves, leaf sheaths and glumes-dark brown discolouration of the glumes and the golden brown to greyish rown lesions on leaves-diseased leaves are speckled with minute black pycnidia
sepals
found at the base of the flowerprotect the young, developing flower in the bud
Meiosis Phases-Telophase I
The homologues continue to move towards opposite ends of the cell, and the spindle apparatus breaks down. A new nuclear membrane temporarily forms at each end of the cell until meiosis II begins. By the end of meiosis I, two new cells are present. In humans, each of the two new cells has 23 X-shaped bodies (23 pairs of sister chromatids). The cells now enter the second phase of meiosis.
inferior oblique
rotates the eye upwards and away from the midline
What is the outer region of the kidney called that contains glomeruli?
Cortex
G2 phase mitosis
cells make proteins required for the upcoming mitotic phase( nuclear division) and cytokinesis( cytoplasmic division)
What causes Fire blight of apple?
Pathogen: Erwinia amylovora (Bacteria)-bacterial ooze apparent-leaves are thin except for vascular areas
cell theory
1) all organisms are composed of one or more cells
2) the cell is the smallest unit of life capable of sustaining independent life
3) all cells arise from preexisting cells
Reissner's membrane separates which two 'scalas'
separates scala vestibuli from scala media
TES buffer - Tris/EDTA/NaCl
Tris/NaCl: helps keep pH stable and isotonic
How long did it take to cross and score the pea plants ?
7 years
What are the 4 functions of CSF?

Maintains a constant external environment for neurons and neuroglia
Provides mechanical cushion (protects the brain from skull bones)
The bouyant action floats the brain to reduce its effective weight

Removes waste from the brain and transfers it to blood.
What are some defining characteristis to the Order Ustilaginales?
-obligate parasite in nature (yeast like in culture)-infections are usually systemic-teliospores replace host tissue
In terms of function, how is cardiac muscle different from skeletal muscle?
Cardiac muscle can contract independently from neural impulses and are involuntary
What is the source of the DNA used in the lab exercise, Examining Human Genetic Variation: Detection of a Transposable Genetic Element in a Human Gene?
C. cheek cells
What is the phenotype of a person with genotype: DD, AO?
Normal Insulin, Type A Blood
Both the brown and white mutants have distinctly different eye phenotypes. Yet, both of them had the same pattern on TLC – an absence of all the pigments. Explain how this is possible. A. Both the brown and white mutants lack ommochromes. B. The
C. The brown mutant lacks both ommochromes and pteridines. By contrast the white mutant has cream-colored eyes because it can make ommochromes, which do not appear on the TLC because they are insoluble in the solvent used in the experiment.
RNase
digests RNA
intrasexual selection
male competition
external auditory meatus
ear canal
crossing two traits
dihybrid cross
Korotkoff sounds
first sounds after auscultation
Kingdom Plantae
a. multicellular, eukaryoticb. autotrophic Phylum Bryophytaa. usually shorter han most plants and non-vascularb. includes mosses and lichens
Parents in first cross
P generation
Calculations
 
Cardiac Output
cardiac output=
 
heart rate x stroke volume
middle portion of the small intestine
Jejunum
pericardium
a translucent membrane covering the heart
nucleus function
store genetic information make RNA/DNA
phloem
type of vascular tissue that specializes in the transport of food molecules
homeostasis
maintenance of a constant internal environment despite changes in the external environment. negative feedback mechanisms cause changes in the opposite direction of the deviation from the set point
Node
Narrow region where the lateral bud and leaves originate
EXTERNAL INTERCOSTALS
ELEVATES RIBS INCREASES VOLUME IN THORAX
what is the cell boundry of euglenoid?
wall
Thylakoid membrane
takes care of absorbing the light.
dipliod
having each chromosome w/ a nearly identical pair member. each daughter cell produced in mitosis is diploid; humans are diploid (2n) because we get each of our homologous chromosomes from each parent
What causes Crown Gall?
Pathogen: Agrobacterium tumefaciens (Bacteria)-incites gall formation by hypertrophy and hyperplasia
DNA molecules are ____________ charged because of _______________ charged phosphate groups
negatively; negative
nucleolus
might also be visualized as a darker/denser region within the nucleus in interphase, disappears in prophase
epiboly
the movement and spreading out of cells into sheets of tissue that overlie or surround other groups of cells, esp. as in the formation of certain gastrulas.
Which valve separates the left ventricle from the aorta?
aortic semilunar valve
Fitness
any trait that allows an organisms to survive, grow, and reproduce, passing its traits to the next generation
hepatic portal vein
drains the small intestine and delivers the blood to the liver
Plasmid
small circular DNA, used to move DNA from one organism into a second, vector
Arm of microscope?
supports oculars, attaches it to base.
reflex
tug on tendon causing movement of bone opposite the joint
somites
one member of a series of paired segments into which the thickened dorsal zone of mesoderm is divided.
TEMPORAL SUMMATION
IF A STIMULUS IS APPLIED SHORTLY AFTER THE REFRACTORY PERIOD, A MUSCLE CONTRACTS
gamete 
a haploid cell, such as egg or sperm. they unite during sexual reproduction to produce a diploid zygote. 
What is the fruiting body of a sac fungus called?
asocarp
taxonomic key
device that allows us to quickly and easily identify an unknown organism

 
What are the arrows pointing at?
 
BONUS: Where are they produced?
Lab 6: Non-Vascular Plants; HepatophytaGenus Marchantia (liverworts): Sporophyte (100x).
Spores.
Elators.
 
BONUS: The sporophyte is produced in the sporangium, which is on the archegoniophore.
From what blood vessel does the descending aorta get blood?
The aortic arch/ascending aorta
What causes Armillaria Root Rot of Trees?
Pathogen: Armillaria mellea (Basidiomycete)-white mycelial mats form between the bark and wood at the base of the tree and may extend upward for a few feet
Why do chloroplasts appear green?
contain a a pigment called chlorophyll
What is a bacterial colony?
a collection of many bacteria (several million) on a surface such as agar resulting from the growth and reproduction of one or a few bacteria placed there by design or accident
Benedicts Test1. what?2. color of Bendicts reagent?3. Color change if its positive4. Example
1. Reducing Sugars2. Blue3. yellow, orange, red4. Glucose
What diseases are caused by the Class Plasmodiophoromycetes (Kingdom Protozoa)?
Club Root of Crucifers (263-266)*Pathogen: Plasmodiophora brassicae-club root is a serious disease of veg crucifers (Fam Crucifae, eg:cabbage, turnip, and mustard)-extensive swellings develop on infected roots and taproot developement is suppressed-galls are orinigally firm and white, but become soft and greyish as they mature and later decay-galls are a result of HYPERTROPHY and have an enlarged nucleus and nucleolus-infected host cells contain either PLASMODIA or highly GRANULAR RESTING SPORES
Blood in the superior vena cava next flows to what area?
Carries deoxygenated blood from the upper half of the body to the hearts right atrium.
When does S2 occur and what causes the sound?
marks the end of ventricular systole
 
occurs when the semilunar valves close
Explain what blood pressure is, how it is measured
Blood pressure is the pressure of the blood in the
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