biological anthropology midterm Flashcards

Terms Definitions
p^2
Frequency(AA)
Catarrhine nostrils
downward
dolichocephalic
long, narrow head
genetics
variations are inherited
Cercopithecines
omnivorous, ground dwellers
major groups in NWM
-cebidae
-atelidae
-callitrichidae
-pithecidae
Fitness
an individual's reproductive success
Adaption Potential
Generalized
-broad ecological niche
-wide geographic distribution
-diverse habitats
Specialized
-narrow ecological niche
-geographically limited
-distinct habitat needs
Taxonomy Tree of Primates
how sex cells divide
Meiosis
skull base
foramen magnum= great hole
Pongidae
family of Catarrhini; includes gorillas
gene
fundamental unit of hereditary. Consists of a sequence of DNA bases that carries the information for synthesizing a protein and occupies a specific chromosomal locus.
heat conservation
Adaptations that increase insulation
Cultural Anthropology
traditionally studied non-Western culture. Participant observation, human culture studies: kinship, lang, music, political org, economy, religion, gender roles
Depth
functional analysis (physiology), or what mechanisms exist
Aurignacian
Upper paleolithic
28,000 ya
40,000 to 28,000 years ago is associated with both Homo sapiens and Homo neanderthalensis throughout Europe and parts of Africa.
What is Australopthecus garhi?
A “surprise”
immutability (fixity)
stasis, lack of change
African American’s have more concentrated
melanocytes
advantage of less hair
-better cooling
-fewer parasites
haplorines
include tarsiers, NWM, OWM and apes
Species of Atelidae
Howler and Spider Monkeys
theory
A well-supported general idea that explains a large set of factual patterns and predicts other patterns.
Codon
a sequence of three adjacent nucleotides constituting a genetic code that determines the insertion of an amino acid
Paranthropus
heavy build, massive face, sagittal crest, slightly larger brain than Australopithecus
mammalian ear ossicles are ________ with reptile jaws
homologous
Allele
Alternate forms of a single gene
Ernst Haeckel
embryologist, life was progressive, hierarchy of simple to advanced with bacteria on the bottom and humans at the top, thought in terms of addition, simple creature would become more complex by adding things to each organism, stacking theory (reptile brain inside a mammalian brain etc)
describe the pliocene?
5mya A.Robustus, A.africanus, A.afarensis, A. anamensis, Ardipithecus ramidus.
chromosome
discrete structures composed of DNA and protein found only in the nuclei of cells; visible only during certain stages of cell division
nucleotide
molecular building block of nucleic acids DNA and RNA; consists of a phosphate, sugar, and base
estrus
hormonally influenced period of sexual receptivity in some female mammals, which corresponds to the timing of ovulation
ribonucleic acid
single-stranded nucleic acid that performs critical functions during protein synthesis and comes in three forms: messenger, transfer, and ribsomal
Gene Flow
exchange of genes between populations

