BIO TEST Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Organic Molecules
Molecules containing Carbon
What is this molecule below?
• The cell’spowerhouse• Has it’s own DNA!• converts nutrientsinto energy:adenosinetriphosphate or ATP• Production of ATPusing fuel moleculesand O2 is cellular 2 respiration
The Chloroplast
What are the base pairings?
Adnine-Thymine (DNA)
Adnine-Uracil (RNA) 
Plants absorb all visible wavelengths of light except:a. Greenb. Bluec. Redd. Yellow
Organic Chemistry
The study of molecules containing Carbon
Prefix for hundreths of a unit .xx
In a specific food web, photosynthetic algae are considered _____, where a killer whale is considered a______.a. Producers; primary consumer (herbivore)b. Consumers; producerc. Producers; carnivore (second or third order consumer)d. Producers; detritivore
An insect that exhibits resistance to a pesticidea. developed the resistance in response to the pesticideb. mutated when exposed to the pesticidec. inherited genes that made it resistant to the pesticided. is less likely to pass on the allele to the next
What is a chromosome?  
a condensed form of chromatin
True or False: The carbon that makes up the physical material of organisms originally starts as carbondioxide.
Which of the following is NOT an example of natural selection in action?a. HIV treatment / vaccinesb. A giraffe growing a longer neck in order to reach higher branchesc. Pesticide resistance in the population of cockroachesd. Antibiotic resistance in viru
Positive Beta Decay
A positron (B+ particle) is released by the unstable atom.
A proton is converted into a neutron
This reduces the atomic number and changes the element.
The new element moves down on the Periodic Table
Carbon6 becomes Boron5 
3 carbon alcohol at the end of all fats and phospholipids. 
La Nina
is a period of unusually cold temp in the eastern pacific
The food chain ends with who..
decomposers or those who break down dead organisms
 Molecules containing a Sulfhydryl Group are... 
Schleiden and Schwann
Proposed Cell Theory
•Three classes:•simple lipids•complex lipids• steroids
Fluid Mosaic Model
Trace Elements 
Elements required by organisms in very small amounts. 
(Iron and Iodine) 
Storage Polysaccharides
Include starch (long glucose chain). Plants store starch in plastids. Animals in liver and muscle cells(as glycogen) both plants and animals can break down the starch for glucose.
those consumers who eat dead organisms

also know as scavengers
Competitive Inhibitors
Look like substrate and will block active site. 
Which of the following is true regarding the human genetics lab you did last week?a. Offspring received ‘alleles’ based on conscious decisions of the ‘parents’.b. The offspring looked exactly like one ‘parent’ or the other. (And I’m not spea
What is Biology?
Biology is the study of Life.
About what percent of the available energy in sunlight is captured?
1 percent
What is used in the actual creation of proteins?
What is produced by the light reaction?
ATP (Energy)
NADPH (Electron Carrier) 
Stems Cells
- a type of cell that is considered totipotent and can produce all proteins made by the cell

- all genes in cell can be transcribed
What is so important about how isomers can affect the Molecule? 
That isomers of molecule x even though they both might have the same chemical formula, isomer x1will have completely different reactive (biological) properties.
embalming, perfume
bring forth
loss of speech
Emerges form the follicle
bile salts
act as emulsifier/digestor
Which organelle contains cristae?
organisms that live inside plants
multicellular organs that produce spores
Genetic material is transferred between 2 bacteria that are temporily joined by a sex pili
Membrane carbohydrates bonded to lipids that function as markers
description of evolutionary relationships b/w orgs
Phylogenetic Tree
an area containing several different ecosystems linked by exchanges of energy, materials, and organisms
what is S3 sound from
early filling
neutral variation
differences in DNA sequence that do not confer a selective advantage or disadvantage
a monophyletic group of primarily single-celled eukaryotes that have adopted extremely diverse modes of nutrition
The “modern synthesis” refers to thecombination of Darwin’s ideas of naturalselection with modern
Natural Selection
Individuals with specific heritale traits leave more offspring than other individuals
of Cholesterol in Cell Membranes

