BIO201 Muscles Muscle Tissue - Marieb/Hoehn - RioSalado - AZ Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Synergistically
Working together.
Sarcoplasm
Muscle fiber cytoplasm
Isometrically
Contractingmuscle doesn't shorten
PGAL
Phosphoglyceraldehyde - key intermediate in glycolysis.
Longest muscle cells.
Skeletal muscle fibers.
Fused/Complete Tetanus
Smooth, sustained contraction plateau.
NAD+
Nicotinamide Adenine - nucleotide coenzyme - NADH when carrying electrons & unbound protons (H+).
Naked protons
Unbound hydrogen atoms (H+)
Only __ muscle cells branch.
Cardiac
Each muscle fiber contains 100-1000's of rod-like __.
Myofibrils
Muscle contraction depends on two kinds of __.
Myofilaments
DHP receptors act as __.
Voltage sensors.
Isotonically
Contracting muscle shortens & moves load - bicep curl.
__ Contractions are stronger than concentric contractions.
Eccentric
Repolarization restores only the __ condition.
Electrical
The gap junctions between smooth muscle cells are __ coupled.
Electrically
Concentric Contractions
Muscle shortens & does work.
Enzyme that catalyzes CP-ADP reaction?
Creatine Kinase
Contractures
Cramps - states of continuous contraction because cross bridges cannot detach.
A graphic recording of contractive activity.
Myogram
Catabolism
Metabolic activity. Breaks lg. molecules to components w/less energy.
Treppe
"Warming up" tracing pattern with staircase shape as slighly stronger contractions occur w/each successive stimulus.
In synaptic cleft of neuromuscular junction, __ is always pesent.
Acetylcholinesterase
Slow-developing fatigue damages the __ & interferes w/CA 2+ regeneration.
SR
Substrate-Level Phosphorylation
Direct, enzyme-mediated transfer of phosphate group - ADP/ATP
Each skeletal muscle is a descrete __.
Organ
T tubules are continuations of the __.
Sarcolemma
Somatic motor neurons activate __.
Skeletal muscle cells.
During contraction, Z discs are pulled __ thick filaments.
Toward
Keywords for smooth muscles?
Visceral, nonstriated, & involuntary.
How do skeletal muscles protect organs?
By enclosure.
__ is a 3-polypeptide complex involved in myosin-actin contraction interactions.
Troponin
What giant protein stiffens as it uncoils & helps the muscle to resist excessive stretching?
Titin
Complex organelle composed of myofilament bundles.
Myofibril or fibril.
A muscle cell is surrounded by __.
Endomysium.
During repolarization, muscle fiber is said to be in __.
Refractory period.
What protein links the thin filaments to the integral proteins of the sarcolemma?
Dystrophin
Which filament holds the thick filament in place & assists muscle cell to spring back into shape?
Elastic filament.
2 Types of Isotonic Contractions
Concentric & Eccentric
Cristae
Outter compartment - series of puches in Mitochondria where Electron Phosph. Trans. takes place.
Muscle tissue develops from __.
Mesoderm - myoblasts.
Latent Period
Muscle tension beginning to increase but no resonse on myogram.
Troponin complex present only in __ muscle.
Skeletal
What restores ionic concentration in fiber?
Sodium-potassium pump
Smooth muscle depends on __ cellular Ca2+ for excitation-contraction coupling.
Extracellular
A contraction in which muscle doesn't shorten but tension increased is __.
Isometric
Diffuse junctions can be found in synaptic cleft of __ muscles.
Smooth
Biosynthetic Pathway
Metabolic pathway - sm. molecules assembled into lg. organic molecules.
Neuromuscular Junctions
Chemical synapse between axon terminal - where neuron come close w/sk. muscle cell
If muscle tension overcomes load & muscle shortens, contraction is called __.
Isotonic
Contraction refers to __.
Activation of myosin's cross bridges.
Meaning of prefix "sarco"
"flesh" in relation to muscles.
Muscle contraction is ultimately controlled by?
Nerve-initiated electrical impulses that travel along the sarcolemma.
Insertion
Other side of muscle attached to bone that moves most.
What is endomysium comprised of?
Areolar & reticular fibers.
Which molecule of the myofilament has "heads"?
Myosin molecule.
A discrete bundle of muscle cells surrounded by perimysium.
A fascile.
Sarcoplasmic Reticulum (SR)
Surrounds muscle cell's myofibrils - takes up & releases calcium ions - smooth ER.
Calcium ions bind to the __ molecule in skeletal muscle cells.
Troponin
Na+ - K+ pump restores the __ condition.
Ionic
When large amounts of ATP are needed in muscle, __ provides most ATP needed.
