BIO part Flashcards

Terms Definitions
obsorbs H+
electron transport chain
bone to bone
Morphological species
Based on phenotype.
Biological species

Reproductively isolated.
Purely based off of ability to breed and produce viable offspring.

Disadvantages: can't apply to fossils, or asexual organisms, or geographically isolated pops
cerumonous glands produce
ear wax(cerumanum)
Contains hydrolytic enzymes that digests foreign substances& dysfunctional organelles
Chromatin-Remodeling Complexes
Protein that reshape chromatin
group of taxa under study
translation occurs in
cytoplasm at ribosomes
physical requirements for growth
pH level
how many naturally occurring elements are there?
Describe Metazoans!
• Animal kingdom• Closest relatives fungi and Protista• Chordates- notochord(one hole)• Deuterostomes- (two holes)• Diversified in cambrain• Includes 30 living phyla• Multicellular• Heterotrophic-cannot make own organic food• Reproduce sexually• Lack cell walls• Motile at some stage of life cycle• Rapid responses to external stimuli
Activated by collagen fibers, swell and release clotting factors to form a plug at wound site.
moves the cell by their movements
structural molecule of plant cell walls•fiber in our diet
Thermodynamic Laws
Law of consistancy
Law of transformity
mullerian mimicry
noxious species have coloration warning. ex bees
coordinates vision and hearing. Visual reflexes in mammals. Rest of vision is coordinated in the cerebrum in mammals
a widely distributed group of predominantly photosynthetic prokaryotic organisms of the subkingdom Cyanophyta, resembling phototrophic bacteria, occurring singly or in colonies in diverse habitats: some species can fix atmospheric nitrogen.
lies between the ecto and endoderm, develops into the muscles and other organs between digestive tube and outer covering
named first dino. took ostroms ideas and pushed them. said dinos were like birds. was right about many things. dino renissance. said some dinos too big to lay eggs and must give live birth.all dinos
Gene Flow
Migration ofgenes from one population to another.
-Over time reduces defferences between populations
residual volume
in bron tree and elastic tissue
behavior that has the potential to decrease the lifetime reproductive success of the altruist, while benefiting the reproductive success of another member of society
cAMP substrate
makes inactive protein kinase A-- activate protein kinase A, note that cAMP is a allosteric regulator
having a strong attraction to water. Hydrophilic molecules are soluble in water and travel with the groundwater.
-not composed of carbon and hydrogen atoms-ex: carbon dioxide, water, nitric acid, sulfur dioxide
46. The capillary bed that surrounds the descending and ascending loop of Henle is called the ________.
vasa recta
Procambium forms... (2)
Vascular Cambium and Vascular Tissue
decision about whether or not the evidence supports the hypothesis
production of a single gamete from each primary ooctye
modern synthesis
the fusion of genetics with molecular biology
a key element is the emphasis on the biology of populations
Orgin of replication
place on bacterial chromosomes where they begin to duplicate during binary fission
What are Deuterostomes
the anus first from the blastoporeMouth develops later from another region of the embryo
Inner lining of uterus, shed every 28 days
axonemal microtubules
found in cilia or flagelladoublet= 23 protofilamentsarranged by an a tubule of 13 and a b tubule of 10 protomilamentsused for extracellular motility/movement of fluids
animal migration
regular movement of critters from one place to the other use landmarks such as mountains, rivers, star navigation, or even earths magnetic field "magnetite"
the main artery in the body; it carries blood from the left ventricle to systemic circulation
adaptive radiation--
when 2 species become mult. species similtaneously b/c of availability for interaction among multiple environments
in certain mammals neurons release __ into the erectile tissue of the penis. in response, the muscles in the blood vessel walls of the erectile tissue __ and allow the erectile tissue to fill with blood producing an erection. the erection is maintained be
nitric oxide
gene pool
the total genetic information in the gametes of all the individuals in a population.
electrochemical gradient
the combination of forces acting on an ion
Covalent Bond
Bonding where atoms share a pair of electrons.
Eltonian Pyramids: sustainable system**!
Graphic flow of energy/matter through food chains-Depicts trophic transfer efficiency-Pyramid can be constructed by: abundance, biomass, energy productivity-Doesn't take into consideration of life span and generation time of each trophic level
Osteoblast in bone development
Osteoblast must have contact with nourishment (glucose) and O2 to burn the glucose.
Acquired Immunity
The kind of defense that is mediated by B lymphocytes and T lymphocytes. It exhibits specificity, memory, and self-nonself recognition.Also called adaptive immunity.
___________ is used to bend the myosin filament heads inward. This pulls the actin filaments closer together and _________ the muscle.
inorganic chemical compounds
some types of organism rely on energy stored in __________
2 irreversible points in the cell cycle
G1/S and Spindle checkpoints
visceral motor division (autonomic nervous system)
-carries signals to glands, cardiac muscle, and smooth muscle•involuntary, and responses of this system and its receptors are visceral reflexes•sympathetic division•parasympathetic division
20. The chief force pushing water and solutes out of the blood across the filtration membrane is:
glomerular hydrostatic pressure (glomerular blood pressure)
What is secondary polycythemia
common and is a result of chronic hypoxemia i.e. in heavy smoking and COPD
fat soluble vitamins
(A, D, E, K) are stored in body –excessive intake leads to toxic effects, liver damage.
therapeutic cloning is when
a nucleus is put in an activated enucleated oocyte and the inner cell mass is isolated and cultured
What is an example of hypothermia, and how does it work?
Hibernation. Conserve energy by lowering temperature during resting periods.
why are atoms electrically neutral?
because they have an equal number of positive protons as negative electrons
if you cross FfJj and FFJj what would you get?
what kind of cross is this? 
dihybrid cross
figure it out yourselves because i am way to damn tired of this.... 
What does Fick's Law of diffusion tell us about diffusion of molecules into or out of cells?
permeability is inversely related to membrane thickness and membrane resistance.

