Broken chorus- polychoral
Harpsichord composers. Included Jacques Champion de Chambonnieres, Jean Henry D' Anglebert, Elisabeth-Claude Jacquet de la Guerre and Francois Couperin.
Italian composer Arcangelo Corelli pioneers trio sonata;
This form: Two violins, and bass viol plus keyboard continuo and usually has four movements
1540-1613. A reactionary composer and thoerist active during the end of the Renaissance and the beginning of the Baroque period.
Wrote a dialogue called L'Artusi overo delle imperfettioni della moderna musica (1600), specifically concerning Monteverdi's contrapuntal licenses that led to unresolved dissonances.
The piece in question that sparked this dialogue was Monteverdi's madrigal Cruda Amarili, and the apparent contrapuntal freedoms he employed.
In his response, Monteverdi wrote that this style was the new Seconda practtica, and the older version was Prima Prattica.
Prima Prattica was the Renaissance polyphonic ideal; an equal-voiced, flowing style with prepared dissonances.
The style that Monteverdi represented was essentially monody, which was a favored sop and bass texture that he and his contemporaries argued was better suited to reflect the needs of the text.
An improvised or written-out ornamental passage performed by a soloist, usually over the penultimate or antepenultimate note or harmony of a prominent cadence.
During a cadenza the accompaniment either pauses or sustains a pitch or chord.
Although a cadenza may appear elsewhere, it most typically ornaments a prominent tonic cadence, such as one before a final ritornello or coda.
If improvised, it may be indicated by a fermata in all parts, as in Mozart's Piano Concerti (Mozart's Piano Concerto in Bb major). Improvised cadenzas were fine when the composer was also the performer; however, when others attempted to create their own versions, it was not always successful because of the disparity or conflict in style (Ex, Clara Schumann's cadenzas to Mozart's D minor Concerto, though delightful, are too near her husband's manner not to seem out of place).
Virtuosic cadenzas gained importance beginning in the Baroque era. Corelli often notated cadenzas in the first movements (allegro) of his Violin Sonatas, Op.5. Torelli, Vivaldi, and JS Bach occasionally wrote them out in concertos.
Italian opera singers placed cadenzas at any of the three vocal cadences in the standard 3-part aira, particularly the last.
CPE and Quantz discussed the improvisation of cadenzas at length in their treatises on performance.
As cadenzas became more elaborate, their thematic reference to the composition increased: late Mozart wrote optional cadenzas and Beethoven, too (#3). Beethoven wrote obligatory cadenzas in his 5th concerto.
In the 19th c, obligatory cadenzas, often placed in unorthodox position (Mendelssohn, at the end of Dev), became a common feature of vocal and instrumental music, notably in piano works of Chopin and Liszt and the later operas of Verdi
orchestral introduction before the opera begins; sets the mood for an opera
Genreany number of instrumentsmost popular are keyboard and orchestral suitesmulti movementeach movement based on an older dance form
Piano is invented by Bartolomeo Cristofir
Leader of the Florentine Camerata.
Handel's first London opera, produced in 1711.
The opera is in the Italina style
|Rousseau, Jean Jacques||
Seventeenth-century philospher and author, as well as composer (he wrote an opera entitled, Le Devin du village).
Rousseau penned many of the music-oriented entries in the new encyclopedie of Diderot, including the definition of baroque (which he speciously derived from the Italian, baroco, meaning confused and unnatural).
Rousseau also sided with those favoring Italian opera in the guerre des bouffons over Pergolesi's La serva padrona
Or ground bass.
Ostinato comes from the It. meaning "obstinate".
A ground bass then, refers to some repetitive melodic pattern with a continuous variation in the upper voices.
However, the ground may refer to parts of, or the entire scheme: this includes the harmonies and upper voices, to the repetitive process in general, or to a composition in which it occurs.
It also sometimes refers to the essential harmonic progression, which may or may not employs an exactly recurring bass line.
A stately dance in duple meter.
Like the earlier pavane/galliard pairing, the allemande is often paired with a lively, triple-meter dance like courante.
The allemande often features a short upbeat and running notes which permeate the musical facbric in a pseudo-contrapuntal sort of texture
Torelli's structured the firast movements of his concertos lke the A section of a da capo aria, with a ritornello at the beginning, middle and end framing two long episodes for the soloist. Vivaldi's concertos expand on this pattern, producing what isnow known as ritornello form. This is less a formal mold than it is an approach, or set of gudelines, that llows a gret deal of variety.
Ritornellos for the ful orchestra alternate with episodes for the soloist or soloists.
The opening ritornello is composed of several small units, typically two to four measures in length, some of which may be repeted or varied. These segments can be separated from each other or combined in new ways without losing their identity as the ritornello.
