biological anthropology exam 3 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
six genotypes
-AB
-AO
-BO
-OO
-BB
-AA
Animalia
our kingdom
distribution of strephsirines
Asia-(lorises)
Lemurs-(Madagscar)
Galagos-(Africa)
acclimatization
Shot-term adaptations; reversible
Hypoxia
Lack of oxygen.
isotopes
elements in different varieties
Enclosed Orbit
Gibbon, humans, etc.
Homo habilis (Age)
2.3-1.4 mya
Melanocyte
pigment producing cells
produces melanin
B Cells
produce antibodies binds
neandertal behavior
-associated with mousterian tools
-cannibalism
-sheltering behavior
-enhanced communication abilities
variation
differences that exist among individuals or populations
osteology
the study of the skeleton.
gibbons and siamangs
-locomotor skills
-arboreal brachiators
Diastema
gap where canines fit into
Genotype
says info in the genome
pliopithecus
middle miocene ape
Europe 
oldest and most primitive gibbon sized primate
sagittal crest 
organelles
structures contained within cells; each performs a special function
The GTS
Precambrian (eon):Hadean, Archean, Proterozoic(era)Phanerozoic (eon):Paleozoic, Mesozoic, Cenozoic (eras)
phenotype
observable or detectable physical characteristics of an organism, detectable expressions of genotypes, frequently influenced by environmental factors.
menopause
gradual cessation of the menstrual cycle subsequent to the loss of ovarian function
leaf eater traits
-complex stomach
-sharper teeth cusps
Species of Lemuroidea
Lemurs, Aye-ayes, and Sifakas
Reduction division
Tetrads/homologes line up, crossing over occurs (prophase) through recombination, 1st meitotic division
species
interbreeding group of animals or plants that are reproductively isolated from all other such groups
Howler Monkey
- suspensory locomotion
- prehensile tail
spite
negative to self, negative to neighbor
Platyrrhini
Infraorder which includes new world monkeys, such as Marmosets and Tamarins, Howler Monkeys, Muriquis, and spider monkeys
Aphids
reproduce sexually, as fast as possible, cover the whole plant, food becomes scares, start to give birth to babies that don't have babies in them already, but are male or female, switch to sexual reproduction, sexual types with wings can leave the plant, they're on to search for the aphids of the opposite sex, alternate b/t asexual and sexual reproduction based on the environment
Vertebrates
Animals with segmented, bony spinal columns such as fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals.
Mitosis
process of creating two identical "daughter cells" among somatic (body) cells. Each daughter will have exactly the same set of chromosomes.
sociolinguistics
social interaction of language and modern society
Prokaryotes
single-celled orgs, such as bacteria, in which the genetic material is not separated from the rest of the cell by a nucleus
Parapithecidae
Groupo of early anthropoids. Predated the split between the new world and old world monkeys, based on its dental plan
recombination
the rearrangement of genes on homologous chromosomes that occurs during crossing over in meiosis. source of variation arising out of sexual reproduction; important for increasing rates of natural selection
Anaphase
centramids dissolve and begin to seperate and pull apart
adaptation
A trait that increases the reproductive success of an organism, produced by natural selection in the context of a particular enviroment
mutation
change in genetic makeup of an organism; change in allele. Generates novel genetic variants
eocene primate evolution
-adapoids= diurnal, lemur-like, found in north america/europe
-omomyids= nocturnal, tarsier-like, found in north america/europe
Monophyletic
ALL descendants came from one common ancestor
culture
Ideas and behaviors that are learned and not shared. Nonbiological means of adaptation.
founder effect
occurs when small population colonizes a large habitat and increases greatly in number
ex: ellis Van Creveld Syndrome
mitochondria
organelles in the cytoplasm of the cell where energy production for the cell takes place; contains its own DNA.
genetic bottleneck
temporary dramatic reduction in size of a population or species.
environmental flexibility
behavioral flexibility + heterodonty + homeothermy
circumstances of contest competition
when food is clumped
Differential reproduction
can lead to differences overtime. Speciation occurs after long periods of time
Owl monkey
fathers care for offspring, transport babies around because impeding locomotion can help you escape from predators and get something to eat
Old world monkeys
downward facing nostrils, two premolars, long tube for auditory canal, bilophodont (multiple bumps) molars, ischial callosities (hairless patch on butt), arboreal locomotion, ridged lumbar spine, four grasping hands and horizontal body
Genetic
Genetics: the study of gene structure and action and the patterns of transmission of traits from parent to offspring. (foundation for evolutionary change)
Co-dominant
In a diploid organism, two different alleles of a gene that are both expressed in a heterozygous individual.