•Cholesterol controls
fluidity vs. rigidity of the membrane 

•cholesterol has both polar and nonpolar regions

Plate Tectonicscrust has plates floating on liquid magma
Convection Currents
the anaerobic breakdown of glucose resulting in the buildup of 2 ATP and a toxic end product.
Membrane attack complex
A molecular complex including complement proteins that generates a 7-10-nm diameter pore in a bacterial membrane, causing the cell to die
The main form of carbohydrate storage in animals
Energy flow:
passage of energy through components of the ecosystem
three fatty acids linked to a threecarbon molecule called glycerol, type of lipid-form when dehydration reaction between a hydroxyl group of glycerol and the carboxyl group of a fatty acid
Single strand RNA can ____?
bond to itself
A phylogenetic tree in which branch length represents chronological time
Viruses use cells to produce new generations of viruses.
Hormones can change metabolic rate; affects fat breakdown =?????
nonshivering thermogenesis
consists of 1 or more polypeptides folded and coiled into a specific 3 dimensional structure.
the process of nuclear division that reduces the number of chromosomes in a cell by half
- pituitary hormone that induces labor at the end of the third trimester- induces release of milk from the breast after the baby is born
nuclear membrane
the double membrane surrounding the nucleus within a cell
Define biology.
Science that seeks to understand the living world
In negative feedback what is the inhibitor?
The product
Evaporative cooling.
Function of water that creates water vapor.
Classical conditioning
an animal's involuntary response to a stimulus becomes associated with another stimulus that is presented @ the same time.
What is PKA?
An enzyme that phosphorylates things like transcription factor.
Muscle Tissue
Exert physical force on other tissues and organs. Anything that has to do with movement is muscle tissue.
cues when presented to an animal trigger its FAP responses.EX: Physical features/Gestures/Chemical Signals
Sign stimuli
67. Define the following terms:
Four Functions of Bones
a. movementb. protect internal organsc. store calcium & phosphorusd. produce red & white blood cells (in bone marrow)
a central part about which other parts are grouped or gathered; core:
polar covalent bonds
when the covalent bond has electrons that are not shared equally
What is meiosis?
Meiosis is the production of gametes, or reproductive cells. 

Characteristics of P. Anthophyta
1. Largest group of plants
2. Very diverse group
-herbaceous (________)
-tree/shrubs (______)
3. Mostly ______
4. Leave size:
5. Sexes may be ______ or ______
6. Habitat:

