Baroque Music Terms Flashcards

Terms Definitions
showing off skills
literally "mistuning".
The tuning of string instrument's open strings to some other less used tuning arrangement.
It is often used to achieve melodies and harmonies unavailable in normal tuning, for expressive or technical effects, and to make instruments sound louder.
Many of the Rosary sonatas by Biber feature scordatura.
Other instances include the Schuman Piano Quartet in EbM, Paganini vln concerto in DM, Mahler's 4th sym, Mozart sinfonia concertante
Name of piano; means: soft-loud
Jean-Baptiste Lully (1632-87) becomes director of music at French king Louis XIV's court
A continuous variation form, principally of the Baroque, whose basso ostinato formulas originally derived from the ritornellos to early 17th c songs.
These passacaglias or ritonellos were played on the guitar between stanzas or at the ends of songs, where they were repeated many times, probably with improvised varaitions.
The practice began in Spain and quickly moved to Italy and France.
The passacaglia then developed in a way quite similar to the chaconne.  Its four-bar-ostinato became the basis for long sets of continuous variations as well as vocal pieces.
Early differences between chaconne and pssacaglia were the particular chord progressions: the passacaglia tended to be in minor, with a I-IV-V or I-IV-V-I pattern.  The bass lines themselves might change in successive phrases, or extra harmonies might be inserted, but these variants fell within a limited set of formulas.
One of these formulas is the descending tetrachord used in so many operatic laments but appearing as well in pieces titled passacaglia (i.e. Biber, Passacaglia in G minor for solo violin).
Bach's Passacaglia in C minor for organ BWV 582 is well-known 18th c passaglia. 
This format was picked up by 20th cc composers in non-tonal or serial pieces (Webern Passacaglia op.1; Schonberg, Pierrot Lunaire op.21, "Nacht"; Berg, Wozzect; Stravinsky, Septet)
origianlly a quick, lascivious dance-song from Latin America. When it came to France through Spain and Italy, it was transformed into a slow, dignified dance in triple meter with an emphasis on the second beat.
A composition written systematically in imitative polyphony, usually with a single main theme, the fugue subject
Vocal music, new style becomes popular: single melodies sung by one singer with instrumental accompaniment.
George Frideric Handel composes the Messiah
Bernhard, Christoph
1628-1692. German composer, theorist 1649 - singer in the court under Schutz in Dresden.
Stayed in Dresden most of life, eventually becoming Kapellmeister.
Composed a funeral motet at the request of Schutz and was performed at the ceremony in 1672.
Most important: musical treatises (The treatises of Christoph Bernhard and An Augmented Treatise on Composition or Tactatus compositionis augmentatus), noteworthy for their classification of the styles of Baroque music according to purpose - church stylus gravis, the "Palestrina style" and the new chamber style of Menteverdi stylus luxurians, where language is master of the music
English term for the strophic congregational hymns of the Protestant Church in Germany. 
The German word, Choral, from which it is derived, orginally signified a plainchant melody sung chorally, but from the late 16th century its meaning was widened to include vernacular hymns.
However, the term most commonly used for such hymns in early Reformation times was geisliche Lieder. 
Strictly speaking, the word "chorale" means both the text and the melody of a hymn, as a single unit, but not infrequently the term is used to describe the music only -either a single-line melody or a fully harmoized version as in the 4-part settings of Bach.
Texts of Luther's 34 chorales are drawn from Psalms, Gregorian seasonal hymns, antiphons, Mass Ordinary, German sacred song, and nonliturgical Latin hymns. 
Tunes are adapted from secular sources or are composed on similar models.
A great many chorale melodies are in bar form, and some show a relationship to the melodic procedures of the Meistersinger
Baroque organ
Gottfried Silbermann (1683-1753) was an early 18th century organ builder who was trained in France and was influenced by the French full organ or plein jeu.
German organ builders were also influenced by instruments in Antwerp and Amsterdam, which were based on the divisions of pipes into various Werke.  These organs had a richer sound and higher wind pressure than the sweeter Italian organs.
Organ music reached a golden age in Germany during the late seventeenth and early 18th centuries, with composers and players such as Bohm at Luneburg, Buxtehude at Lubeck, Zachow and Kuhnau in Saxony and Thuringia, and Pachelbel in Nuremberg
Predicessor to the fugue. A contrapuntal piece for organ or harpsichord in which one subject or theme is continously developed in imitation.
Long semi-dramatic piece on a religious subject for soloists, chorus and orchestra
chorale prelude
no singersintroduces chorale melody before you hear the choraleuses an organ
singing halfway between aria and recitative.