migration of alleles in or out of a pop
Gene Flow
war or mating with another culture
zoonotic
disease that is transmitted to humans through contact with a nonhuman animal
regional continuity model
-extensive gene flow
-lots of interbreeding
-arose in all parts of the world
-neandertals were a sub-species of homo sapiens
The Modern Synthesis
production and redistribution of variability and NS acting on variability
incomplete dominance
heterozygous genotypes can result in intermediate phenotype
ex: carnations; red+white= pink
Charles Lyell
Creationist who believed in ancient history of the earth and more primitive forms of past life.
monogenic traits
Also called Mendelian traits, traits that are controlled by a single gene.
Allen's Rule
Stipulates that in warmer climates, the limbs of the body are longer relative to body size to dissipate body heat
typological species concept
-species had one form/type
- variations were by God
- Darwin replaced typological with populational
- typological is single type, populational is all members are equal
Biocultural Evolution
interaction of biology and culture influencing human evolution and adaptation (i.e. food prep -influences teeth size, medicine -taking antibiotics, clothes and technology -allow us to live anywhere, and brain organisation -speech)
Malaria (Scale)
300-400 million people per year infected.
3-4 million die from malaria annually.
Australopithecus anamensis
3.-4.2 mya, Kenya, relatively large teeth, probably bipedal (leg coming at an angle),larger molars and smaller canines, thick enamel on molars
Codons
Triplets of messenger RNA that code for specific amino acids during protein synthesis.
Vasoconstriction
Narrowing of blood vessels to reduce blood flow to the skin. Involuntary response to cold and reduces heat loss at skin's surface.
grandmother hypothesis
potential fitness benefits of having older women around to help their daughters raise their childern (natural selection towards longer lifespans)
sexual receptivity
__________ is the willingness and ability of a female to mate.
Who named Sinathropus pekinensis on the basis of a single tooth?
Davidson Black
zygomatic arches
cheekbones; part of the structures derived from the ancestral single temporal fenestra; robust species had larger zygomatic arches, allowing space for more powerful chewing muscles
regulatory genes
guide the expression of structural genes, without coding for a protein themselves
Traits Mendel tested in peas
Seeds: Round/wrinkled
Pods: Full/constricted, green/yellow
Flowers: violet/white
Stem: axial/terminal, tall/dwarf
polyandry
mating system in which one female mates with multiple males
ecology
the study of the interrelationships of plants, animals, and physical environment in which they live
Interphase
goes about doing what cell normally does
Mineral/Trace Elements
inorganic nutrients used by the body—calcium (bone and teeth), iron (oxygen transportation), and iodine (thyroid function) are most important
genetic bottleneck
temporary dramatic reduction in size of a population or species
stages of life cycle
1 prenatal
2 infant
3 juvenile
4 subadult
5 adult
6 post-reproductive
Crick and Watson
DNA researchers; discovered model of DNA structure
dominant
in a diploid organism, an allele that is expressed when present on only one of a pair of homologous chromosomes
Bergman's Rule
organisms in cold climates tend to have stockier bodies
prosimians verses anthropoids
-anthropoids have larger brains, color vision, and post orbital closure
Ardipethicus
1st hominin, 6-7 mya, end of Miocene era
Monomorphic
same body type for both males and females
Amino Acids
Small molecules that are components of proteins.
Describe the Miocene?
23mya cooler and drier grasslands spread in middle latitudes: Africa collides with eurasia. (afropithecus, Pamapithecus, sivapithecus)
Brachiation
__________ is a mode of arm hanging and arm swinging that uses a rotating shoulder to suspend the body of an ape or hominid beneath a branch or to travel between branches.
blending inheritance
discredited 19th c. idea that genetic factors from the parents averaged-out or blended together when they were passed on to offspring
Cephalic Index
Characterized the shape of the human skull, invented by Anders Retzius to help form racial categories. Not valid today
flake
the stone fragment struct from a core, thought to have been the primary tools of the Oldowan
Jean Baptiste Lamarck
creator of the early evolutionary theory, which was rejected. Believed that acquired characteristics were inherited
Lactose tolerance
the inability to digest fresh milk products, caused by the discontinued production of lactase --- the enzyme that breaks down lactose, or milk sugar
tarsals
foot bones that form the ankle and arches of the foot
biological profile
-age= easier to identify at death the younger you are
-sex= women are wider, men are narrower
-ancestry= incisor/chin/palate shape
-injury/disease
Founder effect
An allele that was rare in the founders' parent population but
is carried by even one of founders can become common. paticular kind of genetic drift; small population and mate within; low variation = all ppl are decended from the founders in effect all the genes in the expanding group will
genetic drift
random changes in gene frequency in a population.
Higher labor/energy investment; Narrower range of food species; More vulnerable to famines; Environmental degradation & pollution
Though agriculture allowed for higher production per unit of land and supplied larger populations, some negative effects were...
Principle of Segregation
genes occur in pairs. during meiosis, members of gene pairs recombine and separate, so during fertilization, the full number of chromosomes are restored.
Intermembral index
index of upper limbs to lower libs, ratio increases as the upper libs get bigger
what is Aegyptoithecus?
lived int he oligocene in egypt 36-31mya. had a small brain and was a anthropoid.
Ch 8: Fossils
 
