BIO201 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Arterial PH
7.35-7.45
Calcium
4.5-5.5 mEa/L
carbohydrates
polmer. sugar units
SI - Jejunum
next 2/5ths
endergonic reaction
requires free energy
Chief Cells
secretes Pepsinogen (inactive precursor for Pepsin)
T Wave
result of Ventricular repolarization
cerebellum
maintains balance. enhancement of muscle tone. coordination of voluntary muscle activity.
Does the electrical gradient (oppose/promote) the movement of Cl- into the cell?
oppose
exergonic reaction
release of free energy
biological oxidation
loses H+ and e-
biological reduction
gains H+ and e-
Cardiovascular System
Heart pumps blood through cardiovascular system; Blood Vessels carry blood from heart to cells and back. Includes arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules and veins. Blood
Myoglobin
red pigment found exclusively in striated muscle. Releases O2 only at low PO2.
SA Node
Pacemaker. Depolarizes spontaneously to threshold (pacemaker potential)
emotions
generated by limbic system, attaches feelings to programs of the brainstem. have some emotional recognition at birth and develops as life continues.
steroids
derived from cholesterol, produces by adrenal cortex, gonads, placenta during pregnancy. dissolve in fat not water, bound to protein to transport in blood.
The opening of voltage-gated K+ channels cause the membrane to?
repolarize
sterols
flat molecules with 4 interlocking hydrocarbon rings
Thoracic Cavity
contains: Heart, Lungs, Trachea, Esophagus and Large Blood Vessels
Hemoglobin
4-O2 molecules; 4 heme ferrous ions (iron) make bonds
Extrinsic Control of Contractility
Contractility (strength of contraction) depends on level of Sympathoadrenal activity: Norepinephrine and Epinephrine (suprarenal. Produces an increase in contraction strength(Positive Intropic Effect) ALSO increases the HR (Chronotropic Effect)
Total Peripheral resistance
AKA Afterload (after Ventricles contract) Resistance to blood flow in Arteries. MORE resistance decreases SV.
Parathyroid Glands
Four glands embedded in thyroid gland. Secretes PTH-Parathyroid Hormone which regulates blood calcium levels.
Lactate Threshold
Maximum rate of oxygen consumption before blood lactic acid levels rise as a result of Anaerobic Respiration
Plasma
Comprised of: Plasma Proteins (7%), Other Solutes (1%), Water (92%). Makes up 46-63% of blood.
Boyle's Law
Pressure of gas is inversely proportional to its volume. Increased volume = decreased pressure and visa versa.
Enterocephalic Circulation
Liver exretes drug metabolites into bile to pass out in feces
Addisons's Disease
Lack of secretion of Corticoids (Glucocorticoids and Mineralocorticoids)
Absorption
Passage of simple nutrients into blood stream and Lymph. Absorption of Nutrients
Cephallic Phase
*Control by Brain through Vagus *Stimulated by Sight, Smell and Taste of Food
neuromuscular function
motor neuron action potential reaches terminal. triggers Ca++ channels opening, Ca++ enters, triggers release of acetylcholine from terminal button. Ach binds to motor end plate which causes ion channels to open, lots of Na+ enters, depolarizing=end plate potential, graded potential.Ach then destroyed by enzyme.
efferent neurons
send information from the central nervous system to the body. cell body in CNS. axon terminals in effector organs.
brain stem
connecting link between brain and spinal cord. cardiovascular, respiratory and digestive control. muscle reflexes; posture and equilibrium. receives and analyses info from spinal cord. sleep/wake cycle control
Hyperpolarization is caused by what characteristic of K+ permeability?
slow decline
Multipotent
capable of producing only a few related cell types (adult stemm cells, bulge region of hair follicle)
allele
mached genes at same locus on homologus chromosomes.
Cetacuans and Bats
How loud do bats scream?
Erythropoiesis
Formation of RBC in bone marrow (2.5 million/sec). Stimulated by Erythropoietin (EPO) from Kidney. Old RBC removed by Liver, Spleen and Bone Marrow.
Regulation of HR
without neuronal influences, SA NODE will drive heart at the rate of its spontaneous activity. AUTONOMIC innervation of the SA Node is the main factor that controls HR. Sympathetic and Parasympathetic nerve fibers modify rate of spontaneous depolarization (chronotropic effect)
Polypeptide/Protein
Hormones are chains of Amino Acids. Inculde ADH, GH, OXYTOCIN, GLUCAGON, ACTH AND PTH
Atrioventricular Valves
blood flows from Atria into ventricles through one-way AV valves
DUB
Closing of SL Valves. AV valves open. Atrial systole; Ventricular diastole. Blood flowing from atria to ventricles. Comes as T wave begins and semilunar valves close. Ventricular Filling.
Role of Fibrin
Platelet plug becomes infiltrated by meshwork of Firbrin which is formed of protein plasma. Fibinogen (Thrombin converts fibrinogen to fibrin). Clot now contains Platelets, Fibrin and RBCs. Platelet plus undergoes Plug Contraction to form more compact plug.