Sonata for 3 violins by Giovanni Gabrieli is published
Gabrieli's sonatat creates new meaning for term sonata
a general term connoting solo singing accompanied by a basso continuo in the early Baroque period
Nuove Musiche
This phrase has two meanings.  Specifically, it is the title of a collection of arias and madrigals published by Gulio Caccini in 1601 featuring music with the new, monodic style of recitative with basso continuo.
Generally, in refers to the style of music becoming popular in the 17th c. 
This new style grew out of Monteverdi's seconda prattica and the music of the florentine Camerata.  It marked the beginnings of opera, oratorio, and cantata, as well as the Baroque period in general.
1534-1612.  Member and patron of the Camerata in Florence starting in the 1570's.
He wrote that the melody and rhythm should follow the text.
Other members included Caccini and Galilei and all were influenced by Mei
Bel Canto
In Italian this literally means "beautiful singing".
It descirbes a kind of singing that originated in the late 17th C and which flourished in the 19th C. 
It also specifically concerns a technique of singing that emphasizes beauty of sound and brilliance of performance rather than dramatic expression or romantic emotion.
Its early development is closely tied up with Italian opera seria (Scarlatti, Jomelli, etc).
This term has also been used to apply to the compositional styles of Rossi and Carissimi, who cultivated a simple, melodious vocal style of songlike quality, without virtuoso coloraturas.
Finally, the term also applies to the compositional style of the 19th c Italian bel canto composers - Bellini, Rossini, and Donizetti
pastoral drama
Renaissance antecedent to opera. A play in  verse with music and songs interspered. In a tradition derived from ancient Greek and Roman pastoral poems told of idyllic love in rural settings peopled by rustic youths and maidens, as well as mythological figures. Became increasingly popular at Italian courts and academics during the 16th century. Their subject, mythological character types and use of music and dance were all adopted by the eiarliest opera composers.
French for "jig" originated in the British Isles as a fast solo dance with rapid footwork. In France it became stylized as a movement in fast compound meter with wide melodic leaps and continuous lively triplets. Sections often begin with fugal or quassifugal imitation.
Often used early in the sevnteenth century to refer broadly to any piece for instruments. It gradually came to designate a composition that resembled a conzona in form but had special characteristics. Often scored for one or two melody instruments, usually violins with basso continuo, while the ensemble conzona was written in four or more parts and could be played without continuo. Often exploited the idiomatic possibilities offered by a particular instrument and imitated the modern expresive vocal style while the typical conzona displayed more of the formal, abstract quality of Renaissance polyphony.
chorale tunes
the melody of a baroque hymn
genreinvented near the end of the renaissance, became very popular in baroque era
Sonata - 1615
Earlier: Used to signify any instrumental piece as opposed to a "cantata" which is sung.
New meaning: A piece in a set form for a solo instrument or a small group.
style used by de Rore where the homogeneity of style valued in the Renaissance was sacrificed for a melange which aimed to make the representation of the text more vivid and moving.
De Rore would change from one rhythmic scheme to anther, from diatonicism to chormaticism, from root chord to 6th chord, and from sharp keys to flat keys
tragedie lyrique
The French serious opera genre that developed in the last quarter of the 17th C well into the 18th C.
Also called tragedie en musique/ opera serieux, it is most associated with Quinault and Lully were leading composers, and then Rameau.
It features spectacular dance scenes and brilliant choruses, and plots mainly in Classical mythology or It. romantic epics by Tasso or Arioso.
They are generally in 5 acts, with each at ending in divertissments, which offer opportunities for dancing and choral display.
Ex: Lully's Armide (1686), Rameau's Hippolyte et Aricie (1733)
French overture
An overture is originally an orchestra piece intended for an introduction to an opera or ballet or other dramatic works.
In the French style, there are two parts: a stately slow section in duple meter with dotted rhythms and then a faster fugal section in triple meter.  Sometimes there is a return to the slow section.
These overtures first appeared in Lully's ballet Alcidiane and remined the standard type during the reign of Louis XIV.
It was adopted by Germans and English
Royal Academy of Music
London association of nobleman, supported by the king, founded in 1718-19 for the promotion of Italian opera (in London at Handel's time)
Claudio Monteverdi
Madrigal composer of late 16th century and wrote the first large scale opera in 1607, L'Orfeo. Was in five acts each centered around a song by Orfea and ending with a vocal ensemble that comments on the situation. Later works include L'Arianna and L'incoronaqion di Poppea
In some places of Germany and Vienna, chorales or sonatas were played daily on wind instruments from the tower of the town hall or church. In Lutheran areas, church musicians wee often directed employed by the town. Some Lutheran churches sponsored concerts and recitals, as well as having music during services.
G.F. Handel
master of Italian opera and English oratorioGermannearly blind he still conducted and gave concertsmoved to Londonwealthy and famous at death
Giovanni Gabrieli
wrote O mangnum mysterium the men’s choir one. It’s awesome.
