BIOL Exam Vocab Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Kills bacteria
Human Immunodeficiency Virus
elementary/reticulate bodies, intracellular energy parasite----functional ATPase?
West Nile Encephalitis
Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate and 3-phosphoglycerate are three-carbon molecules produced during the Calvin Cycle.
Rods (bacilli)Gram positive
T/F: Glycolysis requires oxygen
Prepare microbe for ingestion
diseases caused by toxins
round worm is called?
Occurs in grape-like clusters
unicellular eukaryotes protozoa algae
kills highly resistant endospores
starch, glycogen, cellulose, agar, chitin, peptidoglycan, lipopolysaccharide (some bacterial cell walls)
breakdown host's tissues; direct virulence factor
Are plants photoautotrophs or photoheterotrophs?
Genital warts is caused by?
gain energy through sunlight, photosynthesis
-large chemotroph-uses H2S accumulated in ocean water near volanic/gethermal regions
kingdom Fungi

most are multicellular
no photosynthesis
aquire nutrition by absorbtion
Environmental agents that cause mutations
Occurs in cubes of 4
Metabolic Analog Inhibitor (Inhibit fatty acid synthesis which inhibits cell wall synthesis)
diplococcus, no flagella, capsules, STRICT PARASITES, AEROBIC, FASTIDIOUS, endotoxins, pili (attatchment), PID
What causes rabies?
rabies virus (rhabdovirus)

Candida albicans
most common oral yeast
incidence in healthy individuals. 10-80%
overgrowth if bacterial Flora disturbed
Viral classification based on
Nucleic acid compositionShapePresence/absence of envelopeSpecific tissues they invade
Streptococcus and Lactococcus are: A) obligate anaerobes B) aerotolerant anaerobes
Klebsiella Pneumonia
Klebsiella Pneumonia
Gram (-) rod, resistance spread by transposons
chills, high fever, chest pain, capsule
release endotoxin- tissue damage and lung abscesses, endotoxic shock
What protozans infections are AIDS patients suspectible to
What mediates peptide transport from proteasome to ER?
normally feed on non-living organic material
steam under pressure: disinfect or sterilize?
reduced coenzymes will transfer their electrons to molecules that have a more ________ reduction potential
need extremely high external salt concentration

Killing, inhibition, or removal of microorganisms that may cause disease.

èMajor goal is to kill potential pathogens

èMight not kill Endospores!
inability to produce an immune response to specific antigens due to neutralization of effector cells
Members of genus paramecium are enclosed by p..., which is a composie covering consisteing of an outer membrane  and an inner layer of closely packed structures, including defensive organells called t........
Bacteria responsible for "black plague"
Yersinia pestis
orderly arrangement of organisms into groups
Viral family:Small viruses that carry their genomes as RNA
LRT FUNGUS- Caused by Histoplasma capsulatum- Found in dry, dusty soil, chicken coops, bat caves- Produces mild influenza-like symptoms
What is Aspergillosis caused by?
aspergillus flavus
Edward Jenner
First vaccination
demonstrated cow pox induced resistance to small pox in uninfected humans
toxin produced by Amanita phalloides (basidiomycote) targeting the liver
Endocytosis is used by:
non-enveloped viruses and orthomyxoviruses
What is the treatment for rockey mountain spotted fever?
What is the reservoir for Cryptosporidium?
Domestic animals
complex medium
a synthetic medium that contains reasonably familiar materials but varies slightly in chemical composition from batch to batch
What cells are resident macrophages derived from?
Circulating monocytes
The ____ ____ test diagnosis EBV
Mono spot
between the membranes in a Gm- bacteria
cause misreading of mRNA Target 30s subunit (smaller one)
Secondary transport
couple potential energy of ion gradients to transport of substances
Erythogenic toxin
produced by Streptococcus pyogenes and damages the capillaries
All oxygenic photosynthesizers use what to fix CO2?
The Calvin cycle
What is Brucellosis' gram stain?
gram negative bacilli
enterocolitis caused by any of over 2000 variants of salmonella spp.
What was the organism's species name?
Bordetella pertussis
How many different antibodies can the variable regions of antibodies prduce?
When epidemic expands beyond a single continent
flatworms and round worms that are commonly parasites to humans
contain toxins or enzymes that are realeased to kill target cells - neutrophils, basophils, eosinophils
Viral Pneumonia
uncommon, If bacterium cannon be isolated from pneumonia patients it is considered viral.most common cause of pneumonia in infants
organic growth factors
-essential organic compounds an organism is unable to synthesize-micronutrients; they must be obtained straight from the environment- vitamins act as coenzymes
What can urethritis lead to?
cystitis and nephritis
Tyrptic Soy Agar plus antibiotic (TSA+)
Plate or tube 


