Biological Anthropology Quiz 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Heterozygous
different alleles
Sirapithicus
Middle Miocene
India 
aethiopicus
mix of traits
Haplorhine mandible
mostly fused
Automorphy
uniquely derived traits
New World Monkeys
superfamily Ceboidea
orogeny
mountains formed from subduction
Linnaeus
Established binomial nomenclature, meaning "two names" - genus-species. Added class and order, and developed a four-level system called taxonomy- a system of classification. Also included humans called "homo sapiens".
Number of amino acids
20
hypoxia
lack of oxygen in body
Phenotype
observable characteristics of an organism; Tall Tall and short
diploid/haploid
containing pairs of homologous chromosomes/ containing only one copy of each chromosome
Genes
codes for a particular trait
John Ray
termed "species" and "genus"
Temporal Fossa
Passage for Temporalis Muscle
Pandemic
Infectious disease epidemic that spreads rapidly through a region. Potentially worldwide.
What is paired with Guanine?
Cytosine
thermoluminescence
technique for dating certain archaeological materials (such as stone tools) that were heated in the past and that release stored energy of radioactive decay as light upon reheating
chains of amino acids are
proteins
experimentation
the testing of a hypothesis
sexual dimorphism
morphological difference between the sexes (aside from primary sex characteristics)
hominid
bipedal member of evolutionary lineage leading to modern humans
Cladogenesis
evolution that results in the splitting of a lineage
exons
segments of DNA translated into proteins, have full effect
Gene flow
movement of genes between populations.
bioarchaeology
Use of skeletal remains from archaeological sites to study human populations and cultures
cooperation
positive to self, positive to neighbor
UV Protection
Purpose of more skin pigmentation
Homo ergaster (Family)
Descended from Homo habilis
Ethnographies
A detailed descriptive studies of human societies.
Archaeology
is NOT geology, paleontology, or entomology. It is the study and interpretation of material remains recovered from earlier cultures.
Ribosomes
site for converting genetic message into proteins
karyotype
the chromosomal complement of an individual, or what is typical for a species; usually displayed with the chromosomes arranged in pairs and according to centromere size and position
anaphase
sister chromatids split apart and migrate to opposite sides of the cell. When completed, there will be a complete diploid complement of daughter chromosomes at each end of the cell
First to write common organisms develop from a common ancestor.
Buffon
Hypothesis
a preliminary explanation of a phenomenon. Hypothesis formation is the first step to the scientific method
human ecology
a specialty that studies the relationships between humans and their environments
frame-shift mutation
mutation that shifts the "reading" frame of the genetic message by inserting or deleting a nucleotide ex. Tay-Sachs
"Lumpers"
assume speciation was less common and see much variation as being intraspecific.
Behavioral Ecology
how behaviors evolved from natural selection
paleoanthropology
A specialty that studies the human fossil record.
What is the significance of Australopithecus garhi?
Large brain
catastrophism
theory that there have been multiple creations interspersed by great natural disasters like Noah's flood.
Ardipithecus kadabba
Ethiopia; mandible, teeth, hand, and foot bones; toe=bipedialism
hot-dry physiological adaptations
Vasodilation and evaporative cooling are...
Gene
Segment of DNA that contains the sequence for a protein.
Zygote
sperm + egg. contains all 46 chromosomes
Siamangs
close relative of the gibbons, have specialized throat pouch for long distance vocalizations, live in monogamous groups, long muscular arms
Fitness
A measure of the relative reproductive success of individuals. (Genetic fitness, reproductive fitness, and differential reproductive fitness)
chromatin
the diffuse form of DNA during interphase
Charles Lyell (1797-1875) concepts
father of modern geology
--uniformitarianism
"the present is key to the past"
--the earth and its creatures are shaped slowly, over lengthy periods of time
Protein synthesis
(four steps)
1.Genetic code is copied (transcripted) in nucleus
2. Transcriped code is transported moved to cytoplasm
3. Translated into acids
4. Folded into proteins
adaptive radiation
the relatively rapid expansion and diversification of life-forms into new ecological niches
field study
primate behavior study conducted in the habitat in which the primate naturally occurs
Darwin
Natural selection

