BIOL Flashcards

Terms Definitions
carn
flesh
non
not
flexor
bisep muscle
ant.pituitary hormones
(adenohypophysis)
FLATPIG
FSH
Leutinizing hormone
ACTH
TSH
Prolactin
I
Growth hormone
internal pain
dolor interno
non polar molecules
hydrocarbons, lipids
periosteum
bones surface tough membrane
prezygotic barriers
temporal isolation
habitat isolation
behavioral isolation
mechanical isolation
gametic isolation
carnivores
consumers that eat only animals
A diploblastic animal lacks
a mesoderm
cilia
short and in long numbers
A thin cartilage tissue
epiphyseal plate
phylum
group of closely related classes
community
assemblage of different populations that live together in a defined area
heteromorphic/heteromorphy
dif looking sporophyte and gametophyte generation
substrate
molecule with which enzyme acts on
Opposable thumbs are characteristic of the
primates
break down glucose into two molecules
glycolysis
sanitation
a cleaning technique that physically removes microbe organism
32.4._______________ is used to induce labor.A) ProgesteroneB) EstrogenC) Cortisol D) ProstaglandinE) Androgens
Prostaglandin
Extend the abbreviation: TBI
traumatic brain injury
Planarian
Free-living flatworm that lives in freshwater and serves as a great representation for the Class Turbellaria
What macronutrient makes stiff cell walls?
FOUND IN SOIL
Calcium
Ecology
Study of organisms interacting with each other in their environment
Anopheles sp.
female anopheles invertebrate host bites vertebrate host, injecting causative agent of malaria
Amphipathic
compounds with both hydrophilic and hydrophobic components
Marchantia
Example of liverworts or the phylum hepaticophyta
(system) Breaks down food into absorbable units.
Digestive system
Gene Flow
Sharing of genes between two populations through interbreeding
Estivation
A state of reduced matabolism that occurs in animals living in conditions of intense heat.
__body short and round, without fins, internal shell absent and 8 similar arms
octopoda
Grasslands
annual rainfall is greater than 25cm but generally insufficient to support trees, grasses well adapted to changing environments-grazing, flooding, drought, fire- drier=shorter, grow in different seasons, some animals migrate, hibernate when little available.
plasmogamy
fusion of cytoplasm 2 different fungi individuals (nuclei remain separate)
The Photosystem
sunlight is absorbed, then 2 chlorophyll molecules (reaction center) transform solar energy into chemical energy
Name the term: pertaining to the cerebellum
cerebellar
Huamans have a coplete digestive tract, twp openings called the...
alimentary canal
Lipase
An enzyme that hydrolyses fats to glycerol and fatty acids.
The ___of a protein helps to determine its function.
shape
What neuronal cells in the CNS maintains the blood brain barrier?
Astrocytes
Where does pyruvate oxidation happen?
inner mitochondrial membrane
chromatin
the readily stainable substance of a cell nucleus, consisting of DNA, RNA, and various proteins, that forms chromosomes during cell division.
Golgi Apparatus
active in synthesis, sorting, and secretion of cell products
embryo sac
female gametophye within the ovule of a flowering plant
alternative rna splicing
different mrna molecules are produced from the same primary transcript, depending on which rna segments are treated as exons and which as introns
macromolecules
A giant molecule formed by the joining of smaller molecules, usually by a condensation reaction. Polysaccharides, proteins, and nucleic acids are examples of these
What is the percentage of plasma in the blood?
55%
ADP
A molecule that can have a phosphate group added to it to create ATP.
tissue
a group of similar cells and cell products that arise from the same region of the embryo and work together to perform a specific structural or physiological role in an organ
Collect Data
Gather all information to try and answer the question. (observing, measuring, sampling, organizing)
polynucleotide
a polymer made up of many nucleotides covalently bonded together
used micrscope to study single celled organisms
Van Leeunhoek
All cells have in common
plasma membrane and DNA
demographic transition
change in a population from high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates
chemoautotroph
an organism that derives energy from a simple inorganic reaction
Population
ONE (1) ONE (1) ONE
same species living together
muscle tissue
body of muscle consisting of muscle fibers, muscle cells, connective tissue, extracellular material
lyses
Part of the lytic cycle in which the host cell fills with new viruses eventually gets too full and bursts open, releasing new viruses to the surroundings
List the four function of skin.
a.protectionb.regulation of body temperaturec.providing skin, hair and eye colord.sensory organ
Competitive Inhibition
Inhibitor is similar in structure to a substrate; competes with substrate for binding to the active site.
The ______ ______ ______ ________ states that energy can neither be created nor destroyed. (conservation of energy. However, energy can be interconverted. An example is the internal combustion engine where chemical energy (bonds of the hydrocarbon molecul
First law of thermodynamics
Acrosome
The large vesicle at the head of a sperm cell containing enzymes that degrade the ovum cell membrane to allow fertilization.
primary sensory neurons
relay from the periphery to central nervous system.
What went on during Prophase I?
Nucleus and Nucleolus dissolve.Synapsis occurs.
Electro negativity
The attraction of a particular kind of atom for the electrons of a covalent bond
natural selection
the process by which forms of life having traits that better enable them to adapt to specific environmental pressures, as predators, changes in climate, or competition for food or mates, will tend to survive and reproduce in greater numbers than others of
Saturated fat
A fat in which all three fatty acid chains contain the maximum possible number of hydrogen atoms
Generation time
the length of time for a population ot double in number
sodium-potassium pump
uses energy to move 3 sodium ions out of cell and 2 pottassium into cell, causes slight negative charge (nerve cells)
quaternary structure of a protein
results from interactions between two or more seperate polypeptide chains. it is the 3-dimensional structure(the protein conformation)
Polygenic inheritance
each gene adds a small amount to the value of the phenotype
Anything w/ a Ph value above 7 is considered
a basic solution
test in which person inspires max. and exhales max. as rapidly as possible
forced expiratory vital capacity
Compare and contrast saturated, unsaturated and trans fats.
saturated fats contain no double bonds in their fatty acid tails;solids at room temperature
-they are saturated with hydrogen