Selective for GM+, antibiotic surpress GM- growth.
what is a synthetic antibiotic?
it is chemically synthesized
an agent that can be transmitted from one person to another
Pathogenesis of coccidioides
1.  Branched hyphae are inhaled
2.  Change into endospores due to temperature change
3.  Release proteases 
How would you treat E. granulosus?
Parziquantel or Albendazole
When are rubella infections highest?  What season
Winter and spring
Function of mannose receptor
Pinocytosis, phago, enhancement of MHC-Ag presentation by DC's
Increasing Use of GMOs
Improved nutritional and health benefits Added vitamins and less fatExample: rice with added Vitamin A and ironReduced use of fertilizers, pesticides, and energy
presumptive test
dilutions from water sample are placed in lactose/lauryl trytose broth fermentation tubes (selects of gram -). check for lactose? or gas?
What was developed to fight malaria?
Primaquine and Chloroquine
microbiostatic agents
chemical agents that cause a temporary inhibition of microbial growth...when agent is removed, growth resumes
Growth Curve
Lag Phase
little to no cell division
When cells taken from:
(and placed in same conditions)
Exponential growth 
no lag phase when no adaptability is needed 
Stationary phase
lag still exists, lag longer the longer the cells were in stationary phase 
What is the vector for rocky mountain spotted fever?
a fluid similar to blood which lacks red blood cells and travels through a separate circulatory system containing lymph nodes
these type of infections may occur later in an illness stage
Secondary infections
a catalyst or a chemical produced by cells to speed up specific chemical reaction;they are produced by some bacteria and tend to breakdown tissue, providing substrate for the bacteria to use in replication and weakening the tissue for further invasion and colonization. Some enhance the attachment of the bacteria to host. eg coagulase, hyaluronidase, and lecithinase
Symptoms of influenza
Fever, chills, muscle ache, cough, runny nose. Not intestinal.
Type of white blood cell that engulfs foreign particles 
What does EPEC cause?
1.  Infantile diarrhea
2.  Watery diarrhea 
What is the virulence factor for streptococcus pneumoniae?
HUGE capsule
What is the cause of campylobacter gastroenteritis?
campylobacter jejuni
What are six characteristics of yeasts?
Oval or Spherical shape
Facultative anaerobes
Reproduce by budding
Used in industrial fermentation
Seen as powdery white substance on fruits and leaves
What is pyrogenic?
the bacteria are engulfed in a macrophage
in plants which are RNA that cause RNA to go bad
Atomic Number=
number of protons in the nucleus ; atoms with the same atomic number are the same element
Where does the Krebs cycle take place in prokaryotes vs. eukaryotes?
prokaryotes-in cytoplasmeukaryotes-mitochondrial matrix
What receptors are present on PMN membrane?
Chemotaxin and opsonin
Adjuvants used in animals?
Freund's complete (M. tb), BCG (Mycobact, C. parvum, B. pertussis) = slow continuous release of Ag, Bacterial endotoxins (LPS, MDP)
Drug inactivation , Decreased permeability or uptale, Change in number or affinity of drug "receptor" sites, Alternate metabolic pathway
Specific mechanisms of drug resistance
saturated fatty acid
no double bonds → as many hydrogens as possible saturate the carbon chain
Viable Cell Counts
viable cell = colony forming unit (cfu)
N = C/DV
N = cfu/mL
C = cfu/plate
D = cululative tube dilution factor
V = volume plated
only used for 30 to 300 colonies/plate
--> low C = large systematic error  
--> high C = colony sizes become smaller, could have confluent colonies 
What is lymphangitis?
inflamed lymph vessels (you see red streaks)
normal microflora found in the throat is
Streptococcus & Neisseria
What are alleles? How many does each MHC gene have?
varients; 90-500
Osmotolerant prokaryotes
An organism that has an advantage in water as the water evaporates...
Where in the GI tract does EPEC adhere to?  
What are the symptoms of infectious mono?
fever, sore throat
What is the structure of the tooth?
enamel, dentin, pulp
Tyrptic Soy Agar (TSA)
Plate or tube 