Characteristics of P. Anthophyta
1. Largest group of plants
2. Very diverse group
-herbaceous (non woody)
-tree/shrubs (woody)
3. Mostly terrestrial
4. Leave size: tiny to huge
5. Sexes may be together or seperate
6. Habitat: temperate environment
What are the four types of transport mechanisms?
OsmosisDiffusionActive TransportEndocytosis
Food Pyramid
-Shows what you should and should not eat
Central Amercian leaf-cutting ants
cultivate fungal gardens on the leaves.
control group
(in an experiment or clinical trial) a group of subjects closely resembling the treatment group in many demographic variables but not receiving the active medication or factor under study and thereby serving as a comparison group when treatment results ar
What are the 3 embryonic germ layers?
Ectoderm: Outermost germ later.
 Mesoderm: Middle germ layer.
Endoderm: Innermost germ layer.
What is phosphorylation?
A process that involves a series of protein kinases (enzymes) that add a phosphate to the next protein (substrate) in lin ethereby activating it.
17. What is camouflage?
Camouflage is a skin pattern or color that allows an animal (or plant?) to blend into its surroundings.
co dominance
being one of two or more species that are equally dominant in a biotic community:
Similarities between DNA and RNA
DNA and RNA are composed of pyrimidines and purinesDNA and RNA both have 5' and 3' polarity
Calorie is what?
the amount of energy needed to raise 1 gram of water 1 degree Celsius.
Role of each part of the vertebrate excretory system: bowmans capsule, proximal tubule, distal tubule, loop of Henle, collecting ducts
Bowmans capsule: blood vesselsProximal tubule: permeable to both salts and waterDistal tubule: less permeable to waterLoop of Henle: makes more concentrated urineCollecting ducts: receives filtrate
What are the nucleotide subunits?
Phophate group, base and a 5 carbon sugar (deoxyribose)
What two things is energy used for?
1. to build protiens
2. replicate DNA and divide cells for reproduction
In a mole what is cause for concern?
irregular border or change in color
22. The first major branch of the renal artery is:
the first major branch of the renal artery is the Renal hilus
Which one of the following represents two structures that are homologous?
the wing of a bat and the flipper of a whale
sex linkage
spec-; spic
look at
Specialized organelles in plants
Sugar formula
C6 H12 O6
E. Coli
5 DNA polymerases
kinetic energy
the energy of motion
Describe the Phlyum Echinodermata
•Exclusively marine•Deuterostomeswith an endoskeleton•Pentaradialsymmetry•Sea stars, brittle stars, sea urchins, sand dollars, sea cucumbersThought to have evolved from bilaterally symmetrical ancestors because larvae are bilaterally symmetrical
"inhibits blood clotting, releases heparin and histamine"
How are Arthropods classified?
AppendagesMouth partsAntennae
Thin, elongated, non-conducting, nucleated cells located next to each sieve tube element... 1:1. connected to sieve tube elements with its nucleus and ribosomes. May direct activity of sieve elements. In some plants, these cells in leaves load sugars i
Companion Cells
Ribulose carboxylase, the enzyme that catalyzes the first step of the Calvin cycle (the addition of CO2 to RuBP, or ribulose bisphosphate).
plants grow continuously because they have
photosynthetic plants use it to survive; other organisms eat these organisms
Many thinkers culminating the "Christian Great Ending--Great Beginning" proclaimed that the true stories of both the Old and the New Testaments could not be understood by objective Greek philosophy, especially that of neo-Platonism(a) True(b) False
(b) False
protein “disc” that will bind mitotic spindle
•precursor of fibrin threads that help form blood clots
A phosphate group, pentose sugar deoxyribose, nitrogenous bases
membrane bound sacs filled with aqueous solutions, dissolved substances
a cell organelle containing enzymes that digest particles and that disintegrate the cell after its death.
Ecological time
the minute-to-minute time frame of interactions between organisms and the environment
Highly repetitive sequences
Short nontranscribed DNA sequences, repeated thousands of times in tandem arrangements.
shiny shrubs dominate, wet winters hot dry summers.
pollen tube
contains one vegetative nucleus and two sperm nuclei
*"Soft Bodied"
*First to come up with circulatory system (mostly open)
*2nd largest animal group
* Exoskeleton shell (mantle)
* 3 types(1) Gastropods 
(2) Bivalves
(3) Cephalopods

The branch of academic study devoted to the systematic examination of basic concepts such as knowledge, truth, existence, reality, causality, and freedom.
reaction that produces ATP and NADPH
light dependent
gets energy and carbon from decaying organisms
These are marine suspension feeders commonly called seasquirts. As an adult, they draw in water through an incurrent siphon, filtering food particles.
Tunicates (Urochordata)
In many dense forests, plants living near the ground level engage in intense competition for
the formation of new species if mutation, selection, and genetic drift cause isolated populations to diverge sufficiently, distinct types, or species, form
- Speciation
occurring across a membrane, as an electric potential or the transport of ions or gases
Hardy-Weinberg theorem
states that the frequencies of alleles and genotypes in a population's gene pool remain constant from generation to generation, provided that only Mendelian segregation and recombination of alleles are at work
lipids with one, two, or three fatty acids dangling like tails from a gycerol molecule.
sympatric speciation:
strong divergent ecological selection
adaption to diff habitats = populations diverge but gene flow make populations less diff
so selection must be so strong to combat effects of homogenization via inbreeding