Dental Structure and teeth type
front-back.....
 
Incisors (4 top/4bottom)
Canines (2 top/2 bottom)
Premolars (4 top/ 4bottom)
Molars (6 top/6 bottom)
activity budget
The pattern of walking, eating, moving, socializing and sleeping that all nonhuman primates engage in each day is termed their __________.
nucleus
an organelle found in all eukaryotic cells; contains chromosomes (nuclear DNA)
sociobiology
the systematic study of the biological basis of all social behavior
polygenic traits
phenotypic traits that results from the combined action of more than one gene; most complex traits are polygenic
calvaria
the braincase; includes the bones of the calotte and those that form the base of the cranium but excludes the bones of the face
Dates and location of Homo neanderthalensis
130kya-30kya, Europe
Runaway selection
(driven by female preference) a random mutation produces a preference for a specific feature>>""sexy son" hypothesis
Ecological Niche
(ecology) the status of an organism within its environment and community (affecting its survival as a species)
homozygous
2 copies of the same allele at particular locus
protein synthesis
the assembly of proteins from amino acids which occurs at ribosomes in the cytoplasm and is based on information carried by mRNA.
Law of Segregation
traits are inherited as discrete units; frequent units=dominant, less frequent units=recessive
primates select mainly ______ and ______ foods
protein and carb
Heritable Traits
Traits with a genetic basis. Affect some diseases, blood types, eye color, etc etc etc,
does not affect muscle mass or other "in-life" developments.
Directional selection
if short plants are doing horrible because tall plants are shading them, short plants will reproduce worse and tall ones better, the curve will shift upwards
R
a probability of sharing a given gene in common, each parent will pass on 50% of their genes to each child, on avg. two children of the same parent will tend to share 25%, two children of the same parentS 50%, two first cousins 12.5%
Taphonomy
The study of how bones and other materials come to be buried in the earth and preserved as fossils.
what is westermarks effect?
hypothesized that being raised together stifles sexual desire.
female philopatry
__________ is a primate social system in which females remain and breed in the group of their birth while males emigrate.
hemoglobin
a protein molecule that occurs in red blood cells and binds to oxygen molecules
Carolus Linnaeus (1707-1778)
Author of Systema Naturae created science of classification called taxonomy
neocortex
the part of the brain that controls higher cognitive function; the cerebrum
occipital torus
a thickened horizontal ridge of bone on the occipital bone at the rear of the cranium
codon
a triplet of nucleotide bases in mRNA that specifies an amino acid or the initiation or termination or a polypeptide sequence
Interphase
most of life, just hanging out --- chromatin in nucleus
balanced polymorphism
a stable polymorphism in a population in that natural selection prevents any of the alternative phenotypes (or underlying alleles) form becoming fixed or being lost
biologists use ________ and __________
biologists use populations and ancestry
Sickle Cell And malaria
Abnormal form of hemoglobin resulting from a point mutation Unsuitable living environment for Plasmodium
Protection from Malaria
What is biological anthropology and what are its subfields?
Human biology, primatology, paleoanthropology, skeletal biology and osteology, paleopathology, and forensic anthropology.
Constantin Wilhelm Lambert Gloger
a German zoologist and ornithologist. was the first person to recognise the structural differences between swallows and swifts, and also the first to put up artificial bat boxes.
