biological anthropology exam 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
our species
autosomes chromosomes
non-sex chromosomes
Human/Ape Dental Formula
one of each
NWM traits
-exclusively arboreal
-small to medium body size
-social ( larger groups)
-frugivores, omnivores and folivores
-flat nose with nostrils that flare
-sideways and wide septum between nostrils
-some have grasping tails (prehensile)
-bony ring (ear)
Open Orbit
Raccoon, dog, etc.
Homo habilis (Tools)
Olduwan tools

Human Classification

Order: Primates
Suborder: Haplorrhini
Infraorder: Catarrhini
Superfamily: Hominoidea
Family: Hominidae
Sub-Family: Homininae
Genus: Homo
(also sometimes called “crossing-over” is the exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes during meiosis. DNA

Combo of traits
neandertal distribution
western part of Eurasia
expanded neocortex for higher cognitive processes
infraorder of the order primates
-south america, central america, mexico
1 mya
when other homos disappeared
fully bipedal, no suspensory adaptation, diverse habitats, small molars, reduced canines, enlarged brain, low sexual dimorphism
Hardy Weinberg
theory of genetic equilibrium
establishes a set of conditions in a population where no evolution occurs.
infinitely large = no genetic drift
no mutation
no gene flow 
no natural selection
mating is random
evolution will always occur because you can never meet the mathematical standards for a stand-still
groups of 3 mRNA bases
Subfamily of Cercopithecidae (old world)which are from Africa. Have cheek pouches for food storage. Also the females have a period of estrus for sexual dimorphism. Ex: baboons, mangabeys, guenons, drills
How regular cells divide

Cell division of normal eukaryote cells
any act that conveys information between individuals
African primates
baboons (frugivorous) and geladas (gramnivorous), colobines (folivorous)
suborder of the Primates; excludes Tarsier
Developing a general explanation from scientific observations.
(genetics) the organic process whereby the DNA sequence in a gene is copied into mRNA
Genetic drift
random fluctuations of gene frequencies
positive to self, negative to neighbor
Mendel Laws of Inheritance
Independent Assortment,Segregation "each log and each chromosomes splits of from its mate"
Infraorder of primates which includes Cercopithecoidea and Hominoidea
mostly monogamous, single adult male and single adult female, defend territory together, spread over a larger area in southeast asia, small brachiators, frugivorous, sexually monomorphic, bipedal, sing daily
The measurement of human body parts.
chromosomes align at center of cell
the proportion of total phenotypic variability observed for a given trait that can be ascribed to genetic factors
members of the primate suborder Anthropoidea that includes the monkeys, apes, and hominidsd
molecular building block of nucleic acids DNA and RNA; consists of a phosphate, sugar and base
Meiosis I
-reduce chromosomes to 23 pairs
human biology
subfield of biological anthropology dealing with human growth and development, adaptation to environmental extremes and human genetics
A stressful period in which few organisms of a population survive, resulting in loss of genetic variation in the population.
has a longitudinal arch to absorb shock and add spring to each step
Evolutionary Systematics
Ancestors & descendants are traced in
time by analysis of homologous
cultural anthropology
A subfield of anthropology that focuses on human cultural systems and the variation in cultural expression among human groups.
Tooth Comb
exterior teeth used for scraping, etc.
lemurs and lorises
-africa, asia, and madagascar
-toilet claw
-eye shine
Biological Anthropology
study of humans as biological organisms, including their evolution and contemporary variation
quite rare, many males, golden lion tamarin, sometimes can be like polygyny instead of an extension of pair bonding
Describing a trait governed by an allele that's expressed in the presence of another allele.
An observable or measurable feature of an organism. Phenotypes can be anatomical, biochemical, or behavioral.
Human Evolutionary Ecology
ecological factors that influence reproductive success in hunter-gatherer populations
__________ is the infraorder of the order Primates that is synonymous with the New World monkeys, or ceboids.
natural selection
the most critical mechanism of evolutionary change; first articulated by Darwin; refers to genetic change or changes in the frequencies of certain traits in populations due to differential reproductive success between individuals
a common behavior in many primate species whereby individuals other than the parents hold, carry and in general interact with infants
a cell that possesses a well-organized nucleus
mating system in which one female mates with multiple males
Carolus Linnaeus
''father of classification'', based on morphological similarities
1 Chromosomes =s
1 DNA molecule
chromosoes are DNA

