Bio Lab Practical Flashcards

Terms Definitions
build bones
age-specific survivorship ratea
D-Eukarya S-Opisthokonta K-Choanomonada "choanoflagellates"
bottom of turtle's shell
produce sperm and testosterone
polymers of amino acids
linked by peptide bonds
20 different amino acids
proteins on average have over 300 amino acids
D-Eukarya S-Euglenozoa P-Kinetoplastea _Trypanosoma_
D-Eukarya S-Opisthokonta K-Animalia P-Platyhelminthes C-Turbellaria "planaria"
D-Eukarya S-Opisthokonta K-Animalia P-Platyhelminthes C-Cestoda _Taenia_ "tapeworms"
D-Eukarya S-Opisthokonta K-Animalia P-Arthropoda C-Crustacea "crabs"
D-Eukarya S-Opisthokonta K-Animalia P-Chordata SP-Vertebrata (Craniata) C-Actinopterygii "bony fish"
thousands of microscopic finger-like projections (NOT cilia, cannot move)
walk on tips of phalanges
clear part over iris/pupil, protective
organelle that contains chromosomes which have genetic info or DNA
Name the disease caused by Plasmodium
small barbules that have microscopic hooklets to interlock with other of these
concentric rings of bone matrix surrounding haversion canal
Sublingual gland
secretes saliva, begins carb digestion
small intracellular organelle used for production of proteins
who coined the term "cell"?
robert hooke
probability of death during age class x viewed from the point of view of a newborn
define monoecious
having male and female reproductive organs in the same plant or animal
the greater the concentration of pNP in a solution, the more blue light it absorbs, that is, the higher its ______.
one pair of membranous wings, second pair reduced to knob-like structureflies and mosquitoes
contour feathers
have central shaft with two vanes
cycloid/ctenoid scales
thin lamellar bone and dense collagen-flexable and translucent.
tube that connects the testicles to the vas deferens; stores sperm
Fine Adjustment Knob
moves the stage vertically slightly
can be used with all objectives, but mostly 40X and 100X
in fishes the movement of the _____________ enhanc
State two organisms that are identified using the acid-fast stain
mycobacterium annd nocardia
lens accommodation
lens changes shape to see near objects
aqueous humor
thin, watery fluid that fills the space between the cornea and the iris
placoid scales
consist of bone, dentin, and in enamel-like covering. spine extends above the flat bony scale and penetrates the epidermis
sebaceous glands
secrete sebum, an oily substance, onto hair follicles or the surface of the skin
transmitted light
light that passes through an object and to observer
Stage Controls
how you move slide on the stage
lower knob moves left and right
upper knob moves towards or away from you
all of the following animals are NOT cephalized ex
Name the disease caused by Trypanosoma brucei
African sleeping sickness
as gastrulation proceeds in amphibians, the blastocoel is gradually reduced in volume by the ____
invaginating mesoderm and endoderm cells
Urogenital Sinus
Where urine is stored before it exits the body
spores always have a _______ number of chromosomes
haploid; meiosis
type II survivorship curve
the probability of death is about equal at every age
2 mechanisms to protect against polyspermy ... plus one more found specifically in sea urchins
electrical block followed by fertilization membrane ... in sea urchins, the eggs and sperm are released into the water so that they dilute and there's less chance of polyspermy
Isoelectric point
point at which the protein has no net charge
does not move during electrophoresis
you decide to do an experiment to see if drinking
independent; dependent
fertilization accomplishes what 2 things?
activates the oocyte (or egg) and provides the means by which the haploid set of chromosomes of the sperm joins the haploid set of chromosomes of the egg
which of the following statements about prokaryoti
they are the only unicellular organisms
Spec 20 operates in the range of ___-___ nm. It has six parts: ___________-
400-700nm ;; light source, monochromator, test tube, light detector, amplifier, readout
whats the difference between an egg and a zygote?
a zygote is a fertilized, diploid egg
What is the estimated size of a human cheek cell in millimeters?
.08 mm
2 pointer widths @ 100X
trapped osteoblasts
net reproductive rate
D-Eukarya S-Stramenopila P-Bacillariophyta "diatoms"
binocular vision
allows depth perception
central shaft of bone
draws air into lungs
Microscope Parts and Functions
D-Eukarya S-Opisthokonta K-Animalia P-Chordata SP-Vertebrata (Craniata) C-Chondrichthyes "sea skate"
D-Eukarya S-Opisthokonta K-Animalia P-Cnidaria C-Scyphozoa "jellyfish"
D-Eukarya S-Opisthokonta K-Animalia P-Mollusca C-Bivalva "mussels"
D-Eukarya S-Opisthokonta K-Animalia P-Mollusca C-Cephalopoda "Squid"
D-Eukarya S-Opisthokonta K-Animalia P-Annelida C-Hirudinea "leech"
remnant of cartilage between bones
intracellular organelle that stores substances such as water or solutes
mesoderm cells eventually become the ____ of the sea urchin
inner ear
cochlea and everything inside it
plate closure
ossification overtakes and completely replaces cartilage
beginning of large intestine; stores food for microbial breakdown
smallest distance that can separate two objects and still have them appear as separate things (how clear an object looks)
__________ first proposed the theory of continenta
the branch of sociology that studies the characteristics of human populations
state the route of transmission for Schistosoma mansoni ova
in brassica rapa (fast plants) the genetic locus is named after the wild type/mutant form of the trait?
fused bones of the forearm in frog
endochondral ossification
inside a hyaline cartilage "model" bone formation begins
stores and collects urine produced by kidneys
Cardiac End
end of stomach closest to heart
part you look through, 2 eyepieces found on both microscopes
distance between them is the interpupillary distance
use both eyepieces when using the microscope
evolution works on _________ but results in change
genotype; phenotype
which of the following animals is diploblastic?