Natural Selection
when a variation is useful in an environment, individuals w/those traits survive and thus produce offspring w/similar traits. surviving + reproduction = adaptation (macroevolution)
Alfred Russel Wallace
Darwin's shadow. In 1855, he published an article suggesting that current species were descended from other species and that the appearance of new ones was influenced by environmental factors. This article caused Darwin's friends to push Darwin to publish his book, "On the Origin of Species". In 1858, Wallace sent Darwin an article saying that evolution was a process driven by competition and natural selection. This made Darwin publish.
what is A. Afarensis?
evolved in the pliocene around 3.5-3mya in the hadar, ethiopia laetoli and chad. he had a ape brain with hands and feet for climbing.
Ch 8: Fossils
 
Isotopes
Variant forms of an element that differ based on their atomic weights and numbers of neutrons in the nucleus. Both stable and unstable (radioactive) isotopes exist in nature.
arboreal quadrupedalism
mode of locomotion in which the animal moves along the horizontal branches with a regular gait pattern involving all four limbs
reductionism
paradigm that an org is the sum of many evolved parts and that orgs can best be understood through an adaptationist approach
metatarsals
5 foot bones that join the tarsals to the toes and form a portion of the longitudinal arch of the foot
Somatic Cells
cells that make up the basic structure of the human body. All cells are somatic cells except sex cells.

cellular components of tissue
dental formulas
-#of each tooth type in a quadrant of the jaw
What paradigm is the central unifying theory of anthropology?
Darwin's theory of evolution.
Prostate cancer evolution (Explained)
Prostate Gland - prostate fluid makes up portion of man's semen, helps conduct sperm and may buffer acidic environment of the cervix.
Humans are the only higher species with highly developed prostate gland and with prostate cancer.
what are human universals?
aspects of human culture that are invariable.
Protein Synthesis Transcription
The process of reading the meaning of the message from DNA
 
Like replication but only some portion of DNA is copied from formation of mRNA
daughter isotope (product)
the isotope that is produced as the result of radioactive decay of the parent isotope
Ecological species concept
The concept that a species is a group of
organisms exploiting a single niche.
Darwinian Medicine / Evolutionary Medicine (Definition)
Tries to understand the nature of disease by examining why it exists rather than how it works.
what is A. Africanus?
lived in the pliocene in south africa 3-2.2mya. he had a small brain with sexual dimorphism. he was the one who had the moved foramen magnum.
autosomal dominant disease
a disease that is caused by a dominant allele: only one copy needs to be inherited from either parent for the disease to develop.
small body size reduces heat production; linear body form (relatively long limbs and short trunk) increases relative surface area; evaporative cooling
Body size and proportions that reduce heat production & maximize heat dissipation.
what are adaptive grades?
the basic way that an animal makes a living. distantly related animals can belong to the same adaptive grade.
over time, _________ _____ in the isotope change into _____ ______
over time, radioactive atoms in the isotope change into stable atoms
Describe the significance of the Taiwanese "minor" marriage?
young bride adopted into new family as infant. raised together with future husband, later these marriages led to unhappiness and a failure to produce offspring because couples were sexually disinterested.
The presence of Australopithecus in East Africa, South Africa, and Chad is evidence supporting the Multiregional Hypothesis. T/F?
FALSE. The MRH has nothing to do with australopithecines.
agonistic
unfriendly social relationships
odontometrics
measurements of teeth size
infanticide
killing of an infant
Herodotus
- 5th century- classified Mediterranean people by name/place/appearance
marasmus
extreme form of protein-calorie malnutrition resulting from severe deficiencies in both proteins and calories
epochs of the Cenozoic Era
PaleoceneEoceneOligoceneMiocenePliocenePleistoceneHolocene
hominid split from apes
5-7 mya
Oldowan tradition
oldest known stone tool culture
Middle Paleolithic
stone tool technologis of heidelbergensis/Neandertals
paleospecies
species identified from fossil remains based on physical similarities/differences relative to other species
dendrochronology
chronometric dating method based on the fact that trees in dry climates tend to accumulate one growth ring per year
lactose intolerance
condition characterized by diarrhea, cramps and other intestinal problems resulting from ingestion of milk
protein-calorie malnutrition
group of nutritional diseases resulting from inadequate amounts of proteins and/or calories
sedentary
settled in one place throughout most/all of year
HLA system
human leukocyte antigen system, diverse genetic system consisting of linked loci on chromosome 6 that control autoimmune response
territory
home range that is actively defended
grooming
handling and cleaning of another individual's fur, serves as a form of communication and provides reassurance
species identification
- paleospecies vs. chronospecies (lumpers)- anagenesis (lumpers) vs. cladogenesis (splitters)- sediment dating- environment reconstruction: flotation, zooarchaeological analysis, pollen analysis
bipedal
moving on two legs, characterized by striding motion
robust australopiths
species of Australopithecus with large back teeth, cheekbones, faces, heavy chewing, Africa 2.5-1.4mya, include aethiopicus/robustus/boisei, own genus Paranthropus?