Fungus-like Protists
Name 2 Phylums
and their common name

Phylum Myxomycota- true slime molds
Phylum Oomycota- water molds
A circular strand of DNA in bacteria that contains the hereditary information necessary for cell life.
Oxidative Phosphorylation
The production of ATP using energy derived from the redox reactions of an electron transport chain; the third major stage of cellular respiration.
return of a character back to its ancestral state
if a blood research lab is attempting to collect the content of human red blood cells, the researchers should use which of the following types of solutions to cause blood cell lysis
radiation therapy
uses high energy particles to destroy cells by damaging their DNA, only when cancers are located on the surface of the body
an organelle in the cytoplasm of cells that functions in energy production.
the transfer of pollen to the part of a seed plant containing the ovules, a process required for fertilization
cell cycle
series of events that cells go through as they grow and divide
pyramid of #'s

# of species in a community
usually has a big base and small bottom, but
can sometimes be inverted
                  * ex. big top, small base: lots of parasites, then insect herbivores, then the oak tree

motor unit
one nerve fiber and all the muscle fibers innervated by it
pure free-market economic system:
System in which all economic decisions are made in the market, where buyers and sellers of economic goods interact freely, with no government or other interference. Compare capitalist market economic system, pure command economic system
In which of the following biomes would you expect to find the highest abundance of large grazing mammals?
temperate grassland
radial symmetry
a basic body plan in which the organism can be divided into similar halves by passing a plane at any angle along a central axis, characteristic of sessile and bottom-dwelling animals, as the sea anemone and starfish.
recombinant DNA technology
A technology that makes it possible to transfer genetic material from one organism to another and to deliberately alter DNA.
How do fish gills work?
Blood flow is opposite or countercurrent to flow of water Countercurrent is more effective than concurrent
Describe the process of blastulation.
Cell differentiation begins after the morula is transormed into a ball of cells with a hollow interior. The cells need to be stimulated by appropriate chemical and environmental factors. By the end of blastulation, the blastocyst has passed from the fallopian tube into the uterus and is now called an embryo.
Habitat Patches and Mosaics
A habitat patch is any discrete area that is used by a species for breeding or obtaining other resources. They have a definite shape and spatial configuration, or heterogeneity.
Mosaics are the patterns within landscapes that are composed of smaller elements, such as individual forest stands, shrubland patches, highways, farms, or towns
62) What is the name of enzymes that control the activities of other proteins by phosphorylating them?
*B) kinases
Evolution of biological order...
Is consistent with the second law of thermodynamics.
What stimulates the growth of Ammophila breviligulata
Plants slow wind near crest- plants cause accretion near crest, growth of plants is stimulated
Predator prey model, predator
dNP/dt = c p NP NH – dP NP
A researcher wants to test the affects of acid rain on tadpole mortality. He/she uses two groups of 50 tadpoles. One group is placed in ordinary water. The other group is placed in a solution of water and acid. Mortality is recorded over three days. Answe
Control Group: group placed in ordinary water
Experimental Group: group placed in water and acid
Independent Variable: solution of water and acid
Dependent variable: morality
Malthus's essay led Darwin to which of the following generalizations?
All organisms produce more offspring than their environment can support.
How much oxygen does water hold compared to air? Why?
Air holds 20 times as much dissolved oxygen as water.