Name the disease caused by Entamoeba histolytica
amoebic dysentry
Define colony
cells that descend from a single parent cell that reproduced asexually
basement membrane
bottommost layer of cells sits upon it
dissecting microscope
device that magnifies an object using a set of lenses; usually reflected light
a _______ species occurs in only one location on e
i am certain that you recall Amoeba, the protist t
state the route of transmission for cryptosporidium
animal fecal contamination
optic nerve
where many optic axons leave the eye cavity
depth of focus
vertical distance thru which an image is in focus at a particular power or magnification
which of the following is NOT a challenge faced by
kill host
type III survivorship curve
most individuals die soon after birth, and only a few live to advanced ages
order in terms of least to most yolk: chicken, sea urchin, frog
sea urchin
Iris diaphragm
can be opened to permit more light to illuminate the slide
by closing the diaphragm on higher objectives you can increase contrast
(to close the diaphragm use the lever on the front of the condenser)
mean remaining life expectancy
the number of time units (whatever the units of x are) remaining to the average individual now aged x
What is the major property of proteins that influences their migration in an electrical field?
net electrical charge
pos charged moved toward the neg end, and vice versa
State the function of Iodine stain used in the Gram stain
mordant that combines with crystal violet in the cell
Independent and Dependent variables in electrophoresis
iv: pH
dv: net electrical charge on each protein
pH causes charge
5 Amino Acids w/ ionic R groups
aspartic acid (has a carboxyl group that can be neg charged when environment is @ high pH)
glutamic acid (\")
lysine (has a pos charged amino group)
what is gastrulation? what does it accomplish immediately? how is it accomplished?
it is the method by which the organ systems are formed but immediately it creates the 3 germ layers. it is accomplished by successive cell divisions and is initiated by seaparation of cells from the lower surface of the blastoderm
Define turbidity
stores feces
study of tissues
sea urchin: 16-cell stage
top of turtle's shell
compact bone
hard outside bone
pumps blood through vessels
D-Eukarya S-Opisthokonta K-Animalia P-Mollusca C-Bivalva "oysters"
D-Eukarya S-Alveolata P-Dinozoa _Ceratium_ "dinoflagellates"
D-Eukarya S-Opisthokonta K-Animalia P-Mollusca C-Gastropoda "snail"
D-Eukarya S-Opisthokonta K-Animalia P-Echinodermata "sea urchin"
D-Eukarya S-Opisthokonta K-Animalia P-Chordata SP-Vertebrata (Craniata) C-Amphibia "salamander"
phlanges, metatarsals, tarsals on ground
not keratinized structures, but branched dermal bone
passageway for air and food
___________ can be photosynthetic endosymbionts in
composed of polysaccharide chitin and various structural proteins
lightbulb shaped structures that work with tube feet
endosymbiotic theory
idea suggesting some internal organelles originated as bacteria that lived inside other cells, gradually giving up most of their own cellular functions so both organisms become dependent on each other.
Eyepieces Compound Microscope
can be adjusted
right eyepiece has a pointer
left eyepiece has a diopter ring-allows you to precisely adjust the sharpness of the image
a ____________ group contains an ancestor and some
age-specific mortality
probability that an individual that has already reached age x will die before reaching x+1
when the haploid chromosomes of the mom join with the haploid chromosomes of the dad, a ___ is created.
one layer of cells; function in filtration, secretion, absorption
multiple layers of cells; function is primarily protection
reflex movement of the eyes, attempts to compensate for the loss of balance by visual fixation on an object
dynamic equilibrium
gives you information regarding the speed and direction of the body's motion
transport oxygen and carbon dioxide to and from cells
cell wall
layer of material outside cell membrane in plant cells that supports the cell and prevents it from bursting
the entire circle of light visible through the eyepieces
organisms that are _________ get their energy from
Define aseptic technique
Aseptic technique refers to a procedure that is performed under sterile conditions
___ is typically thought to be the start of development
sacculus and utriculus
form base of semicircular canals, contain hair cells with tiny stones of calcium carbinate
leads from the uterus to the exterior of the body
holds slide in place on top of stage
your friend said, "Yeh, i must have the tall
mean generation time
average amount of time between the birth of an individual and the death of it's average offspring
the fast plants (zea mays) cross is a ___hybrid cross
The area of the upper throat that lies behind the nose.