estrus
time during month when females are sexually receptive
Acheulian tradition
stone tool culture, Homo erectus, development of hand axes/bifacial tools
occipital bun
protruding rear region of skull, Neanderthals
Upper Paleolithic
stone tool technology of modern humans
H. floresiensis
very small hominin, Indonesia in recent times, dwarf erectus?
electrophoresis
lab method using electric current to separate proteins, allowing determination of genotype
signs of pathologies
- tuberculosis: bone corroded- treponematosis: syphilis, saber shin (sharp bowing of tibia)- leprosy: fingers corroded- dental: damaged teeth/gums/jaw- fractures: Colles' fracture (in radius, wrist displaced, common in osteoporosis), Parry fracture (in ulna, dislocation from radius)
vasodilation
opening of blood vessels to increase blood flow/heat loss
fitness definition
- individual's probability of survival and reproduction, measured in terms of different genotypes for a given locus
adaptation definition
- measure of successful interaction between a population and an environment
tarsier
a nocturnal prosimian found today in Indonesia
Ouranopithecus
genus of fossil ape in Greece, possible ancestor of African apes and humans, Miocene
Proconsul
genus of fossil hominoid from Africa showing a number of monkey characteristics, Miocene
Holocene epoch
seventh epoch0.01 mya - presenthumans develop agriculture and civilization, recorded history
dental formula
short-hand method of describing the number of each type of tooth in one-half the jaw of a mammal, I-C-P-M (humans: 2-1-2-3, 32 total)
hominin
humans and their ancestors since the time of divergence from the common ancestor of humans, chimpanzees and bonobos
Neanderthal language
- vocal anatomy unclear: maybe couldn't make some vowel sounds- hyoid bone modern, smaller round range, no brain evidence for no language
radiometric dating
- natural radioactive decay of unstable isotope at constant rate, natural clock-C14, K/Ar, ESR (electro-spin resonance)
H. sapiens evolution
- Asia/Siberia Neanderthals, 150kya, mtDNA shows more east than assumed- Siberia finger bone shows occupation since 125kya- mtDNA shows Sapiens/Neanderthals have 200 different nucleotides, split 400kya- sapiens/Denisova split 1.4mya (385 dif nucleotides)
relative dating
comparative method of dating the older of two or more fossils or sites, rather than providing a specific date
Levallois technique
method of making stone tools, stone core prepared so that finished tools can be removed from it by a final blow, prepared-core method
race
as applied to humans, vague term that has multiple meanings, both cultural and biological, referring to group membership
return of infectious disease
- smallpox/polio/TB eliminated- new ones appear/old ones resurface
mtDNA discontinuity
- B rare in Chinchorro/Alto Ramirez- ranges from 65-100% in modern Aymara- 2-5% in S. Chile pop (Hulliche, Pehuenche)- Aymara unlikely descended from Chichorro/Alto Ramirez
reemergent infectious disease
infectious disease that had previously been reduced but that increases in frequency when microorganisms evolve resistance to antibiotics- TB: respiratory disease, acquired antibiotic resistance in NY- due to indiscriminate use of antibiotics, in animal feed
nasal index
measure of shape of nasal opening, defined as width of nasal opening divided by height
human characteristics
- bipedal- large heavy brain- culture- complex behavior
eternal triangle
culture + environment + genotype = phenotype
horticulture
form of farming in which only simple hand tools are used
life cycle requirements
- extended brain development period: acquire technical/cognitive and social/sexual/play skills- unique growth pattern: childhood, adolescence, menopause (unsure of costs/benefits) -> developed in Homo, Aust. grew faster/died earlier
Strepsirhini (strepsirhines)
one of two suborders of primates suggested to replace the prosimian/anthropoid suborders (the other is the haplorhines), primates that have moist noses (lemurs and lorises)
climbing
ability to raise the arms above the head and hang on to branches and to climb in this position