Electron Trap Techniques
Radiometric techniques that measure the accumulation of electrons in traps in the crystal lattice of a specimen
mosaic evolution
a pattern of evolution in which the rate of evolution in one functional system varies from that in other systems. For example, in hominin evolution, the dental system, locomotor system and neurological system all evolved at markedly different rates
Turner Syndrome
A monosomy disease, when there is only an X chromosome (XO).  Leads to delay or absense of sexual matruation, small physical stature, delayed mental maturation, and other physical abnormalties.
geologic time scale
GTS-the categories of time into which earth's history is usually divided by geologists and paleontologists: eras, periods, epochs
vitamin D production and deficiency
o essential for mineralization and normal growth of bones during infancy and childhood
because it enables the body to absorb calcium from dietary sources

o able to synthesize it through the interaction of UV light and a form of cholesterol found in skin cells
sympatic speciation
the process by which, in theory, a new species originates from another without being geographically separated from it. ex. different diets, bird songs
What are the four fields of anthropology and what does each study?
Cultural anthropology, linguistic anthropology, archaelogy, and biological anthropology.
principle of independent assortment
alleles on one chromosome have no effect on alleles of another chromosome.
Describe the Oligocene?
34mya cooler and drier in the north, anthropoids in Africa, separation of catarrhines and platyrrhines, separation of hylobatids from pongids and hominids
Ch 9:Origin of Primates
 
K-T Boundary


A time period where drastic environmental/faunal changes occurred
probably arising from an asteroid crashing into the earth
contributed to the extinction of the dinosaurs
allowed for small insect-eating mammals to grow
Mitochondrial DNA
mtDNA- small loop of DNA found in the mitochondria.  It is clonally and maternally inherited
race is an _________ _________ concept
race is an arbitrary biological concept
visual predation hypothesis of matt cartmill
-arboreality alone cannot account for primate traits
-explains why other animals are able to navigate through trees
-convergence of traits
Homo Neanderthalensis
dates - 250 to 30 tya
size - 1200 to 1750 cc
found - europe, asia, middle east
tools - Mousterian tools (200,000 - 40,000 years ago)
Chatelperronian tools (40,000 to 28,000 years ago)
features -
somatic cells
the cells of the body that are not sex cells
sex, age, ancestry, stature, trauma, and anomalies & pathologies
In forming a biological profile, one must determine, from the skeletal remains, the individual's...
what is ardipithecus ramidus?
found by tim white, 5.8-5.2 mya has a moved foramen magnum and small canines.
mendel's law of segregation
the two alleles of a gene found on each of a pair of chromosomes segregate independently of one another into sex cells
What are the roles, or steps, of forensic anthropology? (10 things)
1. Recovery 2. Forensic significance 3. Inventory and MNI 4. Biological profile 5. Positive Identification 6. Time since death 7. Manner of death 8. Postmortem treatment 9. Expert testimony 10. Research
Describe the Racial or Typographical Approach to human variation (3 things). What does this approach NOT DO?
1. Used by most people in their daily exposure to human variation 2. Discussed in the media almost daily 3. Interested in variation between races 4. Does not explain the cause of human variation or why a group is similar or different from other groups
2pq
Frequency(Aa)
Prokaryotic
single-celled organisms
cultural process
deliberate burial
Genotype
combination of alleles
Proximate cause
immediate, specific
hylobates
(gibbons and siamangs)
-smallest apes
-male and female same body size
-arboreal(only true brachiators)
-Asia
Eukaryotic cell
multiple-celled organism's cell
menarche
girl's first menstrual period
Spermatogenesis
forming sperm
2 cells
stratigraphy
examining sequence of rock layers
Hylobatids
lesser apes, smallest apes, brachiators, fruit diet
chromosomes
discrete structures composed of condensed DNA and supporting proteins.
stressor
factor that interferes with homeostasis
Jean Lamarck
inheritance of acquired characteristics -took first attempt at the theory of change
Mules
offspring is sterile, 63 chromosomes
Pleistocene
1.8mya to 0.01mya
 