Can you see nuclei of cells at 10X magnification?
which of the following is a potential postzygotic
hybrid infertility
state the route of transmission for Necator americanus ova (hookworm)
barefoot contact with soil
Describe the reaction of lysine, histidine, and arginine in low and high environmental pH
low pH
gains H from environment
amino group has a +1 charge
high pH
H reacts w/ excess OH groups in environment
amino group has a net charge of 0
you are late for class and consider forgoing a too
biofilm: quorum sensing
state the route of transmission for toxoplasma gondii
cat feces or undercooked meat
a large rat appears in the doorway and does not ru
toxoplasmosis; apicomplexan protist
Bird development characteristics of stages
16-18 hr stage = primitive streak :: 48 hr embryo = sea horse :: 72 hour embryo = bigger, curled up sea horse
explain the mechanism of the gram stain (why gram negative cells lose the primary dye during decolorization)
It is a differential staining methodof differentiating bacterial species into two large groups (Gram-positive and Gram-negative) basedon the chemical and physical properties of their cell walls.
What is the relationship between pH and initial reaction rate?
rxn rate increases until about pH 10 and then it decreases... soln becomes too basic after that
structural support
D-Bacteria P-Cyanobacteria
enhances contrast
staining helps transparent objects become seen through the microscope(otherwise wouldn't be able to see them at all)
colored portion of eye
osmosis, diffusion, protection, surface area, flexible
making something appear larger
D-Eukarya S-Alveolata P-Apicomplexa _Plasmodium_
D-Eukarya S-Opisthokonta K-Animalia P-Cnidaria C-Anthozoa "coral"
D-Eukarya S-Opisthokonta K-Animalia P-Rotifera "rotifers"
D-Eukarya S-Opisthokonta K-Animalia P-Arthropoda C-Arachnida "ticks"
D-Eukarya S-Opisthokonta K-Animalia P-Arthropoda C-Crustacea "shrimp"
D-Eukarya S-Opisthokonta K-Animalia P-Echinodermata "sea cucumber"
D-Eukarya S-Opisthokonta K-Animalia P-Nematoda _Trichinella_
group of equally aged individuals
stripes due to intracellular contractile elements actin and myosin
Define media
Nutrient material suitable for cultivation of microorganisms
back layer of tissue, highly vascularized
removes and stores excess nutrients from blood, maintains blood sugar levels, detoxifies harmful substances, produces bile
cell membrane
phospholipid bilayer that surrounds all cells
way to separate and identify proteins
depends on the net charge of the protein
negative will move toward positive end of gel, and vice versa
no charge, does not move
protostomes have a ______ nerve cord
what color does a vegetative cell stain in the schaeffer-fulton stain?
blue light is at what wavelength
405 nm
groups of cells with a common structure and function: epithelial, connective, muscle, and neural
reproductive organ that opens to the cervix and fallopian tubs, accepts a fertilized egg
refers to cells having no internal membrane-bound organelles
wood is made of nonfunctional, extensively prolife
xylem; support
evidence that meteorites hit earth at times of mas
State the function of crystal violet stain used in the Gram stain
Primary stain
in the fast plants lab, we analyzed the results of a ____hybrid cross
negative after-imaging
rods become bleached if exposed to intense light of the proper wavelength for a sufficient period causing this when looking at a white paper
Uterine Horns
Point where the uterus and fallopian tubes or oviducts meet
Total magnification
product of the eyepiece and objective lens magnifications
eyepiece has a 10X magnification, so total magnification of a 4X objective is 4x10=40X
eukaryotes are more closely related to organisms i
Archaea; Bacteria
define proglottid
body segments of worm that extend from the head
initial input of energy that must be supplied before a reaction that involves covalent bonds will proceed
activation energy
Soft Palate
boneless tissue on the roof of the mouth
which of the following is an example of an echinod
sand dollar
type I survivorship curve
mortality is low until an advanced age, when it increases precipitously
gastrulation in echinoderms begins with a few cells of the vegetal plate (the ____ cells) detaching and migrating into the interior of the embryo. These are ___ cells that will form the skeleton of the larva.
primary mesenchyme cells :: mesoderm cells
R groups on amino acids
3 categories: polar, nonpolar, ionic
ionic category matters for electrophoresis b/c it creates the charge of the protein
as you examine the bag more closely, you notice sm
larvae; complete metamorphosis
when doing a chi-squared test, when do you reject a hypothesis?
when the probability is
what was the big unknown in darwin's theory of evo
how traits are inherited
the ectoderm in the sea urchin embryo becomes the ____.
outer regions of the larva
progression of events during and after fertilization of sea urchin eggs
sperm enters egg, blister forms as beginning of fertilization membrane, head of sperm swells and becomes male pronucleus (female pronucleus is the nucleus of the egg), DNA sythesis, RNA synthesis, protein synthesis, cleavage of zygote
How to Make a Wet Slide Mount

place a drop of water on the slide
pull off thin onion outer skin
place onion on water drop on slide
bring one edge of the cover slip into the edge of the water drop on the slide
lower the cover slip slowly using the forceps to avoid air bubbles
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