Pleistocene epoch
sixth epoch1.8 - 0.01 myaevolution and dispersal of genus homo, origin of modern humans
Sivapithecus
genus of fossil ape in Asia, possible ancestor to orangutans, Miocene
hominid brains
- stayed small for awhile- threshold with H. erectus (850 cc)- developmental importance: harder to birth, longer developmental period postnatal, greater parental investment, more learning- more brain growth after birth
Australopithecus
- 4.2 mya- small ape-size brain- large teeth/face- apelike head- bipedal- foraged for fruit in savanna
Neanderthal characteristics
- cooler Wurm glaciation in Europe- hunted, used shelter, fire- 125-30 kya Mediterranean- sloping forehead, no chin, low skull, large brow ridges, large teeth- 1465 cc brain, same as modern human
H. heidelbergensis technology
- Oldowan, Achulean tools- Levallois technique: prepare core to flatten with bone, hit on top of ridge to flake off, make point into drill- bifacial, symmetrical, sharp, precise
sagittal crest
ridge of bone running down center of top of skull, anchors chewing muscles
foramen magnum
large opening at base of skull where spinal cord enters, more toward center of skull in hominins who are bipedals so skull sits atop spine
sickle cell anemia
genetic disease that occurs in a person homozygous for the sickle cell allele, alters RBC structure
adaptations to high altitude/hypoxia
- Andes, Tibet, Ethiopia, Leadville- different effects for newcomers/sojourners/residents
life expectancy
- h-g: low (20-40yrs)- agro: did not improve much, some mortality rates increased/birth rates declined- Dickson Mound: Native American, h-g life expectancy 26, agro 19- reduced childhood mortality important factor
problems with race
- people have all different traits, aren't set categories- can identify some populations, but not all (epicanthic eye folds = Asian, but dif between African/European?)- polymorphisms/race don't match, can't say one trait is more important- Aboriginees?- complex traits (gene + environment)- continuous traits, overlap, different classifications (cultures, time)
risks of agricultural revolution
- long-term investment- locusts, avian flu
premolar
one of the types of back teeth, used for crushing and grinding food
one male/multifemale group
social structure in which the primary social group consists of a single adult male, several adult females and their immature offspring, more common
shovel test pits
STP, used in archaeological surveys if site is buried to increase site visibility
Neanderthal variation
- Middle East: not as extreme, more rounded skulls- environmental adaptation? hybrids?
Y chromosome trends
- few foundre haplotypes- all 5 part of single founding population between 23-19kya- Fagundes model: entry before Clovis, route of entry through coast, early sites far south (Monte Verde)- inland sites older (coastal route) few early sites (underwater now), Clovis -> later adaptation to inland environment with megafauna
mutational age
- Rho- [(# indivs in center)(0) + (#1 step away)(1) + (#2 steps away)(2) + etc] / (# total indivs)
H. habilis overlapping species
- P. robustus (made most of tools?)
how to excavate a site
1. record site location (GPS)2. identify site limits3. divide site into grid with units (A1, A2)4. choose units to dig5. carefully dig
secular change in child growth
- increase in height- increase in weight- decrease in age of sexual maturation- in industrialized countries
K/Ar dating
- decay of K into Ar gas, trapped in rock in volcano with lava- 1.25-31 billion year half life, can date anything older than 100,000 years old- not used to date artifacts, date sediment above/below fossil
nutrition in the agricultural revolution
- more dependent on fewer foods, meat rare, more anemia, less variability in food- nutritional deficiency more than h-g, new diseases, zoonosis- attract rodents, bubonic plague/TB -> humans- more infectious diseases, worse dental health (enamel hypoplasia)- increased fertility/impact varies- obesity: BMI > 30, cardiovascular problems/diabetes/cancer
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