tells us how to function
the smaller molecules that DNA is composed of (deoxyribose, phosphate, nitrogenous base).
qualitative variation
phenotypic variation that can be characterized as belonging to discrete, observable categories
contains genetic cod, is stored in the chromosomes
there was a gap between fish and terapods - small ground living dinosaur thought to be related to birds
cells are haploid occur in gametes. 23 chromosomes
in a diploid organism, refers to an allele that must be present in two copies in order to be expressed.
Where Homo heidelbergensis lived (new story)
lived in Europe
basal metabolic rate
-rate of energy expenditure to maintain life when at rest
Directional Selection
usefulness of a trait depends on optimum level for environment
Australopithecus aethiopicus
2.5 mya, lake turkana, small brain, massive sagittal keel, wide zygomatic arch, posterior foramen magnum
Intentional selection
onaga-dori cock, bred for its very long tail, doesn't help it survive
John Ray
Recognized plans and animals can be differentiated from other groups by their ability to mate with one another and produce fertile offspring. He placed these groups into categories called "species". He then recognized similarities among species and grouped them under "genus".
Describe the Eocene?
54mya, warm tropical climate becomes widespread. modern orders of mammals appear, prosimian like primates evolve, anthropoids appear by the late eocene.
core area
Which of the following terms best describes the part of the home range that is most intensively used by a primate group?
sexual selection
a type of natural selection that operates on only one sex within species; result of competition for mates and can lead to sexual dimorphism
an alteration in the DNA which may/may not alter the function of a cell. If occurs in gamete, can be passed down to offsrping
the leafing and fruiting cycles of a forest
home base
archaelogical term for an area to which early hominids may have brought tools and carcasses and around which their activities were centered
the sex cells: sperm for males and eggs (ova) in females
Same idea as Darwin but with beetles. “Origin of Species” to be published upon his death. Together they presented new idea
a group of local population that share part of the geographic range of a species, and can be differentiated from other subspecies based on one or more phenotypic traits
long term skin color
adaptation of the population to protect skin from UV radiation
Adaptive Radiation
a life form rapidly takes advantage of the many newly available ecological niche
lowered shivering threshold; higher levels of blood flow to extremities- warmer hands and feet; upregulated BMR & seasonally upregulated; probably active brown fat deposits
Native population cold adaptations. i.e. inuit
Occur at a constant rate and can have various effects on a gene.
Protein Synthesis
The assembly of chains of amino acids into functional protein molecules.
why is inbreeding bad?
increased chance of being homozygous for deleterious recessive traits.
Ch 8: Fossils
Radiocarbon Dating
Radiometric technique that uses the decay of carbon14 in organic remains such as wood and bone to estimate the time since death of the organism
Levallois techinque
used to control flake size and shape; required several complex and coordinated steps, suggesting increased cognitive abilities in later premodern populations
sex chromosomes
In mammals, chromosomes X and Y, with XX producing females and XY producting males
Uranium series (U-series) techniques
radiometric techniques using the decay of uranium to estimate an age for calcium carbonates including flowstones, shells, and teeth
Uniform geology process
—process that works today are the same ones that worked in the past.
NWM and OWM traits
-two sides of lower jaws (mandibles) are fused
-larger brains and flatter faces
What are primitive mammalian traits?
placenta, collarbone, legs under the body, 4 to five digits, no curved neck yet, long muzzle, open eye sockets, no reduction in tail, warm-blooded, dental formula is 3143
Breast cancer evolution (Causes)
1. Genetic - rare but known
2. Environmental
3. Dietary Fat - clear link to breast cancer
4. Biocultural issues of modern lifestyle
what is H.Erectus?
1.8-30kya in east asia example is java man and peking man. has sagittal keel and used mode 1 and 2 tools.
one male, multifemale groups
The relationship of male canine length to female canine length is greater in
theory of mind