H. Habilis
H. Egaster 
H. Erectus
H. Heidelbergensis 
Archaic H. Sapiens
Neanderthals
 
Ice Age 
Hunter-gatherers live at lower densities than elephants. T/F?
True
phylogeny
an evolutionary tree indicating relatedness and divergence of taxonomic groups
phenotype plasticity
combination of environment, alleles, and regulatory genes to make phenotype (capacity to respond)
strephsirines
include lemurs, lorises and galagos and tend to retain more ancestral mammalian traits
Species of Ceboidea
Tamarins, Spider Monkeys, Capuchins
archaeology
A subfield of anthropology that studies the human cultural past and the reconstruction of past cultural systems.
Natural Selection
AKA: Differential Survival and Reproduction; when the environment changes, organisms that have characteristics that enable them to survive will do so and reproduce offspring with the same characteristics
characteristics of hominoidea
-no tail
-shortened trunk
-flexible shoulder joint
-complex social behaviors
-large brain to body size ratio
-long period of infant dependency
-2:1:2:3 dental formula
Karytype
the arrangement of pairs of chromosomes by size so they can be scanned
homoplasy
process of two different species forming similar derived traits (analogies)
Homo erectus
pithecanthropus, discovered by Eugene Dubois in Trinil in java, skull cap only, low sea levels would have made it possible to walk from Africa to Indonesia
Vasodilation
Expansion of blood vessels, permitting increased blood flow to the skin. An involuntary response to warm temperatures and various drugs or even emotional states such as blushing.
whats the difference between a bridewealth vs. dowry?
Phenetics
Numerical taxonomy. Relies solely on numerically describing degrees of similarity and difference between orgs, without biases created by knowing some groups are more closely related than others
proteins
complex molecules formed from the chains of amino acids (polypeptide) or from a complex of polypeptides. they functions as structural molecules ad transport molecules antibodies, enzymes, and hormones
Hybrids
Offspring of individuals that differ with regard to certain traits or certain aspects of genetic makeup; heterozygote
gradualism
darwinian view of slow, incremental evolutionary change
antemortem vs. postmortem
before death vs. after death
afarensis
-mix of ape-like and later human-like traits
-bipedal and climbing
-prognathism= jaw protrusion
-distinct heel strike and toe-off
Biological Species Concept
Individuals capable of interbreeding, but
reproductively isolated from other such groupsa species concept defining a species as a population or group thereof whose members potentially interbreed and produce fertile offspring
scientific method
The process of conducting scientific inquiry.
nonsense mutation
AAG--> TAG. when codons originally code for amino acid into a stop codon
Jean-Baptiste Lamarck
Argued that all organisms make adjustments to their environment during their lifetime that could be passed on to their offspring, thus making their offspring better adapted to the environment.
Gregor Mendel
Austrian monk who experimented with plant breeding of peas. , Augustinian monk and botanist whose experiments in breeding garden peas led to his eventual recognition as founder of the science of genetics (1822-1884)
Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
assumes no gene flow, mutation, genetic drift, or natural selection
Biological Anthropology
study of humans as biological organisms, considered in an evolutionary framework; sometimes called physical anthropology
Adaptive disease (Examples)
1. Sickle-Cell Anemia
2. Malaria
3. Lactose Intolerance
4. Cancer(s)
5. Mad Cow Disease
6. HIV/AIDS
Anthropoids
larger bodies and social groups, fused mandible, more fruit and leaf eating, less reliance on olfaction, diurnal lifestyle, extensive color vision
Antigens
Large molecules found on the surface of cells.
Vectors
Agents that transmit disease from one carrier to another, such as mosquitoes and malaria.
Stages of Human Growth
Prenatal (birth)--infancy, juvenile stage, adulthood, post-reproductive stage (menopause)
 