Inferior colliculi



for certain auditory refluxes
Extracellular Matrix
bumpy roughened bone
glomerulus function
-filtration of:
microscopic structure of tissues.
vessel or organ rupture
-What is Epigenis?
-Who's Theory?
ultramicroscopic infectious agent that replicates itself only within cells of living hosts
several hetertrophs including algae. characterized by short smooth flagellum paired with longer hairy one
Experimenter bias
–prevented with double-blind study
kingdom that includes mostly unicellular eukaryotes
binomial nomenclature
2 part naming system
member of the largest gymnosperm phylum. Most conifers are cone-bearing trees, such as pines and firs
deleted DNA fragment attaches to sister chromatid. likely occurs during meiosis from crossing over occuring with unevened size fragments.AbcD = ABCbcD
is the maintenance of relatively constant chemical and physical conditions in an animal's cells, tissues, and organs. This is achieved by either conformation or regulation.
what tissue type loosely arranged cells, and each has own extracellular matrix around cell
a clear gelatinous in which organelles, cytoskeleton, and inclusions are embedded in
Structure for ATP
3 phosphate+ Ribose+ adenine
An organism whose internal environment fluctuates and changes with the external environment
fermentation chamber is the caecum (appendix) located aftter the stomach. not as efficient
the process by which double-stranded DNA makes copies of itself, each strand, as it separates, synthesizing a complementary strand.
Benthic zone
ocean-floor area consisting of sand, silt, and dead organisms
Arthritis caused by a disturbance of normal metabolism, uric acid accumulates and forms crystals, causing joints to become inflamed and very painful
second phase of mitosis during which the chromosomes line up across the center of the cell
Thyroid Hormones
thyroid releases T3 and T4
regulate metabolic rate, blood pressure, and heart rate
T3 = most active form
T4 typically converted to T3
Adaptive Radiation
When a common ancestor “radiates” into several new species, each adapted by natural selection to a distinct environment or life style.
sac that encloses heart and protects it
Natural selection
mechanism of evolution caused by enviromental selection of organisms most fit to reproduce:results in adaptation of the enviroment.
colon cancer can result from a mutation in
fluid mosaic model
bilayer of phospholipidsproteins are for structure and cellular recognitionsemipermeable though1972
G1, S, G2 stages are collectively known as
secondary endosymbiosis
eukaryotic evolution; red and green algae
exponential growth
j-shaped curve, happens when there are no limiting factors
A body structure of definite form and function that is composed of more than one tissue
Some Fungi are Decomposers
Common Mold Rhizopus decomposing strawberries
Fruiting Bodies
-some fungi make them but not all
-multicellular fruiting bodies are made of hyphae
the act of comprehending what is not expressed
Can Serve as a precursor to steroid hormones. 
Active transport:
transport of a substance across the cell membrane against its concentration gradient, requires energy
Cell formed by fusion of gametes ; first cell of a new individual.
what is the hierarchy of the lac genotypes?

