Bio Plants 3 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
angiosperms
flowering plants
stigma
catches pollen
California croton
Croton californicus
Carpel
female reproductive structure
Cyanobacteria
-photosynthetic prokaryotes
-gave earth its 02 1.8 BYA
-cyanobacteria-like organisms may have evolved into chloroplasts and mitochondria
compound leaf
contain axillary bud
Bryophytes
-Nonvascular plants
-Live near water
-Absorb nutrients through cells
-Lack true roots, stems, and leaves
-Reproduce with flagellated sperm, which requires water source
Photosynthesis equation
6CO2+12H2O+uv C6H12O6 (glucose)+6O2+6H2
monocots
produce seeds with one cotyledon
flower parts are in multiples of 3
have narrow leaves with parallel veins
terrestrial adaptations:
water conservation(waxy covering called cuticle); gas exchange; water transport; holding upright; branching root system/leaves/stems
simple leaves have a
undivided blade
seed
specialized plant structure that contains an embryo and nutrients for the embryo and is covered by a protective coat
Photoperoidism
the physiological reaction of organisms to the length of day or night.
ATP
Pump minerals from soil
Causes water molecules to follow by osmosis
Non-vascular
lacking in roots stems and leaves
haploid cells
gametes of sexually reproducing organisms which contain only a single set of chromosomes and a single set of genes
zone of maturation
root cells become specialized
name one example of a gymnosperm
gingko
Pistil
Center of flower, female reproductive structure, bottom part is the ovary
auxins
responsible for and stimulates cell elongation
Ethylene
hormone that promotes fruit ripening (gas)
Simple fruit
Fruit on a single carpel
Lignin
-strengthens cell walls of vascular conducting xylem and provides rigid structural support
sporophyte
the body in angiosperms is a _________
Dermal tissue
The protective covering of plants; generally a single layer of tightly packed epidermal cells covering young plant organs formed by primary growth.
Fibrous Roots
many thin stringy (white) roots, strongly connected to the ground, increased surface area (area of something that is exposed to the outside)
calyx (flower)
cover and protect the flower bud
Sorus
large cluster of sporangia on the underside of fern fronds
prennials
Angiosperms that live for more than two years
double fertilization
A mechanism of fertilization in angiosperms, in which two sperm cells unite with two cells in the embryo sac to form the zygote and endosperm.
pressure flow theory
pressure gradient pushes solute-rich fluid to a sink, where the solutes are removed from the phloem
calyptra
top of archegonium splits off and forms cap on top of sporophyte in sexual production of mosses to form:
What does the terminal cell produce?
The embryo
cork cambium
produces cells for tough cell walls for stems and roots
carbon fixing
the process of changing carbon dioxide gas into an organic compound
bud (on the stem)
underdeveloped shoots (whatevr that means...)
Long distance transport system between roots and leaves via stem
vascular tissue system
fruit
After the animal eats the fruit seed and it leaves its digstive system, it is then ready to sprout
sink
any region of the plant where products are being used or stored
ex: flowers and fruits
Fruit –
In flowering plants, a mature, ripened ovary that often provides protection and dispersal for the enclosed seeds.
Dominant Diploid Sporophyte (independent)
-mature haploid gametophyte not dependent on dominant mature sporophyte
--Brown algae kelp
--Pteridophytes
ovary
the organ that bears the ovules of a flower
homologous peroxisomes (connection btwn land plants and green algae)
help to reduce effects of photorespiration
trichomes
help protect the leaf and give it a fuzzy appearance
Perfect flower-
Has both stamens and carpels. It may be complete or incomplete!
terminal bud
bud at tip of a stem responsible for terminal growth
3 divisions of Bryophytes
1. Bryophyta (mosses) ; 2. Heptophyta (liverworts) ; 3. Anthocerophyta (hornworts)
What stimulates seed germination?
Displacemnt of water followed by the release of gibberellins from the embryo
What are the theories of water movement
capillarity, root pressure and cohesion tension
Transport in vascular plants occurs on these 3 scales.