ability to place oneself into the mind of others; necessary for possessing an awareness of the knowledge or cognitive ability of others and for imitating or teaching others
neandertal fossils were found at _______ ______
neandertal fossils were found at Shanidar Cave
Evolution of HIV from SIV (Theories)
1. Bushmeat theory
2. Oral Polio Vaccine theory (debunked)
3. Colonialism theory
what is the visual predation hypothesis of primate origins?
primates emerged as adaptation for hunting insects in bushy undergrowth. binocular vision for predator adaptation. hands and feet for grasping insects.
ABO blood type system
refers to the genetic system for one of the proteins found in the surfce or red blood cells. consists of one gene with three alleles: A,B, and O
size & development of muscle attachments, size of the mastoid process, sharpness of the orbital margin, size of the brow ridges, and the shape of the forehead.
Human sex differences related to size in cranium...
whats the shortcut for remembering the epochs of the Cenozoic?
Harry Potter Prefers Mudbloods Over Evil Purebloods
If genetic drift & natural selection got into a fight, who would win?
Natural selection will be much more powerful in determining which allele will be more common. Genetic drift acts on neutral variation. Variants that are neutral today may be acted on by natural selection tomorrow
Describe Mode 2 tools, what were they, who used them, and where are they found?
later H.ergaster used mode 2 tools,used about 1.6-1.4myato 600kya called acheulian in Africa, include axes cleavers and picks, mode one continued to be used with them. used for butchering, digging, stripping, hunting,
Why Shift to Agriculture from Hunter Gatherer?
Because it led to the development of tribes and clans that provided protection and inreased reproductive success.
Downfalls: Diet deffiency, diseases easier to spread
living in trees
- birth-3yrs- dependent, underdeveloped- rapid brain growth- short infancy/short interbirth intervals allow childhood
active during the day
Before Present (1950), internationally accepted form of designating past dates
oxygen starvation, occurs frequently at high altitudes
superfamily of anthropoids consisting of apes and humans
identifying stratigraphy
- layers superimposed (uniformitarianism of Lyell)- different layers classified by soil makeup- provenience: identify object location- sieving: find small objects
Lower Paleolithic
stone tool technologies of habilis/erectus
Australopithecus anamensis
hominin, East Africa, 4.2-3.9mya, bipedal, primitive apelike skull/teeth
mothering hypothesis
- menopause advantageous because selection favors early reproduction, increased maternal investment, stopping reproductive life ensures offspring survival
substance invading the body that stimulates the production of antibodies
- 3-10 yrs- brain growth- cognitive/social skills- advantage: mothers reproduce again before brain growth ends- cost: still dependent with food/care/emotion- H. habilis 1st to have, H. erectus had (1.5 mya) -> brains > 850cc require human growth pattern
extreme form of protein calorie malnutrition resulting from a severe deficiency in proteins but not calories
having different types of teeth (mammals)
primate society in which the population splits into smaller subgroups at times (fission) and then alter reunites (fusion), process affected by the distribution of food resources, chimpanzees
nocturnal prosimian found today in Asia and Africa
absolute dating
- chronometric techniques, relatively precise dates- dendrochronology based on tree ring growth, create sequence, need wood preservation- radiometric dating
Sahelanthropus tchadensis
early possible hominin species from Africa, 7-6mya, hominin dental traits, possible bipedal
Australopithecus garhi
early hominin, 2.5mya, East Africa, differs from other Australopiths due to large front/back teeth, back teeth not specialized like robust australopiths
stone tool in Upper Paleolithic, twice as long as wide
carbon-14 dating
chronometric dating method based on the half-life of carbon-14 that can be applied to organic remains, such as charcoal, dating back 50,000 years
relative dating method, sites can be assigned an approximate age based on similarity of animal remains to those from other dated sites
modern changes
- effects of industrialization on disease, mortality, fertility, pop growth- reflection of economic status -> more developed countries (MDC) vs. less developed countries (LDC)- MDC: reduced death/birth rates, more noninfectious disease, slowing of pop growth, older pop- LDC: reduced morality/fertility, infectious disease, high birth rate, population growth
