Bio test plants Flashcards

Terms Definitions
cycad
protozoans
animal-like protists
Moss
Nonvascular plant
spores held in
sori
gravitotropism
response to gravity
nonvascular plants
small in size
body=gametophytes
require water for sexual reproduction
blade
flattened part of leaf
pollen grain
male gametophyte generation
Volvox
-microscopic colonial green algae
-each colony motile
-may find daughter colonies inside
sepal
protects flower before it blooms
auxins
plant hormones that affect growth
Aggregate
single flower with several ovaries(blackberry)
Veins
Vascular bundles strengthened with fibers
Slime Molds
-plasmodia formation (large multinucleate masses of streaming protoplasm which moves in amoeboid fashion)
-when food is scarce--> develop stalks with sporangium from which spores are borne
leaves
ground tissue in ________ called mesophyll
Eudicot
2 cotelydons, veins netlike, vascular tissue in a ring, floral organs in multiples of four or five, taproot, pollen with 3 openings
Byrophytes
Nonvascular plants - examples are liverworms, hornworts, and mosses.
apical bud
causes elongation of young shoot
archegonium
female reproductive structure in some plants, including mosses and liverworts
root nodules
in bacterial symbionts; perform nitrogen fixation
eudicots
have two cotyledons, typically shrubs and trees like rose bushes and maple trees
fragmentation of thallus
asexual reproduction of hornworts
Funnelform
Where something gradually widens from base to apex (funnel-shapped)
seed
a packaged little plant with food around it
translocation
the movement of organic compounds is termed __________
whorls
circles or spiral lines --circles of growth
osmosis
passive transport of water across a membrane
style
leads to ovary at base of carpel
Two major clades of angiosperms
monocots and eudicots
Transport in plants
1: water/minerals absorbed in roots
2: transport upward through xylem to shoots
3: transpiration
4: gas exchange: CO2 and O2
5: photosynthesis
6: sugar transported in phloem
7: respiration in shoots and roots
Rhizomes
underground stems that anchor a fern and absorb water
loams
soil with best oxygen and water penetration, have approx. equal proportions off sand, silt, and clay.
SELF-POLLINATION
Pollination is within the same flower or a different flower on the same plant.
Polyploidy
-possessing more than 2 complete sets of chromosomes
-common in plants
Man's use of Willow and Datura in medicine and related fields most appropriately
applies to the concepts of:
Inventionists
roots
absorbs nearly all h2o and other key minerals and vitamins
phloem
This type of plant tissue "goes low." It carries the plant's food through it's veins.
stigma
receives pollen at the tip of the carpel
when the sperm fertilizes the egg, the zygote develops into a
sporophyte
fibrous root system
type of roots that monocots have
catalyst
any substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction without being used up itself
What provides a pathway for rapid gas exchange and can be regulated?
Stomata
Fly Agaric Mushroom
May be one of man's oldest hallucinogenics. They grow in North temperature regions of both hemispheres.
Dormancy
Period of time which a plant embryo is alive but not growing
if a tomato is red which colors are being reflected
red
double fertilization
one sperm cell fertilizes the egg, the other fertilizes the endosperm to make it triploid
what are floral identity genes?
Genes that trigger flower formation
What are two good evidences for diffusion?
Cotton and sweet potato
Second two functions of Stems
Defense system for protection against disease/predators, Produce leaves, flowers, + reproductive structures.
Which one of the following is a good example of a weed that was successfully subjected
to biological control:
St. Johns Wort
what are some flower characteristics that attract bees?
Yellow, blue color, UV radiation, sweet fragrance, nectar and pollen
What is the endosperm?
The bulk of the tissue in the grain or kernel
How do you know if a nutrient is essential?
All nutrients have been identified by culturing plants in the absence of soil using a simple solution or hydroponic approach. Using this approach they can grow plants in a solution that has all essential nutrients except the one to be tested. If the plant cannot complete its life cycle, the element may be essential. The very nature of micronutrients makes it difficult to establish their importance to plants. At trace amounts, it is much easier to establish that an element is essential than that it is not essential
turgid
open
sapwood
functional xylem
Root Cap
cellular production
heartwood
not functional xylem
Flowering plant
an angiosperm
Resurrection plant/Club moss
Selaginella bigelovii
sepals
protect flower before matured
Ovary
develops into fruit (female)
Apical Meristem
Produce growth- increased length
endosperm
nutritive tissue surrounding the embryo within seeds of flowering plants
anther
terminal sac of the stamen
Stems
Provides structural support, tissue for transporting nutrients, stores food, and also photosynthesizes
Abscisic Acid
-inhibits seed germination
-supports seed dormincay
-inhibits growth/ stem elongation
- cause closure of stomata in response to low water
Sporophyte
the diploid generation or individual that produces haploid spores
secondary root
branch of root from primary
taproot
something that provides an important central source for growth or development
internodes
regions of the stem between leaves
gymnosperm
consists of cycads, conifers, and gingkos
monocot stems
vascular bundles scattered throughout ground tissue.
Gymnosperm seed
-2N embryo
-1N gametophyte (provides nourishment)
-2N seed coat (integument= sporophytic tissue)
periderm
In woddy plants it is protective tissues that replace the epidermis in older regions of stems and roots
stomata
openings in the outside layers of stems and leaves
extracellular digestion
The breakdown of food outside cells
transport proteins
special proteins embedded in lipid bilayer that allow solutes to cross membrane. Some bind to a solute and transport it across membrane; others act as selective channels (K+ channels)
pericycle
the outermost cell layer in the vascular cylinder
fertile part of the flower
stamen and carpel
3 types of plant tissue
Dermal, Vascular, Ground
Lignin
material that makes cell wall rigid (support)
Cations –
Positively charged mineral ions like potassium and magnesium
Brown Algae
-contains chlorophyll A and C
-thalus includes a holdfast, stipe, blade, and bladder and may be branched
--mostly marine kelp and seaweeds
-heteromorphic alt of generations with dominant diploid sporophyte
Durum wheat (used in macaroni) has a chromosomal status termed:
Tetraploid
Ground tissue
tissue between the dermal tissue and vascular tissue of a non-woody plant that functions in photosynthesis, storage, and support
guttation
when more water enters the leaves than transpired, causing droplets to form on grass.
phototropism
Tendency of a plant to grow towards light
monocot
parallel veins, flower parts in 3's or multiples of 3, root xylem and phloem in a ring, vascular bundles throughout stem, one cotyledon
Gametophyte stage
stage in plants life that is multicellular and all the cells are haploid
secondary xylem and phloem
created through the periclinal (parallel) divisions of the fusiform and ray initials. outward = phloem, inward = xylem
What happens to the water potential between the soil and stele?
Pressure increases
Ginkgo (gymno)
1 species thought to be extint but found in asia in 1600s; helps blood flow (esp in brain)
diploid
term used to refer to a cell that contains both sets of homologous chromosomes
polar covalent bond
when atoms of different elements share electrons, the atoms differ in their ability to attract electrons and so are shared unequally. Ex: H2O, hydrogens have slight + charge, oxygen has slight - charge, so has distinct poles
Transpiration
The loss of water vapor from the shoot system to the surrounding environment.
Challenges of dry land
scarcity of water, lack of structural support against gravity
structure and form of liverworts
most common and widespread liverworts have flattened lobed thallidevelops from spores
What is the Diffusionists concept?
One society learned to use plants,and the knowledge diffused to other regions.
Nutrient deficiency in a plant depend upon what two things?
The nutrient's function and mobility
What is the function of the xylem?
The basic function is to transport water but it also transports some nutrients through the plant.
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