Monteverdi, L'Orfeo
1607, 5 act drama using large orchestra playing introductory toccata and ritornellos, patterned after Florence Euridice operas
The Four Seasons
Composition that portray events of the seasons
Exp: Shivering and falling on ice in winter
Marin Marais
A celebrated viola da gamba player in the late 16th and early 17th C, and one of the first French composers to write trio sonatas.
He published several books of viol music and his instrumental music has descriptive titles, like those of Francois Couperin
Humphery, Pelham
One of the first Englishmen to be admitted to the new Chapel Royal in 1660.
Humphrey went abroad (France and Italy) to study composition and his style reflects these foreign influences.
He composed many anthems, most of which open with short instrumental preludes akin to French overtures (dotted rhythms, rich harmonies full of suspension, and majestic candece).
Humphrey's text setting features the melodic continuity, steady rhythm, and harmonic momentuum of recitatif mesure.
Italian influences are obvious in his chromaticism, free use of dissonance, and short-breathed exclamations.
His O Lord My God is a good example of this mixed style
Arcangelo Corelli
The trio and solo sonatas of this composer represent the crowning achievement in Italian chamber music of the late seventeenth century. His sonatas served as models that compsers followed for the next half century. The motivic techniques and principles of tonal architecture he helped to develop were extented by Vivaldi, Handel, Bach, and other composers of the next generation. He has been called the first major composer whose reputation rests exclusively on instrumental music and the first to create instrumental works that became classics, continuing to be played and reprinted long after his death.
variations or partite
keyboard and lute composers wrote sets of these on borrowed or newly composed themes. The most common techniques for variations were:
1. contus-firmus variations
2. Melody with the top most voice, recieving different embellishment in each variation while the underlying harmonies remained unchanged
3. The bass or harmonic progresion, rather than the melody is held rather than the melody is held constant while the figuration changes. 
English consort fantasias
music for viol consort was a mainstay of social music making in the home. This was the leading genre of imitative fantasia, usually called fancy which treated one or more subjects.
Dido and Aeneas
Composed by Percell the year of William and Mary's cornation. The firstknown performance took place at an exclusive girls boarding schol in Chelsea but the work may previously have been staged at court. Incorporates elements of masque and opera.
basso continuo
the bass line that is usually played by an organ, harpsichord or other chord instrument
Frescobaldi, Toccate, Book I
1615, consists of twelve toccatas, Improvisatory Compositions, describes his intended manner of performance, virtuosic figurations
organ stops
round white knobs, if you push them, it blocks the air flow to a certain set of pipes
Characteristics of Opera
Song- solo and choral, Sung all the way through, Story, Drama, Staging (props, sets, costumes, light, spectacle), Dance, Instruments, Libretto
Stile rappresentivo
A turn of the 17th C theater style inspired by the antique (ancient Greek) model of sung dialogue based on speech.
It is a dramatic recitative that features melodies moving freely over a foundation of simple chords.
It started in Humanist-inspired Florence and spread quickly throughout Italy, including Mantua, where Monteverdi was located.
Le nuove musiche
Songs for solo vice and continuo int he 1590's written and published by Caccini in 1602. Those with strophic texts he called arias, which at this time could mean any setting of strophic poetry. The others he  called madrigals, showing that he considered thses works to be the sme type of piece as polyphonic madrigals, through-composed settings of nonstrophic poems, sung for ones own entertainment or for an audience. Today we use the term solo madrigal to distinguish the new type from the madrigal for serveral voices.
Bach, The Art of the Fugue
1748, systematic demonstration and summary of all types of fugal writing, All based on the same subject or one of its transformations, Arranged in a general order of increasingly complexity and abstraction
Die Kunst der Fugue
The Art of the Fugue, composed by Bach.
Apparently left unfinished in consists of all manner of fugal writing.
It features 18 canons and fugues in the strictest style, all on the same subject, or one of its transforamtions, and is arranged in increasing complexity
Artusi, L'Artusi, overo Delle imperfettioni della moderna musica
1600, on the imperfections of modern music, attacked the "crudities" and "license" shown in the works of Monteverdi
Antonio Vivaldi (il prete rosso)
the red priest for his red hair. One of the best known Italian composers of the early eighteenth century who was born and spent most of his career in Venice. A virtuoso violinist, mate teacher and poplular composer of opera, cantoatas, and sacred msuic. He is know today primarily for his concertos which number around five hundred.
Worked as a teacher, composer, conductor and superintendent of musical instruments at the Pio Ospedale della Pieta. This was one of four hospitals in Venice, homes for orphaned illegitimate or poor boys and girls which were run like restrictive boarding schools and provided excellent instruction in music to girls who showed talent.
His influence on instrumental music equaled that of Corelli a generation earlier. His codification of ritornello form provided a model for later concerto composers.
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