study of human skeletal remains from archaeological sites, used to provide information on health/lifestyle of prehistoric people
developmental acclimatization
changes in organ/body structure that occur during the physical growth of any organism
selection definition
- individuals with advantageous traits are more reproductively successful
narrowing of blood vessels to reduce blood flow/heat loss
large brain
- life history strategy- cost: increased obstetric risk- benefits: outweigh, allow complex behavior/flexibility (associated with childhood)- 2nd altriciality: long gestational period, still dependent on nutrients
genetic distance
average measure of relatedness between populations based on a number of traits
set of related haplotypes that share similar mutations
blood groups
- biochemical variation- ABO, MN, Rhesus, Diego, Duffy, Kell- antigen/antibody reaction, clumping
emergent infectious disease
newly identified infectious disease that has recently evolved- Ebola (Zaire), Legionnaire's disease, Hantavirus, HIV, Korean hemorrhagic fever- evolution of microorganisms: land conversion allows contact with humans, pollution increases mutation rate, quick travel increases area/time of spread, air conditioning as new environment for microorganisms
- fundamental quality of life, linked to health- generic: adjusted to environment (biol/cultural)- adapt to environment (physical/cultural)- younger people more adapted
types of adaptations
- genetic: evolutionary, preserve favorable traits- developmental: growth to maturity- short-term: reversible- long-term: lengthy- seasonal
Oligocene epoch
third epoch33.9 mya - 23 myaanthropoids underwent an adaptive radiation
parental investment
parental behaviors that increase the probability that offspring will survive
an organism capable of maintaining a constant body temperature under most circumstances
a subphylum of hte phylum Chordata, defined by the presence of an intenral, segmented spinal column and bilateral symmetry (humans)
Homo evolution
- increased brain size- decreased face/teeth size- increased tool use/culture
H. erectus
- discovered by Duvois (1st paleontologist)- Piltdown assumption kept out of Homo family tree- smaller brain/human femur shows bipedal first- 1.8 mya, overlap with habilis til 1.5 mya- Asian fossils when differentiate with ergaster, not direct ancestor of modern humans
H. rudolfensis
species of early Homo, Africa, 1.9mya, larger brain size than habilis, larger back teeth/broader face
genetic variation
- more within populations than between populations- 90% nuclear genetic variation within race, 10% between races- all populations overlap with single genes, alleles in different frequencies, no one gene can classify
advantages of agricultural revolution
- children/adults participate with food- wean children with cereal, smaller interbirth interval- organization of labor, concept of property, development of class societies- more work than hunter gatherers: care for crops/animals
nutritional diseases in agro
- pellagra (niacin deficiency)- protein deficiency- crop failure = starvation (Ireland potato famine)- dental: starch/dirt = cavities, tooth wear
genetic distance map
graphic representation that shows the genetic relationships between populations, based on genetic distance measures
secular change
change in the average pattern of growth of development in population over several generations
demographic transition theory
model of demographic change stating that as a population becomes economically developed, reduction in death rates (leading to population growth) will take place, followed by a reduction in birth rates
infectious disease
disease caused by introduction of an organic foreign substance into the body
sources of human variation
- genetic (biological basis)- biological (reproduction/growth)- developmental- environmental (broad)- populational (between/within, evolutionary processes)- cultural- random
teeth farthest back in the jaw, used for crushing and grinding food
Eocene epoch
second epoch55.8 mya - 33.9 myafirst true primates (primitive prosimians) appeared, adaptive radiation, first anthropoids
continental drift
movement of continental land masses on top of a partially molten layer of the earth's mantle that has altered the relative location of the continents over time
dominance hierarchy