membrane resistance is proportional to the size of the molecule, inversely proportional to the lipid solubility of the molecule, depends upon membrane composition.
what is the main purpose of the citric acid cycle?what is an alternative name for citric acid cycle?
it completes the oxidation of glucose to CO2krebs cycle
stem, stalk
poisoned by oxygen
organic molecules
double bonds
branched chains

specific sequence of DNA
Nucliec acids
Monomer unit: Nucleotides
energy in motion
Potential Energy
distal tubule goes to
renal pelvis
massive hyphae that is visable 
Ferns- seedless vascular plant, Sporphyte dominant, Presence of vascular tissues, part of the Pterophyta.
what makes substrate level phosphorylation possible?
the entire array of organisms inhabiting a particular ecosystem
Sedimentary Cycle
(phosphorus) most prevalent limiting factor in ecosystems, main reservoir is the Earth's crust.
flattened, mouth-down polyp that moves by passive drifting and weak body contractions (other form of cnidaria)
Enzymes: Topoisomerase
keeps it from rewinding/overwinding before replication fork
RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC)
group of proteins
located inside vascular tissues at center of stem
the scientific study of the distribution and abundance of organisms and the interactions that determine distribution and abundance
secreted between nerve cells, between nerve & muscle cells or between never & gland cells
genetic difference b/t organisms of the same species ex. breeds --> species- can include geographical (races) or polymorphisms(body form)
member of the angiosperm clade most closely related to eudicots. Extant examples are magnolias, laurels, and black pepper plants
Living organisms are composed of 49%___________, 24%__________, and 24% oxygen.
hydrogen, carbon
fertilization of one plant by pollen from a different plant
typological species concept
pre-darwinian concept. species were viewed as distinct unchanging entities, characterized by invariable distinguishing features (usually morphological)