adolescence=unique to humans and provides extended time for brain development
 
 
eutheria
Mammals that reproduce with a placenta and uterus. I.E. - Humans and lemurs.
Neandertal is the common name for:
Homo neanderthalensis
dental comb
found in Strepsirhine primates and consists of four or six long, flat, forward-angled teeth used for feeding and grooming
Lysenkoism
Soviet era research program that tried to apply Lamarckian thinking to agriculture production
Protein electrophoresis
Because proteins vary by electrical charge, can place small amounts of protein in a thin sheet of agarose gel and run an electric current through it.  Proteins migrate across the gell.  Protein can be visualized with dyes.  useufl for detecting protein and allelic variation.
enviromentalism
the view that the environment has great powers to directly shape the anatomy of individual organisms
Immune Response
body's reaction to a foreign antigen
Polytypic Species
species composed of populations that differ in the expression of one or more traits.
inclusive fitness
reproductive success of an organism plus the fitness of it close kin
things that influence the spread of disease
-population growth
-deforestation
-consumerism
-habitat expansion
-globalization
-urbanization
Ancestral characteristics
Characters inherited by a group of organisms from a remote ancestor and thus not diagnostic of groups (lineages) that diverged after the character first appeared.
DNA repair mechanisms
rearrange genes. sometimes can stop replication and start over
haploid number
number of chromosomes found in a gamete- representing one from each pair found in a diploid somatic cell. In humans the number is 23.
Importance of Skulls
1) evidence of bipedalism (foramen magnum)
2)evidence for diet
3) evidence of brain size
4) similarities btw apes and humans
tertiary
-65 mya to 1.8 mya
-made up of paleocene, eocene, oligocene, miocene, and pliocene
Bonobos
more slight figure than chimp, at ease on 2 or 4 legs, have alpha females, rarely discipline babies, use sex to calm situations
Penguins
two can take turns caring for the baby, usually male who stays and takes care of the egg while female goes off for food
Paleopathology
The study of disease and injury in human skeletal remains from archaeological sites.
Describe the Paleocene?
65 mya first major mammal radiation
fission-fusion
The form of mating system seen in chimpanzees in which there are temporary subgroups but no stable cohesive groups is called __________.
Jean-Baptiste Lamarck (1744-1829)
Theory of inheritance of acquired characteristics. Ex: Elephant reaching for food will grow a longer trunk
social system
the grouping pattern in which a primate species lives, including its size and composition evolved in response to natural and sexual selection pressures
tool industry
a particular style or tradition of making stone tools
Sexual Dimorphism
difference in size or form between males and females, usually relates to social organization (competition)
Hypoxia
oxygen deprivation is a result of high altitude stress
-reduces available oxygen
foramen magnum
hole in the occipital bone through which the spinal cord connects to the brain
traditional view of the brain
-only a few learning mechanisms
-reasoning device
Genus
A genus is a group of species composed of members more closely related to each other than to species from any other genus.
Gould & Eldredge gradualism
Darwinian view of slow incremental evolutionary changer
vasoconstriction, countercurrent heat exchange, cold-induced vasodilation, and highly muscular with increased central fat
List physical adaptations to cold environment
Paranthropus after australopithecus
who had broader faces, huge molars, wider diet, and after whom?
Saki (wooley) monkey
live in social groups or have monogamous relationships
Principle of Assortment
Distribution of one pair of alleles into gametes does NOT influence the distribution of another pair.
what is H. ergaster?
lived in africa and eurasia 1.8mya-600kya during the pleistocene. example is dmanisi and turkana boy. uses fire, and mode 1 and 2 tools.
Ch 8: Fossils
 
Paleontology
The study of extinct organisms, based on their fossilized remains
vertical clinging and leaping
characteristic of lemurs and tarsiers; support themselves vertically by grasping onto trunks of trees or other large plants while their knees and ankles are tightly flexed
recognition species concept
defines species based on unique traits or behaviors that allow members of one species to identify each other for mating
new world monkeys
small body size, three premolar teeth, arboreality, flat shaped noses
Ptolemy
Humans are are part of nature and not above it

Geo centric
Where does the scientific process start?
1. Observations of phenomena (generates a question) 2. Development of hypotheses 3. Testing of hypotheses
evolution
a change in the frequency of a gene or a trait in a population over multiple generations.
advantages of tool use
get better, more nutritious foods, get nests for safety, make music for fun
what is universal grammar?
being able to tell the difference between sentences because of grammar
Ch 8: Fossils
 
Relative Dating Techniques
Dating techniques that establish the age of a fossil only in comparison to other materials found about and below it
First Meiotic Division
Tetrads align along the equator of the cell. Then chromatid tetrads split, and a double-stranded chromosome is sorted into each daughter cell.  So one daughter cell has 2 copies of the maternal chromosome.  They are no longer identitcal to the parental chromosomes because of crossing over.
the environment determines which phenotypes are "fit"
the ability to survive & reproduce depends on the circumstances an organism find itself i.e. environment
how to find evolutionary relationships
find homologies that define EVER MORE EXCLUSIVE SETS (most recent common ancestor, most related)
What was the Pleistocene Climate like?
generally cooler, especially in the beginning, the end marks the interglacial period that's lasting until now.
Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, Thymine
each nucleotide is made of one of these four chemical bases. A & T and G & C pair together (base pairing rule)
Recent origin of our species (<200,000 years ago) with more recent dispersal (beginning ~50,000 years ago); Exposure and adaptation to extensive environmental variation (tropics, polar regions, high altitude, remote islands, etc.)
These are important factors in explaining patterns of phenotypic and genotypic variation in living humans.
whats the crural index?
the ratio of the length of the shin bone to the length of the thigh bone.
capacity for language was a direct target of _______ ________.
capacity for language was a direct target of natural selection.
What is the Breeding Population? (3 things)
1. Group of actual or potentially interbreeding individuals 2. Difficult to define in humans 3. Cultural, geographical, political, or religious boundaries
What are Mode 3 tools? who used them and where can they be found?
300kya in Africa, levallois technique, and hafting.
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