ranking system within a society that indicates which individuals are dominant in social behaviors
Pliocene epoch
fifth epoch5.3 mya - 1.8 myaadaptive radiation of hominins, origin of genus homo
binocular stereoscopic vision
overlapping fields of vision, with both sides of the brain receiving images from both eyes, thereby providing depth perception
curated technology
- Binford- prepared in advance for predicted need, increased material transport
H. habilis skeleton
- teeth: smaller, modern premolars- arms: longer, arboreal, decrease in length shows less time in trees- more cranial capacity/less proganatic than Aust.- similar to A. afarensis but smaller with long arms
H. erectus characteristics
- 1000 cc brain- lower- less-protruding face- strong neck muscles, bony skull ridge- smaller jaws/teeth, large front teeth, ate meat- postcranial skeleton: Turkana boy estimated 6 foot adult, similar proportions as human, shortened arms, narrow pelvis
problems with Lovejoy's model
- sexual behavior/social structure can't be shown in fossil record- monogamy rare in hominids: H. habilis very dimorphic, male competition, one male/multifemale structure in apes, decreased male/female collaboration- can't prove overlapping birth/reproductive success rate- bipedalism does not create monogamy- mother/infant bond most important
H. ergaster
- African H. erectus- 1.8-1.4 mya- similar to modern humans- >1000 cc brain- less posterior dentition- vertically shorter face
brow ridges
large ridges of bone above eye orbits, very noticeable in erectus
isolation by distance
model that predicts that the genetic distance between populations will increase as the geographic distance between them increases
urbanization and disease
- large pop, high density- bad sewage/water- food stored in homes, brought rats- bubonic plague (black death): 14th century Europe, fleas spread from country to city rats to humans = pandemic- 20 million died, spread via ships
entry-point of America
- Bergin land bridge, corridor in glaciation, otherwise underwater- Beringia: land mass between NE Asia/Alaska during Pleistocene glaciation- West side: occupation 20-15kya
unique human life cycle
children dependent longer but weaned earlier
multimale/multifemale group
most common type of social group in nonhuman primates, consisting of several adult males, several adult females and their immature offspring
life history theory
study of how characteristics of an organism's life cycle affects reproduction, focusing on trade-offs between energy expended for numbers and fitness of offspring
H. erectus hunting
- small game, occasionally larger- 75% calories from gathering- strength less important, group activity, child care difficult- food sharing, division of labor
H. erectus culture
- more complex stone tools: Achulean- hunting?- caves: shelter- fire: cooking, warmth
world population growth
- MDC: 18% world pop, low birth/death rates, low rate of natural increase- LDC: 82% world pop, high fertility/rate of natural increase- China low growth rate, Africa high growth rate
implications of changing age structure
- LDC population pyramid: true pyramid, many infants/children (high fertility), few elderly, median age 16- MDC population pyramid: rectangular, fewer children/more elderly, median age 35, more female elderly, bulge in 40's (baby boom)- MDC shift to older population: fewer workers, better econ, more taxation- economic shift: higher education increased with baby boom, now declining
causes of secular change
- environmental change, too fast for genetic- not projected indefinitely into future- improved nutrition, less childhood infectious disease, health care, smaller families, better standard of living- nutrition/health care most important
H. habilis diet
- smaller pelvis = smaller gut, occurs in food improvement (meat, marrow)- scavenger, found dead animals
American mtDNA haplotype X
- X rarest, in Asia/Europe too -> later migration from Europe? (Soloutrean migration), no proof
resident adaptations to high altitudes
- barrel chest, big lungs- right heart hypertrophy, pulmonary hypertension- more capillaries in alveoli
splitting of Homo line
- 2.5 mya- one line: big back teeth, extinct 1 mya (paranthropus)- other line: larger brains, small teeth/face, stone tools, human ancestors
/ 178

Leave a Comment ({[ getComments().length ]})

Comments ({[ getComments().length ]})


{[ comment.comment ]}

View All {[ getComments().length ]} Comments
Ask a homework question - tutors are online