Problems=geographical variation and sexual dimorphisms
results in the partial degration of sugars 
Reticular Connective Tissue
Mainly collagenous fibers with fibroblasts- always stained brownFunction- frameworkLocation- liver and spleen
Most Adult cells are in which stage
Multiple frog leg syndrome is caused by
friction ridges are present in the
dermal palpae
an allergic response that results in the constriction of bronchial walls
the cell substance between the cell membrane and the nucleus, containing the cytosol, organelles, cytoskeleton, and various particles.
A term used to describe the diversity of important ecological entities that span multiple spatial scales, from genes to species to communities.
gap genes
Mutations in these genes cause "gaps" in Drosophila segmentation. The normal gene products map out the basic subdivisions along the anterior-posterior axis of the embryo.
a group of individuals of a single species that live in a particular geographic area at the same time. Individuals do not evolve, populations do
The stage of mitosis and meiosis in which the chromosomes become arranged in the equatorial plane of the spindle
-Easter Island used to be covered in dense, subtropical forest-all 17 original species extinct by 1600-NO: *transport of Moai *firewood *wooden shelters *cremations *fruit *dolphin meat *rope *boats (no fishing) *escape (couldnt leave)
Describe the water cycle
Evaporation> Condensation into couds> precipitation
right lymphatic duct
receives lymph from right arm, right side of head and thorax; empties into right subclavian vein
If a cell has 8 chromosomes at metaphase of mitosis, how many chromosomes will it have during anaphase?
Accessory Proteins
A diverse population of proteins that bind to filaments or subunits to control sites of filament assembly, regulate filament assembly and disassembly, and control motility of cell and cytoplasmic components
curved regions of tissues below the gills
gill arches
contractile vacuole
a membranous sac that helps move excess water out of certain cells
Reticular layer of the dermis
Dense irregular connective tissue, accounts for aprox 80% of the thickness of the skin. collagen fibers in this layer add streght and resiliency to the skin. Elastin and collagen fibers are oriented more in one direction and produce clevage or tesion lines.
Ester Linkage
in fats, join glycerol hydroxyl and carboxyl of fatty acid
how much of our genome is made of transposons?
Female Sexual Drive (2):
1)No OVARIAN hormones are correlated to sexual drive but tonic levels of androgens may be needed. 2)'Psycho-social factors may dominate any hormonal influence, particularly in YOUNGER females.
pressure potential
the tendency of water to move in response to pressure (turgor pressure is an important source of pressure on water in cells)
when is glucocorticoids released?
during periods of starvation or intense exercise

-respond to the need to synthesize glucose
the stage in the life cycle of a plant in which the plant produces gametes, or sex cells
delta G is what?
what is the symbol for free energy?
Give an example of a domain of an autotroph?
Domain Eukarya-Plantae
Thirty people are assigned to live in a spaceship that is exploring other galaxies. The journey will take several hundred years and will be completed by the descendants of these crew members. The gene pool of the population on this ship when it returns is
a founder effect.
How does CO2 enter and O2 leave a leaf?
through the stomata
inducer (_______) interacts directly with repressor by ______. causes repressor to ________ (allosteric regulation). negative control ends and transcription can proceed
lactose; binding to it; change shape and drop off DNA strand
active sites lower activation energy by
-acting as template for substrate orientation-stressing substrates and stabilizing the transition state-providing a favorable micro environment-participating directly in the catalytic rxn
Male citizens in Greek city-states during the classical period transformed from the "childhood of civilization" to:(a) The emergence of metaphorical, conceptual humanism(b) The emergence of Greek rational individualism as a rebirth to an adolescent mental
(c) Both a and b are true
Using a six-sided die, what is the probability of rolling either a 5 or a 6?
1/6 + 1/6 = 1/3
What are the two kinds of mammal reproduction
1. Monotremes - Oviparous (egg laying)2. Therians - Viviparous (live birth) by means of placenta
What are water molds & downy mildews
•Live in water or moist places on land•Feed on dead organisms or parasitize plants•Fuzzy white growths.•Undergo sexual reproduction•Motile zoospores with 2 unequal flagella (produced asexually)
What do each of the terms symbolize in Fick's Equation?
dx/dt = overall diffusion rate
A = surface area
d = diffusion constant
m = membrane thickness
xi-xo = change in concentration
T = temp
P = pressure
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