Lter statements of the ritornello are usually partial, comprising only one or some of the units, sometimes varied
The ritornellos are guideposts to the tonal structure of the music, confirming the keys to which the music modulates. The first and last statments are in the onic; at least one (usually the first to be in a new key) is in the dominant; and others may be in closely related keys.
the solo episodes are characterized by virtuosic, idiomatic playing, somtimes repeating or varying elements from the ritornello, but often presenting scales, arpeggiations, or other fiuration. Many episodes modulate to a new key, which is then confirmed by the following ritornello. Sometimes the soloist interupts or plays some part of the closing ritornello.
groups of dances put together
comical operaabout working class people, portrayed as smart, kind, heroicnobility represented in the opera were comic relief- the stupid foolsan admired person would have a higher voicesomeone to make fun of would have a lower voice
This composer bridged the Renaissance and Baroque with early madrigals written in the Renaissance style and operas like the Coronation of Poppea written in the early Baroque homophonic vocal style.
First public opera house openins in Italy;
Opera begins to become popular with ORDINARY people
|Schein, Johann Hermann||
1586-1630. German composer and poet.
an important predecessor of Bach, both as Leipzig Thomaskantor and as a gifted composer.
One of the first composers to graft the style of the Italian madrigal, monody and concerto on to the traditional elements of Lutheran church music.
His Banchetto Musicale of 1621, a collection of suites, were instrumental in the standardization of the suite since they are some of the first examples of a collection of dances that are conceived as a comosite and integral work; the dances are thematically and key related
1660-1725. Italian composer, who may have studied with Carissimi.
He is noted especially for operas and cantatas.
Reputed founder of the Neapolitan school of 18th c opera;
His Griselda, one of his last operas, is indicative of the 18th C Neapolitan style. It abandons the ground bass and binary form air in 2 stanzas in favor of the ternary da capo aria.
It also features the recitative semplice/secco, a speech-like manner of singing supported by only continuo for the purpose of traversing long streches of dialogue; and the recitative accompagnato/stromentato/obbligato, which was accomp by the orch. for tense and dramatic situations. It reinforced the emotion of the voice part and punctuated phrases with brief instrumental outbursts.
He was also the teacher of the Gr. Hasse
Variations on a chorale melody, usually for keyboard.
The form was popular in the early 17th c, and there are several by such composers as Sweelinck and Scheidt.
Later, the term chorale partita was used, for examples by Bach.
Buxtehude wrote a set of variations on "Auf meinen lieben Gott" employing the secular dance forms of the suite, and his example has been followed in the 20th c by Ernst Krenek
The recurring tutti section of a concerto movement or a da capo aria.
"ritornello form" is common: typically in the 1st and last mvts of a late-Baroque or Classical concerto, based on an alternation of tutti and solo sections.
Sometimes the principal formal event is the recurrence of the main theme in various keys
French 1645-1704. Composer of church music, sacred dramas, cantatas.
Studied in Rome with Carissimi at the German College. On returning to Paris he was seriously hampered by French nationalism, which was opposed to his Italiantate style.
Lully, esp, saw him as a serious rival throughout his own lifetime.
Employed by Moliere (after Lully's collaboration ended) and wrote incidental music for the Comedie Francaise.
Worked also for the royal family, the Jesuits, and the church st Louis, before becoming maitre de musique at Saint Chapelle in 1698.
He was Lully's most important contemporary in France, and his church music is esp attractive - splendid grand motets (often using double choir), 11 masses (from rich polyphony of old, to the harmonization of carol tunes in the well known Messe de minuit pout moel, early 1690s).
His dramataic cantata Orphee descendat aux enfers shows what he might have done with opera had he been given the chance
1702. A collection of keyboard preludes and fugues in 19 different major and minor keys by JCF Fischer.
It was an important precursor to Bach's famous WTC of 1722.
Bach was familiar with this earlier didatic work.
This set of pieces did not imply equal temperament, as certain keys were avoided.
Pupil of Monteverdi and leading composer of Venitian opera and organist at St. Marks.
Germany musicians sought to introduce Lully's orchestra standards and French musical style he cultived into German music. One result of this effor was a fashion in Germany between 1690 and 1740. These were dances patterned after those of Lully's ballets and operas and did not appear in an standard number or order.
composition where an orchestra is pitted against a small group of soloistEXAMPLE:Brandenburg Concerto No. 5 in D Major - J.S. Bach
A composition in several movements for solo voices, instruments and perhaps also chorus. Depending on the text cantatas are categorized as secular or church cantatas
1741, Oratorio with biblical topics, Uses English rather than Latin or Italian, alternates chorus, arias, and recitative, Alternates fugal sections with solid bocks of harmony
composer takes any of the musical material that was in the exposition and experiments with itmix it up, expand, fragment, shorten notes, lengthen notes, etc.
bass-driven chordal support in baroque music
A setting of a religious text for singers, choir, and orchestra.