1. Transport of individual cells2. Transport from cell to cell at tissue and organ level. 3. Transport between xylem and phloem
2. What cell types are in the phloem? Know the characteristics of these different cells.
Phleom cells- The sieve-tube cells lack a nucleus, have very few vacuoles, but contain other organelles such as ribosomes. The sieve tube is an elongated rank of individual cells, called sieve-tube members, arranged end to end. The endoplasmic reticulum is concentrated at the lateral walls. Sieve-tube members are joined end to end to form a tube that conducts food materials throughout the plant. The end walls of these cells have many small pores and are called sieve plates and have enlarged plasmodesmata.The survival of sieve-tube members depends on a close association with the companion cells. All of the cellular functions of a sieve-tube element are carried out by the (much smaller) companion cell, a typical plant cell, except the companion cell usually has a larger number of ribosomes and mitochondria. This is because the companion cell is more metabolically active than a 'typical' plant cell. The cytoplasm of a companion cell is connected to the sieve-tube element by plasmodesmata.
Pickleweed
Salicornia virginica
Gametophyte
produces gametes
spores
haploid reproductive cell
nodes
lateral buds/ meristem
perennials
live for many years
Hormones
signal in signal molecules
Spirogyra
-microscopic filamentous green algae
-single spiral chloroplasts in each cell
-contains pyrenoids (small round structures on the chloroplast that store starch)
chitin
strong, flexible, polysaccharide that is found in the cell walls of fungi and exoskeletons on insects
haploid stage of plant
gametophyte stage
adhesion
attraction between molecules of different substances
anther
the part that produces pollen.
Where are companion cells found?
Pholem
This multipurpose plant of the tropics.
Coconut
incomplete
lacking either petals, sepals, stamens or pistils
circadian rythms
internal clocks, 24 hour cycles.
derivatives
new cells displaced from the meristem
ground tissue- collenchyma
live, thick walled cells
phloem
vascular tissue responsible for the transport of nutrients and the carbohydrates produced by photosynthesis
translocation
process of moving sugars through phloem
base
when dissolved in water, releases negatively charged hydroxide ions (OH-)
Inflorescences
Multiple flowers arriving from one stem
fertilization
uses pollen, when seeds develop inside the ovary
Filament
a long thin structure that supports the anther
endodermis
single layer of cells surrounding the pericycle
Angiosperms "vessel seed"
anthophyta: flowering plants ; heterosphorous
sepals
Leaflike parts that cover and protect the flower bud
apical
type of meristem for primary growth (lengthening) of plants
vascular cambium
highly vacuolated fusiform initial and ray initial cells.
Tomentose
Long straggly hairs on leaves or stems
threee zones
growth occurs behind root tip in thress zones of cells. zone of cell division, zone of elongation, and zone of maturation.
Meristem
Growing area of a plant where new cells are produced
xerophytes
plants that can adapt to arid climates such as hot dry climates.
nastic movement
plant movement not necessarily in the direction of a stimulus of involving hormones (based on water)
xylem
in a stem the tube that transports water and minerals up from the roots to the rest of the plant
cuticle
A waxy covering on the surface of stems and leaves that acts as an adaptation to prevent desiccation in terrestrial plants.
ionic bonds
occurs when two ions have opposite charges and they attract and join by ionic bond. Ex: salt
Dendrochronology
The study of tree ring growth patterns
petiole
the stalk which joins the leaf to the stem
guard cells
the two cells that flank the stomata pore and regulate the opening the opening and closing of the stomata
A type of meristemic tissue in woody plants that is located between the xylem and phloem of a plant
vascular cambium
Life Cycles: Alternation of Generations
-gametophyte produces sporophyte and the sporophyte produces the gametophyte and it makes a cycle
Facilitated diffusion –
when materials diffuse from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration through special pathways in the membrane.
What are the members of pea family?
Peas, beans, peanuts, soybean
vascular tissue- phloem
live, thin walled cells used to move glucose
Would a taproot system or a fibrous root system be better for stabalizing an embankment?
Fibrous Root System
Where will you first see signs of deficiency of a mobile nutrient in a plant?
In the youngest tissue
What is the main function of phloem?
Transport of sugars and various metabolites from source to sink.
What are the 3 zones in a root?
Zone of cell division, zone of elongation, and zone of maturation
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