unsaturated fats have one or more double bonds in their fatty acid tails; - have less than the maximum hydrogen possible;liquid at room temperature (mostly plant products): olive oil, canola oil (tail bends...extra space)

trans fat: converts unsaturated fats by the addition of hydrogen (hydrogenation); extends shelf life, consistency
what do the suffixes -stasis/-static mean
indicate that a chemical or physical agant inhibits microbial metabolism and growth but doesn't necessarily kill them
How did mycorrihizae help in absorbing nutrients?
They are a relationship between the roots and fungi, which allowed the fungi to abosrb nutrients for the plant.
What three main characteristics make up the cell theory?
1. All organisms are composed of one or more cells.2. the cell is the basic unit of structure and organization of all organisms.3. All cells come from pre-existing cells.
In what two ways does the promary structure of RN differ from DNA?
1.RNA contains uracil instead of thymine. 2.RNA contains ribose instead of deoxyribose.
What is the purpose of PCR?
To replicate DNA 'in vitro' (in a test tube)
ammonia
NH3
seed
embryo+food+coat
consumers
see heterotroph
monosaccharde
single sugar molecule
Passive Transport
prteins used
Relationship between Ventilation, Respiration and Gas Exchange
Levels of Biological order
Domain
Kingdom
Phylum
Class
Order
Family
Genus
Species
 
data
results of an experiment.
Which group first developed jaws?
placoderms
Hypothesis
An educated guess
IF...THEN statement
Mutations
Change in genetic sequence


Changes in genetic sequence might affect the order of amino acids in a protein
Protein function-dependent on the precise order of amino acids
Possible Outcomes:

No change in protein/Neutral Mutation
Non-functional protein
Different protein
Types of Mutation:
Base-Substitution
Simple substitution of one base for another
Frameshift
addition/deletion of a base
family
subset below the order level
every protein has a corresponding...
gene
Heterocyst (Anaebaena) fixe _______ for plants.
Nitrogen
aphasia
impairment of language, usually caused by left hemisphere damage either to Broca's area (impairing speaking) or to wernicke's area (impairing understanding)
what is a mitogen?
cell growth factor
peptidoglycan
sugar and protein
only in bacterial cell wall
diploidy
maintains genetic variation in the form of hidden recessive alleles
ecosystem
energy flux and cycling of nutrients
X-linked
a trait,gene found on the X-chromosome
pest resistance
 