With bass continuo (dry) vocalist & chords & bass only
1632-1687. A native of Florence who travelled to France at Fourteen, Lully composed instrumental music for Louis XIV and was a member of the 24 Violons du Roy before he led his own petits violons.
Lully thus quickly absorbed the rich French heritage of orchestral music.
As a dancer, Lully also composed a number of ballets de cour, including overtures, air and recits.
Lully collaborated with Moliere and Corneille in a series of ballet comedies and one ballet tragedie which combined French and Italian styles.
His real area of mastery, however was the opera. His librettist, Quinault, also achieved a satisfactory union of French and Italian elements.
Lully's music features a sharp contrast between recitative and air, though the middleground of arioso also appears.
Quinault's verse often necessitated a changing meter with alternating bars of 3/4 and 4/4.
Lully also wrote impassioned speeches in a type of recitative that featured halting rhythms and augmented and diminished intervals.
Lully's airs are usually pleasant but not emotionally charged. They often feature only solo voice with basso continuo, though a two-violin ritornello is sometimes included.
Lully's instrumental writing in the operas features a five-part orchestra (rather than the traditional Italian scoring for two treble voices plus bass) and distinguished between the petit choer (the counterpart of the Italian concertino) and the grand couer (the ripieno which included the twenty-four violins and occasional wind and percussion instruments).
Lully and Quinault eventually moved away from the Italian tragicomedy and developed a new French genre, the tragedie lyrique
Even after Monteverdi's turn to opera, he still wrote motets and Masses in the conservative style.
But in his 5th book of madrigals, in addition to favoring the transparency and simplicity of the monodic style over the old homogenous equal-voiced texture, he added continuo parts in the last 6 pieces. Hence the term continuo madrigals.
It marks one of the many turns away from old prima prattica exemplified by Palestrina to the new Seconda Prattica ushered in by Monteverdi, Caccini, and their contemporaries.
Italian, 1670-1747. Eldest son of GM Bonocini.
Primarily an opera composer.
He was one of the resident composers of the newly founded Royal Academy of Music (London, 1720s).
Operas written in London were very successful (Griselda) and were competitive with Handel's at the time.
The styles of the two were quite distinct - Bonocini's arias are at their best when simple and tuneful, while Handel tended to write an extended forms and with elaborate orchestral accomp.
One of the first perpetrators of plagiarism: tried to pass off a composition by Lotti as his own. The scandal forced him to leave London
French element in which a dotted note is held longer than its notated value-according to the performers taste while the following short note is shortened. These changes emphasizes the beats and sharpen the rhythmic profile.
A concertato medium. A sacred vocal work with instruments.
A system of notating the continuo chords in baroque music, by means of figures; sometimes also used to mean continuo
Self contained piece of music that is part of a larger work
|Monteverdi, L'incoronazione di Poppea||
1642, Monteverdi's masterpiece, opera with Smaller orchestra and scenic apparatus than Orfeo, Most advanced depiction of emotion and characterization to date
Known as the "Red Priest", he composed hundreds of concertos. Many of these were written for the girls at the orphanage where he worked nd taught violin.
A type of tuning in which perfect fifths are tuned slightly low (1/4 of the syntonic comma, or 22 cents) in order that five fifths (c-g-d-a-e) will arrive at an in-tune third.
This system works well as long as one stays within the key with only one or two accidentals in them.
However, more remote keys ound increasingly out of tune, and one fifth in particular, the wolf fifth (ofthen Eb-G#) is quite bad.
This system of tunning was in effect from ca. 1500 onward through the end of the Baroque and necessitated some of the Baroque developments in instrument-making (such as the divided keyboards on Baroque organs) which allowed for good intonation in all keys
Created by Lully as French opera. Was originally called tragedie in musique which reconciled drama, music and ballet.
The role of this genre as service music is illustrated by those in this book by Frescobaldis which includes a set of three organ masses each containing all the music an organist would play at Masses. All three indicate a toccata before Mass and another at the Elevation of the Host before Communion, and two add another toccata before a ricercare.
A Baroque sonata for three main instruments plus the continuo chord instrument
|Purcell, Dido and Aeneas||
1689, Opera in minature, Orchestra consists of strings continuo, Uses French overture, Homophonic choruses in dance rhythms
This was a new way of tuning keyboard instruments that involved the intervals within the octave tuned to 12 equal half steps.
|L'Art de toucher le clavecin||
Francois Couperin's treatise (1716) on clavecin performance.
