Biological Anthropology Quiz Flashcards

Terms Definitions
infectious disease
-bacteria
-virus
-fungi
-parasites
Vertebrata
our subphylum
pongo
orangutangs
-very sexually dimorphic
-mostly arboreal
-suspensory, quadrupedal (fist walking)
-solitary
-Asia
taxonomy
classification of organisms
Kenyapithecus
First True Hominoid
Africa 
mutation
ultimate source of evolution
dominance
-predictable relationship established via fighting or aggression
Homo ergaster (Age)
2.5-1.7 mya
Cro-Magnons are:
Archaic Homo sapiens
hypertrophy
increase in cell size
genetic drift
effects of chance survival
holistic
Assuming an interrelationship among the parts of a subject.
prototheria
mammals that reproduce by egg-laying
territories
home ranges that are defended
Chimps
Militaristic, silent patrols each week. basic communication in whoops. physical demonstrations by males. alliances shown in grooming. infanticide and cannibalism, have gestural communication (chewing on leaf = groom me), tool use changes with locations
Mechanisms concept
there are no goals!
What is the "missing Link"?
culture
behavioral aspects of human adaptation, including technology, traditions, language, religion, marriage patterns and social roles; set of learned behaviors transmitted from one generation to the next by nonbiological means
hominoids
superfamily Hominoidea, increase brain volume, rotating shoulder aparatus, extended ontogeny,
ribosome
where amino acid form proteins
cold climates
-larger body size
-shorter limbs
-more internal mass
new world colonization
20 and 12 kya
Species of Cebidae
Squirrel Monkeys and Capuchins
Mitosis
the nuclear division of somatic cells
anthropoid
members of the primate suborder anthropoidea that include monkeys, apes, and hominids
polytypic
species composed of populations that differ with regard to the expression of one or more traits
adaptive radiation circumstances
-extinction of competitors
-colonization of area where no competitors are found
-adaptive "breakthroughs"
Archaeology
systematic study of material culture to understand past or prehistoric (before writing system) culture
Temporalis Muscle
controls up and down chewing
Mandrill
baboon species lives in forests, polygynous groups, known to abduct females from other troops, most sexually dimorphic baboons interms of size and color
Recessive
Describing a trait that isn't expressed in heterozygotes. An individual must have two copies (homozygous) for it to be expressed.
Proteins
amino acid molecules responsible for most of the cell's functions
polygenic
referring to traits that are influenced by genes at two or more loci; many of these traits are influenced by environmental factors such as nutrition; examples include hair color, eye color, skin color, stature
totipotent
Means that stem cells can differentiate into any of the somatic cell types found in the fetus or adult
Nutrition
what we get out of food
genetic bottleneck
population goes through this

ex: catasrophy happens and we loose some characteristics
physical anthropology
the traditional name for biological anthropology
crossing-over
the exchange of parts of chromosomes during meiosis, tends to result in non-linkage of genes that are some distance apart on the same chromosome
hypoglossal canal
hole where cranial nerve passes through from brain to tongue
Multimale Polygyny
a multitier social system with dominance heirarchy and competition for females
human ecology
A specialty that studies the relationships between humans and their environments.
four nitrogenous bases:
adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine. CG & AT
intelligent design
creationist school of thought that proposes that natural selection cannot account for the diversity and complexity of form and function in nature.
primate
member of the mammalian order primates including prosimians, monkeys, apes, and humans. Defined by a suite of anatomical and behavioral traits.
heat stroke
Failure to thermoregulate and very high core temperature results in...
infanticide
males can increase their own fitness by killing the rival's offspring
Sexual Dimorphism
physical difference between males and females. If it's high? High reproductive competition
African apes
confined to equatorial forests, no fossil record, chimp and gorilla ranges overlap, bonobo and chimp ranges are separated by the congo river
Tournament strategy
about 98% of mammals, sexual dimorphisms, male energy largely devoted to male-male competition, no male parental investment, high variance in male reproductive success, large male/female differences, male display, female choice, high polygyny (rival males are excluded)
testosterone
A steroid produced in testes and ovaries that is responsable for development of male primary and secondary sexual characteristics.
Pongidae
__________ refers to the four great apes species: gorillas, chimpanzees, bonobos and orangutans.
catastrophism
the view that the earth's geological landscape is the result of violent cataclysmic events; Curvier promoted this view against the ideas of Lamarck
brachiation
arm swinging, a form of locomotion used by some primates; involves hanging from a branch and moving by alternately swinging from one arm to the other; seen in species characterized by arms longer than legs
monogenism
ancient belief that people are derived from single creation
core
the raw material source (a river cobble or a large flake) from which flakes are removed
metopic keel
longitudinal ridge or thickening of bone along the midline of the frontal bone
Gregor Mendel
Austrian monk who studied the population of garden peas, \"father of genetics\"
Immune respose to infections is a
defense mechanism
Peppered Moths
the peppered moth’s habitat that they blended into was subjected to a forest fire. Over the years the moths have changed colors to blend in with the singed wood (a salt and pepper gray)
co-dominant
in a diploid organism, two different alleles of a gene that are both expressed in a heterozygous individual
directional selection
type of natural selection that favors one extreme phenotype ex. months
Pleiotropy
occurs when the action of a single gene influences several seemingly unrelated phenotypic effects; one gene affects several of traits
What was the most successful genus of the Pliocene?
Australopithecus
speciation
formation of one or more new species via reproductive isolation
Gloger's rule
states that within a species of endotherms, more heavily pigmented forms tend to be found in more humid environments.
Transcription factor
A gene which controls the chemical action of other genes
Alfred Russel Wallace
Developed a theory of natural selection, similar to Charles Darwin.
Genes
can be your own worst enemies, genes getting passed on is what evolution is about, not because evolution is what evolution is about, not because evolution wants this to happen, but that those genes passed on most effectively are the ones still around today, evolution can build bodies that are organized with behaviors and tendencies, and bodies kill themselves in order to reproduce
Derived (Modified)
Referring to traits that are modified from the ancestral condition and thus diagnostic of particular lineages. Meaning that we cannot distinguish among them, but we can distinguish how they have evolved those forms.
Describe H. Floresiensis
the hobbit. live 35-14kya in Indonesia.
aboreal hypothesis
The __________ is the hypothesis for the origin of primate adaptation that focuses on the value of grasping hands and stereoscopic vision for life in the trees.
supraorbital torus
bony ridge located above the eye sockets of all primates; reinforces weaker bones in the face
linkage
genes that arae found on the same chromosome are said to be linked.  The closer together 2 genes are on a chromosome, the greater the linkage and the less likely they are to be separated during crossing over
fission-fusion polygyny
type of primate polygyny in which animals travel in foraging parties of varying sizes instead of a cohesive group
autosomes
any of the chromosomes other than the sex chromosomes
Prokaryotic Cell
(no nuclei) a classic example is blue-green algae.