Nutrient for growth of GM+ and GM-
Used to produced isolated colonies
Overgrowth can occur.
What is the provirus phase?
incorporation of viral DNA has occured
What layer of the skin does Tinea have to get under?
Stratum corneum
What's the consequences of Genetic variation for HIV
1.  Phenotypic switch
3.  Immune escape from CTLs
4.  Vaccine development difficult 
Where is IgA made?
By plasma cells in mucosal lymphoid tissues
beads on a string" DNA helix is wound around organization proteins called histones in structures further wrapped into higher order arrangements etc. (e.g. supercoiling)
Undefined components in complex media
peptones, meat extracts, and yeast extracts
What are two kinds of termination of transcription methods in bacteria?
Intrinsic and Rho-dependent
non-perishable food
food of low water activity that has an extended shelf life an is resistant
grow best at temperatures between 0 and 20 degrees C
The fridge is between -- and -- degrees C
2 and 10 degrees
The two major bacteria in the starter culture of yogurt
Streptococcus thermophilus (responsible for acid) and lactobacillus bulgaricus (responsible for flavor)
how hot is the autclave for material to be sterile in 15 mins
121 degrees
Which diseases of the LRT are fungus?
histoplasmosis, coccidiomycosis, aspergillosis, pneumocystis pneumonia
Is TSI a selective, differential or enrichment medium?
Differential for sugar fermentation.
Enrichment because of nutrients added to agar.
What usesa DNA probe to detect a gene from a disease producing organism?
southern blot analysis
S. schenckii is branched hyphae at ____ and budding yeast at _____
25 and 37 degrees C
Give the make up for Measles virus
1.  (-) ssRNA nonsegmented
2.  Helical nucleocapsid
3.  enveloped 
What are ITAMs composed of?
Tyr-XX-Leu (Tyr is substrate for Tyr kinases)
Name 2 things that ortho-phenylphenol is used for and compare it to cresol
lysol and insecticides
it is less toxic and more water soluble than cresol
What two initiation factors are present in Archaea?
TATA box protein and Transcription Factor B protein
normal microflora found in the Large Intestine is
Lactobacillus, E.Coli, Enterococcus, & Clostridium
What are the 4 functions of antibodies in response to infection?
complement fixation, opsonization, neutralization, agglutination
How does a wart result?
hyperplasia of skin cells (dont stop dividing)
What are the stages of Whooping cough?
catarrgal stage, paroxymal stage, convalescent stage
What is a mycelium?
The thallus in fungus - the entire mass of strands that make up the thallus.
Name the mechanisms of action of antibiotic drugs (there are 6)
-Inhibition of cell wall synthesis
-Inhibition of protein synthesis 
-Inhibition of nucleic acid synthesis 
-Inhibition of metabolic pathways 
-Interference with cell membrane integrity 
-Interference with essential processes of M. tuberculosis
What part of the GI tract does Rotavirus infect
Villus cells of proximal SI
If a homopolymer of aa is injected into a mouse, will there be a response?
Not likely, not complex enough
Why do scientists believe that some microbes do not exhibit drastic decline in growth rate but instead gradual?
attribute this to the appearance of subpopulations of microbes that are better able to use the released nutrients and accumulated toxins to survive – continually evolving to adapt
What is folliculitis? what is a sty?
hair follicle infection; infection of eyelash
European Plague of the 14th century is believed to have come from....
Trade ships from the "orient"
How is inclusion conjuntivitis transmitted?
STD in adults, can be aquired in swimming pools
What are the defense mechanisms of the urogenital system?
urine flushing and desquamation, antibacterial proteins, normal flora
What are sympotms of Norwalk Virus and where does it commonly occur?
After 24-48hr incubation, 24h vomiting and diarrhea, virus then sed in feces for up to a week, this contributes in the cruise ship outbreaks.
What's the greatest danger from rubella? 
unborn babies, there is a chance of birth defect and miscarriage
Why is it necessary to couple some reactions in terms of free energy?
Some reactions occur spontaneously and have negative ΔGs, others do not occur spontaneously and have positive ΔGs; by coupling a reaction with a positive delta G to one with a negative delta G of greater magnitude, it can make the overall delta G negative, causing both reactions to occur spontaneously
What is coagulase's role as a virulence factor?
coats bacteria with clot material so the body recognizes it as self and they clump
What are the 5 signs of inflammation?
redness, pain, swelling, heat, loss of movement
What is the prevention for HDN?
RhoGAM is given at first pregnancy at 28 weeks and delivery of Rh+ baby.

RhoGAM is articficial anti-Rh+(IgM)
RhoGAM binds to Rh+ Ag that leak in the mother's blood and will prevent the stimulation of the IS to produce naturally occuring anti-Rh+ Abs
A type of passive artificial immunization.
What is the structure of MHC I molecules?
3 alpha chains with a B2-microglobulin associated
What is CD4 T cells role in vaccination? CD8 T cells?
activate the immune system to fight the initial infection; respond rapidly to infection by killing infected cells
What is an example of a test is given for Type IV Cell-mediated hypersensitivity?
Tuberculin Skin Test
Small amount of Ag protein for M. tuberculosis is injected into the skin.
If person has been exposed/infected or immunized to TB sensitized Tcells release cytokines that damage tissues in area.
Red thickened are in 48-72 hours indicates prior TB infection and aquired immunity.
What is the purpose of a catalase test?
see if bubbles occur to determine if the orgnaims is aerobic
What is the structure of a typical antibody?
4 proteins (2 heavy chains and 2 light chains), 2 dimers (between heavy and light chains), constant region (heavy chain), variable region
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