f1 generation
The first filial generation, which is comprised of offsprings resulting from a cross between strains of distinct genotypes.
Chemical formula
Tells what elements and how many of each kind are contained in a compound
Osmotic pressure
The tendency for water to move into any cell.
Type I unconventional myosin
Type I and other unconventional myosins (green) are found in the leading edge;Disruption of unconventional myosins stops motility
Food Chain
is the pathway that tells what eats what.
Movement of the chromosomes during anaphase would be MOST affected by a drug that...
Prevented shortening of microtubules.
Random fertilization
any sperm produced by your father has an equal chance of fertilizing any egg produced by your mother
If there are 20 chromatids in a cell at metaphase, how many chromosomes are there in each daughter cell following cytokinesis?
A) 10
Where are taste buds located on fish and the platypus?
Fish: SkinPlatypus: Bill
discovery of basal transcription factors
purified RNA polymerase from human cells, added template DNA and analyze RNAs produced; RNA polymerase was found copying at random locations on template DNA instead of at promoter regions; when RNA polymerase was alone, both strands of DNA transcribed instead of one; made them think there was a sigma-like protein required for normal transcription; to test this, added proteins one or a few at a time and recorded which ones enabled RNA polymerase to bind to promoters and correctly transcribe the template strand
Where does the pain associated with too much exercise come from?
Lactic acid build up
filtration in the brain, kidneys, liver
in brain, gaps between endothelial cells in capillaries are small, little filtration
in the liver and kidneys, endothelial cells have large spaces between and everything but cells and large proteins can pass between
How will albumin be eluted off the affi-blue gel?
with detergent SDS 1%
name 3 functions of lipids
insulate, make up cell membrane, store a lot of energy
How plants and other Primary Producers Transform energy
plants and other primary producers capture energy from the sun along with carbon and water and go through a series of chemical reactions that change the light energy into chemical energy- plants release as oxygen gas
Finding of 2005 U.S. Lawrence Berkely National Laboratory study
examined 19 different technologie at various scales that can recover energy from waste heat, manure, food, industry, landfill gas, wastewater, steam and pipeline pressure. enough technical potential to profitable generate about 19% of the nations electricy in 2002
Based on the graph, which of the following best describes why losses of calcium did not occur immediately in the deforested watershed? (A) It takes months to leach calcium from the soil. (B) Other minerals were more soluble and were leached out first. (C)
The deforestation occurred during the winter when runoff was low.
what do animals have instead of conscious thought?
a genome to direct a nervous and endoctrine system capable of (1) taking in information (2) directing behavior
Why does the PMF pull protons into the cell?
there is a difference in proton concentration (change in pH)
cell division
fungal ancestor
flagellated, unicellular protist
closely realted to animals (opisthokons with posterior flagellum)
diverged from animals 1.5 bya
oldenst fossil fungi 460 mya
rounded joint projection
together/living; any intimate relationship between two different species
• reverse of cellular respiration• endergonic suite of reactions that reduces CO2 to glucose• 6CO2 + 12 H20 + light -> C6H12O6 + 6O2 + 6H2O• consists of two independent sets of reactions• occurs in chloroplasts
-1000-10000x smaller than bacteria
-DNA/RNA in protein coat (capsid)
-can't reproduce by self, must use host cell
One species benefits, other unaffected
eats both plants and animals
In positive–sense viruses, the genome contains the same sequences as the mRNA required to produce viral proteins.
the contents of the cell
a tiny, somewhat mitten-shaped organelle occurring in great numbers in the cell cytoplasm either freely, in small clusters, or attached to the outer surfaces of endoplasmic reticula, and functioning as the site of protein manufacture.
curved protective layer through which light rays enters the eye. Light rays are bent here as well as in lens.
Only system that can oxidize water.
integrate senses with motor functions, located in the brain stem.
Dinoflagellates- a large group of flagellate protists. Most are marine plankton, but they are common in fresh water habitats as well.
-long lived or slow developming -Example: mesothlelioma (sp?)
the nail cuticle is also called
monomer that carries oxygen in muscles
attraction b/t molecule of the substance
pertaining to an organism whose genome contains a gene introduced from another organism of the same or a different species
hemoglobin molecule
quarternary structure - 4 protein chains
2 beta chains, 2 alpha chains
What is the raw material evolution feeds on?
Compound used to speed up biological reactions
sister taxa
groups that share a common node
Which of the following types of receptors detect changes in temperature?
stroma is
fluid between thylakoid membrane and inner membrane of a chloroplast.
parent separates into two or more individuals
An informal name for a moss, liverwort, or a hornwort; a nonvascular plant that lives on land but lacks some of the terrestrial adaptions of vascular plants.
a fibrous protein that binds to collagen, fibrin, and other proteins and also to the cell membranes, functioning as an anchor and connector.
All the organisms that live in a geographic area, together with the nonliving (abiotic) components that affect or exchange materials with the organisms; a community and its physical environment
The process of generating ATP from ADP and phosphate by means of a proton-motive force generated by the thylakoid membrane of the chloroplast during the light reactions of photosynthesis.
carbon-fixation reactions (calvin cycle)
biochemical pathwayuses ATP and NADPHCO2 to CH2O, (sugar)
uric acid
compound of low solubility in water that can be secreted as semisolid
ex. birds, insects, land snails, reptiles
What is diffusion?
Molecules move from High concentration to Low concentration.
Systems for support, protection and movement
Skeletal systemMuscular system
Any subsance that triggers a fever is called a/an ______.
Movement of substances from regions of low conc. to regions of high. conc. Requires energy input (ATP)
Active transport
consume all living tissue of host --> kill them
made when oxygen is insufficient durng extensive exercise of muscle
lactic acid
immune system
cells and organs within an animal's body that contribute to immune defenses
What does presence of protein in urine indicate
renal disease