Essential Hypertension
Contitutes most cases. Prolonged high BP causes thickening of Arterial walls resulting in Arteriosclerosis. Kidney unable to excrete Na+ and H2O.
Liver-Hepatic Vein
drains blood from the liver to IVC
Blood Brain Barrier
shields brain from harmful blood changes. brain capillaries have tight junctions so no material can pass. only small lipid soluble substances can pass. all other molecules require carrier protein. part of hypothalamus no barrier so hormone levels in blood can be monitored.
spinal cord function
carrier and supports neurons between brain and body. simple spinal reflex.
pineal gland
in brain, responds to light, produces melatonin, regulates body clock, jet lag drug.
On what areas of the neurons are Voltage-gated channels found?
Axon
Tertiary protien structure
molecule shape. stabalized by ionic bonds, H+ bonds and Vander walls forces.
Independent assortment
alleles on diff. parts of homologus chromosomes distributed independently due to cross over.
What is a measure of sound waves typically used with bats?
dyne
ANS GI Tract Regulation-PARASYMPATHETIC
*Vagus Nerve *Stimulates Motility and secretions of GI Tract
Regulation of Gastric Function
*Occurs Automatically *NS and Hormonal Effect modify Automatic Activity *Extrinsic control of Gastric Function divided into three phases: Cephalic, Gastric, and Intestinal
Hydrostatic Pressure
BP. Moves (forces out) fluids from capillaries to interstitial spaces. Movement out of capillaries driven by Hydrostatic pressure exerted against capillary walls. Promotes formation of tissue fluid. Net Filtration Pressure=HP in Capillaries minus HP of ECF.
Hyopventilation
Not enough CO2 breathed out of lungs. Acidity builds causing Respiratory Acidosis.
Adrenal Glands`
Top of kidneys. Consists of Outer Cortex and Inner Medulla
Incomplete Valves
Valves don't close properly. Can be from damage t Papillary Muscles or the Valve Cusps.
structure in parasympathetic only
originate in cranial (brain) and sacral (pelvic) areas of CNS. ganglia close to effector organ.
After an action potential, the neuron cannot generate another action potential because ( ) channels are inactive. What is this period called?
Na+, absolute refractory
cori cycle
liver can recycle lactic acid back to pyruvate, glucose 6 phosphate & glycogen
What locates the sound in a bats ear?
The Tragus
What are three types of counter current systems that aid animals in homeostasis and metabolism?
Juxtamedullary Nephron SystemRespiratory System (Lungs)Temperature Regulation in Blood Flow.
Posterior Gland (extension portion of Pituitary Gland)
Neurohypophysis (extension). Stores and releases hormones made IN Hypothalamus. Stores and releases two hormones produced in Hypothalamus: ADH and Oxytocin
Myogenic Control Mechanisms (Intrinsic Regulation)
occurs in some tissures because vascular smooth muscle contracts when stretched and relaxes when not stretched. Eg: decreased arterial pressure causes cerebral vessels to dialate and visa versa.
Regulation of GI Tract-Enteric Nervous System
Intrinsic system that controls movement
conversion of stimulus in separate cell
separate receptor cell stimulated, opens Ca++ channels, increase in Ca++releases chemical messenger. messenger binds to receptor proteins on membrane of afferent axon, Na+ channels open, threshold reached and AP occurs.
Elongated tongue, rough tongue, thick muscular lips, bifurcation of the lips.
What purpose does saliva serve?
Q-T Interval
from start of QRS complex to end of T wave
Types of Capillaries: Discontinuous
Large caps in eoothelium; leaky and large. Found in liver, spleen, and bone marrow.
Regulation of GI Tract-Paracrine Signals
substance secreted by one tissue to affect another tissue in the same organ
Examples are neurons, muscles, and endocrine glands.
What is the neuro muscular junction?
From 1 to 200 dynes (we hear .0002 dynes)
What is prehesion?
Cardiac Cycle 3. Isovolumetric Ventricular Relaxation
Pressure in Ventricle has become less than in Aorta; back pressure closes Semilunar Valves. Relaxed (all valves closed) pressure decreaases, less than in Atria. Blood flows from Atria to Ventricle.
when a receptor is stimulated...
non selective opening of all small ion channels, net influx of Na+ ions, membrane depolarization, graded potential
How does ADH affect water retention?
Without the presence of ADH or Vasopressin, the collecting duct becomes impermeable to water, therefore not allowing water to be retained while passing through the collecting duct.
The electrical impulses move much faster and propagate through the whole muscle
Has a longer refractory period (to allow systalic and diastolic contractions)
What connects the R and L gray areas on a cross section view?
Gray commisures (posterior and anterior)
Seizing and conveying food into the mouth.
Name some adaptations to aid in prehesion.
During the ( ) period, the cell can generate another action potential but only if the membrane is (more/less) depolarized?
relative refractory, more
When they are at rest, however they produce very concentrated urea in order to retain water.
Do black bears in hibernation excrete waste? Explain
It is the signal transmitter where neurotransmitters (or voltages) are produced to pass the information along.
Name the parts of the axon that are responsible for signal reception.
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