single celled
heterozygous advantage
with reference to a particular genetic system, the situation in which a heterozygotes have advantage over homozygotes (i.e sickle cell disease); a mechanism for maintaining a balanced polymorphism
transfer RNA (tRNA)
small RNA molecule that transfers a specific amino acid to a polypeptide chain during protein synthesis
Rise of Angiosperm Hypothesis
suggests that traits developed with the first angiosperm, the seeds and fruits of angiosperm nurture, protect, and disperse the embryonic plant
homozygous
having the same allele at the loci for a gene on both members of a pair of homologous chromosomes.
Asians and Native Americans
Incisor shoveling is most common in...
Fixity of Species
middle age belief that species, once created, can never change. false
Diploid
two of each, we are diploid (men are haploid for sex chromosomes), most common for large organisms to be diploid
Domestic Selection
Such as domestic dogs or animals, it is when animals are chosen or selected to breed. They possess certain traits that humans want in the animal's offspring. Also called "selective breeding". (Note that in nature, these traits would be selected against) (Darwin)
Who used a Javelin?
H. heidelbergensis used it for hunting.
social system
A grouping pattern in which a primate species lives, including its size and composition, is known as a __________.
biological species
a depiction of species as groups of individuals capable of fertile inbreeding but reproductively isolated from other such groups
chromatin
the diffuse form of DNA as it exists during the inerphase of the cell cycle.  Uncoiled DNA supported by proteins
molecular phylogeny
tree of related species based on a gene or protein
half-life
the time it takes for half of the original amount of an unstable isotope of an element to decay into more stable forms
locations australopithecines are found in
south africa, east africa, and chad
European World View
a world in stasis, fixity of species, Great Chain of Being, no notion of Deep Time
Darwinian Medicine (Examples)
1. The evolution of pathogens to see how they become more virulent, resistant to antibiotics.
2. The processes, constraints and trade-offs of human evolution.
3. The evolved responses that enable individuals to protect and heal themselves.
4. How past adaptation of early humans to their environment now affects contemporary humans.
whats the difference between replacement and regional continuity?
regional continuity believes they were all the same thing and evolved into homo sapians. the replacement model belives h.sapians arose from africa and spread to replace neanderthals and h. erectus in asia.
Principle of Independent Assortment
Inheritance of one trait does not affect the inheritance of other traits
chronometric dating techniques
techniques that estimate the age of an object in absolute terms through the use of a natural clock such as radioactive decay or tree ring growth
Breast and Prostate cancer (Parallels)
1. Rate of occurrence
2. Rate of mortality
3. Link of dietary fat
what is Meme?
a term by richard dawkins to refer to a unit of cultural information transmitted by imitation and teaching.
australopithecines have a mix of _____ and ______-like features
australopithecines have a mix of bipedal locomotion and ape-like features
Low vasodilation; Low sweat rate and high heat load (core temp)
Acclimatization to Heat Stress: Early (first few days)
what is special about Israeli kibbitzum?
israeli utopian societies from pre ww2 where unrelated children were raised together, of 2769 marriages, only 14 were between members of the same community.
primate evolution was confined to the ________ _____
primate evolution was confined to the cenozoic era
what is the mixed-diet hypothesis of primate origins?
modern prosimians rely less on sight than later primates. primates emerged around the same time as angiosperms. earliest primates may have had mix diet of flowers , seeds, fruits, and insects.
3 Observations by Darwin in the Origin of Species
1. All orgs have potential for explosive growth to outstrip food supply2. our population is stable however3. there must be a struggle for existence (nature full of variation, some variations must be favored)
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