messenger RNA 
carry DNA information from the cite of protein synthesis 
Chapter 16- Define Ecology
The relation between organisms and their environment
R point
r for restriction cuz there aint no goin home after dis girl!!! must finish cycle
Break down of one mole of glucose produces how much energy?
-689 Kcal/mol
Third Ventricle
in between the 2 lateral, around the thalamus
Most CO2 from catabolism is released during
the citric acid cycle
The Tissue level is?
What phylum?
This is where the animals have tissues. 
tissues are a collection of cells grouped together to perform functions. mostly talking about simple tissues. 
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) Prevention
Follow-up on all primary bacterial infections and evaluations consistently, refer sexual partners, use condoms
How often base substitution occurs depends on whether the mutation is:
Neutral (no change in fitness)
What is a craniate?
An organism with a skull, brain, eyes, and other sensory organs.
A protein's primary structure is _________
its unique sequence of amino acids
If Mendel had performed experiments on cattle rather than on peas, the patterns of inheritance would not have been easily detectable, because cattle
have small numbers of offspring
All of the following statements about neurotrans¬mitters are generally true EXCEPT: (A) They may cause depolarization or hyperpolarization of the postsynaptic membrane. (B) They are actively transported across the synaptic cleft. (C) They are released fr
They are actively transported across the synaptic cleft.
sugars(glucose) using energy from the sun
Photsynthesis is the basis for almost all
1.How do energy and matter move differently in ecosystems?
Energy flows and is not reused while Matter Cycles around
A controlled experiment is one in which...
There are at least two groups, one of which does not receive the experimental treatment.
mites, ticks
Ramlina spp
ramlina spp.
TWO strands, DNA
– keratin
tough structural protein• gives strength to hair, nails, and skin surface
RNA Reverse–Transcribing Viruses (Retroviruses)The genomes of the RNA reverse–transcribing viruses are composed of single–stranded RNA.Virus particles are diploid, with two copies of their single–stranded RNA genome.The retroviruses only infect ve
1) Prophase
2) Metaphase
3) Anaphase
4) Telophase
Edward Jenner
Popularized vaccination
Famous for protocol against smallpox
Innoculated 8 year old boy to test smallpox vaccine (which was a dose of "cow" pox)
fungi that attacks other fungi
Simplest unit of a organsim
larger; slower growth; more dependent
a small sac or cyst.
proteins in the thylakoid membrane organize chlorophyll and other pigments into clusters
-secondary xylem produced by vascular cambium
Visceral pain
from stretch, chemical irritants orischemia of viscera (poorly localized)
–regulate metabolism of glucose and other fuels–helps body adapt to stress and repair tissues–anti-inflammatory effect becomes immune suppression with long-term use
What accumulates inside the thylakoid compartment during the light dependent reactions?
Separates the cell from its interior
ecological isolation
species live in diff habitats
Hox gene
provides positional information in an animal embryo
similarity in structure due to common ancestry
Identify the main organs of the endocrine system and their major functions.
solid at room temp.saturated fat came from animals
heterozygote advantage
carriers of sickle-cell anemia are more resistant to malaria than HH genotypes
Any of various compounds consisting of a nucleoside combined with a phosphate group and forming the basic constituent of DNA and RNA.
make up organelles and other cellular components
purposes of organelles
• helps lessen the “diffusion problem” (large volume makes it hard to diffuse ATP, amino acids nucleotides)• allows incompatible reactions to be segregated• increase efficiency of reactions by co-localizing and concentrating the required reagents and enzymes
phylum that includes seed plants that form cones