___ proteins have been tranferred into crop plants to make them pest resistant
__ ___ from bacillus thuringiensis
insecticidal
Bt toxin
life cycle
period involving all different generations succeeding eachother through reproduction
Anything that possesses all the characteristics of life.
organism
monosaccharide
a single strand of sugar molecules
lymph
a clear yellowish, slightly alkaline, coagulable fluid, containing white blood cells in a liquid resembling blood plasma, that is derived from the tissues of the body and conveyed to the bloodstream by the lymphatic vessels.
Catalyst
The substance that increases the rate of reaction in the experiment.
cork cambium
meristem that develops from parenchyma cells in the cortex and produces a tough outer layer of cork in the stem and root of a woody plant
hydrostatic pressure
physical pressure on fluid, measured in mmHg
The mollusc class with branchiae found in grooves on each side of the body is the
polyplacophora
Glycolysis
sugar is split, 2 ATP's are gained
In human bodies pyruvate made in glycolysis will be reduced to from what compound?
Lactate
ribosomes
the sites where the cell assembles enzymes and other proteins
A population evolves because humans dictate who will mate and they choose fitting offspring 
artificial selection
Gastrulation
following the blastula stage is this process, during which layers of embryonic tissues that will develop into adult body parts are produced. [formation of a gastrula]...a rearrangement of embryo in which one end fo the embryo folds inward, expands, and enventually fills the blastocoel, producing hte ectoderm and endoderm embryonic tissue layers.
Functions of the Nervous System
Sensory, Integrative, Motor.
genetic recombination
production of offspring with new combinations of traits inherited from two parents
have no apparent function, but resemble structures their ancestors possessed.
vestigial structures
Centromeres
Central point that connect the sister chromosomes
The____ has some variations,which over time lead to variations in the traits seen in a population,and are called adaptations.
gene pool
biome
biome : major type of terrestrial ecosystem that covers a large region of Earth
hypertonic
noting a solution of higher osmotic pressure than another solution with which it is compared (
Stabilizing selection
When the frequency of a particular trait favors the average form.
phagocytsis
a process in which amoebas and other protists engulfe smaller organisms
sunlight
must be present to split water in photosynthesis
disaccharide
a carbohydrate made up of two sugars units is a
Phospholipid Bilayer
Dbl layers of lipis and phosphorus that makes up plasma & organelle membranes
Mechanisms of Genetic Change
 
 

•Mutations

 
 
 

•Recombination
 
 
MutationsChange in single bases, additions or deletionsMay cause single amino acid changeRecombinationWhole chromosomes or regions of chromosome transferred between cells
monotreme
a mammal that lays eggs stead of giving birth to live young
Name the term: largest artery in the body
aorta
Nondisjunction
An error in meiosis or mitosis, in which both members of a pair of homologous chromosomes or both sister chromatids fail to move apart properly.
base
a compound that removes h+ ions from an aquesous solution.
ADP(adinosine diphosphate)
nucleotide w/ 2 phosphate groups that can accept another phosphate group & become ATP.
what is genotype?
genetic make up pf an organism
codominance
situation in which both allells of the gene contribute to the phenotype of the organism
water potential
solute potential - 0 for pure water, becomes more negative with higher concentrations of solute
pressure potential
cytoplasm
is the portion of the cell outside the nucleus
aqueous humor
clear fliud in the anterior chamber of eye between the cornea of iris
Define the combining form: radicul/o
nerve root (of spinal nerves)
nitrogen cycle
a diagram that shows how nitrogen is recycled through the ecosystem
) The autonomic nervous system controls
contraction of involuntary muscles
gamete
Haploid sex cell; an oocyte or a sperm that joins during fertilization to form a zygote
molecules involved in DNA replication
parental DNA, DNA polymerase, DNA ligase
What do sensory neurons do?
Detect important internal and external stimuli.
ecological succession
series of changes in the species in a community, often following a disturbance (Concept 35.5)
Classifying animals as endangered or threatened:
is b) and c) only.
Females have ____X and _____Y chromosomes
2 X and 0 Y
9. Examples of ectoparasites
Mites, lice, and fleas. They live on and not in the body.
What are the 2 types of fermentation? and their products?
Alcoholic Fermentation - Ethynol
Lactic Acid Fermentation - Lactic Acid
Explain the circulation in a cephalopod mollusks and it's hemocyanin
Circulation in this invertebrate goes from the blood to the system heart to they systemic tissues to the branchial hearts back to the gills
Chromosomal Structure Mutation ( Inversion)
* piece of DNA breaks, flips and reattaches to same chromosomeABCD --> ADCB (upside-down letters)
Which is NOT true of bacteria?
They have a membrane bound nucleus (They do not have a membrane bound nucleus)
What does germination mean?
The process by which a seed becomes a plant.
Give the meaning of the term cerebral contusion
temporary brain dysfunction; loss of consciousness that usually clears within 24 hours
What is true about virus replication?
Must use a living host cell, Uses host cell machinery to replicate the viral genetic material, The genetic material of the virus can integrate into the host's genetic material, The lytic pathway of viral replication usually results in death of the host cell
In a cross section through an artery and vein running parallel in your leg, which would be the artery?
the vessel with more muscle tissue in the wall
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Term:
Definition:
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