The detailed instructions for fingering and execution of the agrements, lend insight to the performance practice that prevailed during that time period
|Origin of Concerto||
In the 1680's and 90's , composers created a new kind of orchestral composition that soon became the most important type of Baroque instrumental music and helped to establish the orchestra as the leading instrumental ensemble. In the long' standing tradition of adapting old terms to new uses, the new genre was called concerto. Like the vocal concerto it united tow contrasting forces into a hamonious whole, in an instrumental version of the concertato medium. It combined this texture with other traits favored at the time: florid melody over a firm bass; musical organization based on tonality; and multiple movements with contrasting tempos, moods and figuration. Concertos were closely related to sonatas and served many of the same roles: they were played at public ceremonies, entertainments, and private musical gatherings, and they could substitue for elements of the Mass.
by 1700, composers were writing three kinds of concertos. The orchestral concerto was a work in several movements that emphasized the first violin part and the bass, distinguishing the concerto from the more contrapuntal texture characteristic of the sonata. The other two types were more numerous and, in retrospect more important. Both systematically played on the contrast in sonority between many instruments and one or only a few. The concerto grosso set a small ensemble (concertino) of solo instruments against a large ensemble (concerto grosso). In the solo concerto a single instrument, most often a violin, contrasted with the large ensemble. The large group was almost always a string orchestra, usually divided into first and second violins , violas and cellos with basso continuo and bass viol either doubling the cellos or separate. In a concerto grosso, the conertino normally comprised two violins, accompanied by cello and continuo, the same forces needed to play a trio sonata, although other solo string or wind instruments might be added or substituted. In both solo concerto and conerto grosso, the full orchestra was designated tutti (all) or ripieno (full).
This practice of contrasting solo instruments against a full orchestra goes back to Lully operas, where some of the dances included episodies for solo wind trio; to ortorio and opera arias by Stradella; and the sonatas for solo trumpets with string orchestra, opular in Bologna and Venice. The melodic style idiomatic to the natural trumpet, marked by triads, scales and repeated notes was imitated by the strings and became characteristic of concertos.
Since Roman orchestras were typically divided between coertino and ripieno, Roman composers favored the certo grosso. Correlli's Concerti grossi, Op. 6 written int he 1680
s and published in revised form in 1714, are essential trio sonatas, divided between soli and tutti. The larger group echoes the smaller, fortifies cadential passages, or otherwise punctuates the structure through doublings. Corelli's approach was widely imitated by later composers in Italy, England and Germany. Indeed, one of the best discriptions of the Corellian concerto grosso is by a German, the compser Georg Muffat, introducing a collection of his own pieces that can be played either s trio sonatas or as concerti grossi.
While Roman practice treted the orchestra as an expansion of the concertino, in northern Italy the soloiest were adjucts to the orchestra. Composers there focused first on the orchestral concerto, then on the solo concerto and concerto grosso. Giuseppe Torelli, a leading figure in Bologna school, composed all three types, including the first concertos ever published. In his concertos we can see a new notion of the concerto develp. He wrote trumpet convcertos for services in San Petronio and his Op 6 includes two solo violin concertos, perhaps the first by any composer. Six more violin concertos and six concerti grossi appeared as his Op. 8. Most of these works follow a three movement plan in the order fast slow fast, taken over from the Italian opera overture. This schema, introduced the concerto by Venetian composer Tomaso Albinoni in his Op. 2 became the standard pattern for concertos.
Torelli often used a form that resembles and may have been modeld on the structure of the A section of a da capo aria. There are two extened passages for the solosist, framed bya ritornello that appears a the beginning and end of the movement and recurs, in abbreviated form and in a different key, between the two solo passages. The solos present entirely new material, often exploiting the virtuosity of the solosist, and modulate to closely related keys, providng contrasti and variety. The return of the ritornello then offers stability and rsolution. Torelli's approach was developed by Vivaldi into ritornello form, the standard for eighteenth century concertos.
Vivaldi followed the three-movement plan introduced by Albinoni; an opening fast movement; a slow movement in the smae or closely related key (relative minor, dominant, or subdominant); and a final fast movement in the tonic, often shorter and sprightlier thant he first. By using this format so consistently, Vivaldi helped to establish it as the standard for concertos over the next three centuries. (Grout 397-400, 425)
|Grandi, O quam tu pulchra es||
1625, Contemporary of Monteverdi's notable for his sacred compositions, based on psalm of songs, Italian motet
|madrigals of late 16th and early 17th centuries||
Became miniature drams,using contrasting groups of voices to suggest dialoque between charaters. Composers' experience in expressing emotion and dramatizating text through music laid the foundation for opera.
|San Petrino in Bologna||
a large cathedral that had long been a center of concerted music (since the begining of the 18th c).
Cazzati was choirmaster there in the later part of that century (1657-1673)