Chemical Reaction
energy released or absorbed when chemical bonds form are broken
continuous band of land, water and atmosphere where life on planet is found
The 3rd law of ecosystem ecology (2nd law of thermodynamics: the tendency towards entropy) is the reason for flow of ______
Recombinant types (recombinants)
an offspring whose phenotype differs from that of the parents
Which of the following is a monosaccharide?
a. galactose
b. strach
c. Enzymes
d. chorestrerol
a. galactose
A complex 9 + 2 arrangement of microtubules connected by bridges and spokes.
maintaining homeostasis
-sensors = measure each condition of internal environment -integrating center = receives info from sensors, compares sensor info to set point (proper value for internal condition) and messages effector to increase or decrease activity -effectors = muscles or glands that can change value of condition back toward set point -negative feedback loop
ecological species
based on shared niche. disadvantage - difficult to describe niche in detail. advantage - good for distinguishing between morphologically similar species
Muscle Bundle/fascicle
Specialized muscle fibers in the heart that transmit electrical signals from the AV node
Bacterial Habitats
Bacteria can survive in many extreme habitats-near boiling H20 (seavents), volcanoes, glaciers, high salinity, acidic, alkalineHow do they survive? Their enzymes are tightly folded nad bery rigid so they are not denatured by heat, acid
How many sex chromosomes are in a human gamete
The.... of a eukaryotic cell is the organelle that houses the genetic material known as DNA
mixtur of two or more substaces in which the molecules of the substanceare evenly distributed
Early life on Earth is hypothesized to be similar to life surrounding ____ _____ in the deep oceans, where energy from hydrogen sulfide is used.
hydrothermal vents
metabolic rate
the total energy that an animal uses in a unit of time
Examples of nucleic acids
polymers such as DNA or RNA
At the front of the eye, the sclera becomes the transparent _____
Realized Niche
the portion of resources or areas used or conditions tolerated when competition occurs
Germ Layer: Ectoderm
will become nervous system, skin and skin derivatives
Cerebrum (lobes)
The largest part of the brain. It is divided into right and left cerebral hemispheres by a deep groove called the longitudinal fissure.
Since polmerase does not need a primer, it cannot proofread and the error rate is higher. What is the error rate?
1 in 10^4 nucleotides
the effects of vascular spasm
–prompt constriction of a broken vessel
Enzymes involved in DNA replication.
DNA polymerase III, Helicases and Gyrases and others.
What is the greenhouse effect?
GHGs absorb radiation emitted from the surface, GHGs re-emit infrared radiation, some goes into space and other comes back downward warming the atmosphere
wot is da 4m of RNA dat comprises da structure considered da 'protein factory', da site where da protein is assembled?
ribosomal RNA
a graph of the frequency of a trait in a population
bell curve
What is the yield of one molecule of glucose during glycolysis and the CAC?
6 CO2, 4 ATP.
4 important points about the Diffusion of Gases (3)
diffusion depends on gas concentration & pressure
Protein folding is often spontaneous, because _______
the hydrogen bonds and van der Waals interactions make the folded molecule more stable energetically than the unfolded molecule.
Name the 4 nucleotide base pairs
A - AdenineC - CytosineT - ThymineG - Guanine
A diuretic is a type of medicine that allows the kidneys to remove salt from the blood into urine. Would a person taking a diuretic have increased or decreased urine levels? (think about osmosis) Would a person have increased to lowered blood pressure?
Increased urine, water moves from hypo to hyper environments so if the salt is being removed from blood and into urine the water will follow so increasing urine levels. Leads to lowered blood pressure
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