Glycolysis
Dense Bodies
Act as anchoring points for thin filaments in smooth muscle. Also bind cell to CT of endomysium.
The time in which cross bridges are active is called the period of __.
Contraction
Temporal summation/wave summation
Summing of several muscle contractions resulting in single, stronger contractions - signals in rapid sucession.
Aerobic Respiration
Requires oxygen as oxygen is final acceptor of electrons stripped from glycolyosis. Glycolyosis=>Krebs=>Electron Transport Phosphorylation. 36 net ATP/each glucose molecule.
From internal to external, connective tissue sheets of muscles are:
Endomysium, perimysium, epimysium
The perpendicular cross channels of the SR are __.
Terminal cisternae ("End sacs").
H Zone
Helle - "bright" zone - lighter stripe in middle of A band.
A muscle cell is also called a __.
Muscle fiber.
The banding pattern of myofibril arises from __.
Orderly arrangement of myofilaments.
Each thin filament is enclosed by __.
Three thick filaments.
What prevents bulging muscles from bursting during exceptionally strong contractions?
Strong connective tissue sheaths.
Organs that attach to & cover bony skeleton.
Skeletal muscles.
Origin
End of a muscle attached to bone - doesn't move much.
What usually sets the steady rate of heart beats?
Heart's pacemaker.
T tubules occur where?
At each A band-I band junction.
Muscle tissue makes up nearly __ of body mass.
Nearly half
If muscle tension develops but loan not moved, contraction is called __.
Isometric (same measure)
What causes rigor mortis?
Cross-link of actin/myosin continues - no breath so no ATP synthesis. Can't exclude Ca.
Joints normally prevent bone movements that would stretch muscles __.
Beyond their optimal range.
Oxaloacetate
4 Carbon compound - point of entry for Krebs Cycle.
Period of Contraction
When cross bridges are active - myogram tracing rises to a peak.
What happens when impulse reaches end of axon?
Voltage-gated calcium channels open.
In indirect attachments __.
CT of msucle tissue wrappings extends as tendons or sheet-like aponeurosis.
Recruitment process-size principle
Allows increase in force in sm. steps & gradations in force are progressively greater when needed.
Calcium binds w/__ in smooth muscles.
Calmodulin - a cytoplasmic calcium-binding protein.
The response of a motor unit to a single AP of its motor neuron.
Muscle Twitch
What is destroyed by the autoimmune disease, myasthenia gravis?
ACh receptors - muscle weakness.
The Z disc is composed largely of __.
The protein alpha actinin.
In relaxed muscle fiber, thin-thick overlap is minimal & occurs __.
Only at ends of A band.
ACh diffuse across synaptic cleft & attaches to ACh receptors on the __.
Sarcolemma, where the receptors are.
Give an example of excitability.
Contraction as a result of receiving an electrical impulse from a nerve cell.
What partly accounts for synchronous contractions of smooth muscle?
Dense bodies transmitting force to CT.
Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD)
Most serious form of MD - sex-linked recessive disease.
Tendons or aponeurosis anchor muscle to __.
CT covering bone or cartilage or fascia of other muscles.
When muscle fibers contract, they pull on __ which transmits pulling force to the bone to be moved.
Connective tissue sheaths of skeletal muscle.
Each skeletal muscle fiber is supplied with a __.
Nerve ending that controls its activity.
How do smooth muscles protect organs?
They form valves to regulate substance passage.
__ filaments connect each myofibril to the next.
Intermediate (desmin) filaments at Z disc.
The force of contraction is controlled more precisely by __.
Recruitment - multiple motor unit summation.
In isotonic contraction, the muscle __.
Changes in length & moves the load.
3 characteristics of single-unit sm. muscle.
(1) contracts rythmically as unit (2) gap junctions (3) exhibits spontaneous action potentials.
A myofibril or "fibril" is composed of ?
Myofibrils that are composed of sarcomeres arranged end-to-end.
Another name for single-unit smooth muscle.
Viseral muscle - walls of most hollow organs.
Which structure contains highest Ca 2+ in resting muscle cell?
SR - it is a Ca storage depot.
As a rule, each muscle has only one __ located midway along the fiber's length.
Neuromuscular junction - only one.
The major role of the SR is to __.
Regulate intracellular levels of ionic calcium.
Why is Ca2+ called the final trigger for contraction?
Ca binding to troponin frees actin active sites to bind w/myosin heads.
Both actin & myosin found in the __ band.
A - where they are found.
What does the presence of CA inside axon terminal cause?
Release of ACh into synaptic cleft by exocytosis.
In general, each muscle is served by __.
1 nerve, 1 artery, 1 or more veins that enter/exit near center & branch out.
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