He was a clergy man and naturalist on a ship to explore new land. Ended up in the Galapagos Islands and noticed all the different types of finches. Those with favorable variations reproduce variation=imperfect (variation was the key to evolution
potassium-argon (K-Ar)dating
radiometric technique using the decay of 40K to 40Ar in potassium-bearing rocks; estimates the age of sediments in which fossils are found
Cultural Anthropology
The study of human societies, especially in a cross- cultural context; the subdivision of anthropology that includes ethnology, archeology and lingustics
natural selection
the process by which some organisms, with features that enable them to adapt to their environment, preferentially survive and reproduce, therefore increasing the frequency of those improving "fitness" features in the population
biological approach
studying humans in terms of the interaction between biology and culture in evolutionary adaptation
Define Proximal/Distal
proximal (limbs) - towards the torso, distal (limbs) away from the torso
Percussion Flaking
striking one stone with another to break pieces off
cline
A gradual change in the frequency of genotypes and phenotypes from one geographical region to another; parallels a gradient in the environment.
4 Subfields of Anthropology
Cultural, Archeology, Linguistic, and Biological
Homeobox Genes (Hox genes)
direct segmentation/patterning of the body during embryonic development
Salmon mating
competition to reproduce is so intense that it's worth destroying the body to do it, our bodies may be designed in part to be dispensable, death may be part of the design, whether you are stronger healthier or more resistant to disease, there are only relevant if they aid reproduction
Chordata
The phylum of the animal kingdom that includes vertebrates.
Jean-Baptiste Lamark (1744-1829) concepts
--coined the term "biology"
--1st theoretical attempt to explain mechanism of evolution
--interaction between organism and environment
--theory of acquired characters
--"vital essences" respond to external stimuli
Parallel Evolution
occurs in species that are closely related
similar characteristics due to recent common ancestory
chronometric dating
a dating technique that gives an estimate in actual numbers of years
tooth comb
when incisors protrude from the front of the mouth to form a comblike surface. occurs in Stepsirhine and prosimians
relative rate test
a means of determining whether molecular evolution has been occurring at a constant rate in two lineages by comparing whether these lineages are equidistant from an outgroup
________ is the process of 2 parent cells ending with 2 daughter cells. Daughters have 46 each
Mitosis
Population
with in a species, a community of individuals where mates are usually found.
structural genes
genes that contain the information to make a protein
copying error
when a short sequence is repeated many times, it is particularly susceptible to frame-shift mutations ex. Huntington's disease
Synonymous mutations
GTC--> GTA. no change to structure in protein
traits of haplorhines
use vision more than olfaction, full closure of the back of the eye orbits, diurnal, usually live in social groups, ratio of brain to body size is greater
reasons that primates live in groups
-protection from predators
-enhanced ability to find/defend food
-mating
Homo erectus/ergaster (Traits)
1. Cranial Capacity about 900 cm3
2. Cranium dolichephalic (long and flat)
3. Brow ridges
4. Sagittal keel (not crest)
Mitochondrial eve
we got all of our mitochondrial DNA from one individual who lived in Africa 150-200 thousand years ago
The Great Chain of Being
Orderly-created hierarchy where each person or thing is in its place and it is to remain there. (God, all the way to, rocks)
minor vs major depression
minor depression: response to an unhappy event
 
major depression: suffers 2 or more weeks of "low mood"
 
minor depression adaptation:encourages to set new goals and directions
RNA differs from DNA because...
1. Usually single stranded
2. Contains different type of sugar
3. Base Uracil (U) as a substitue thymine (T)
 
Comte de Buffon (1707-1788)
accepted bio change. Noticed when animals migrate to new climate, population changes
home range
the spatial area used by a primate group
homozygous
having the same allele at the loci for the gene on both members of a pair of homologous chromosomes
polytypic species
species that consist of a number of separate breeding population, each varying in some genetic form.
galapagos islands
a group of islands in the Pacific off South America; owned by Ecuador; known for unusual animal life where Darwin found the fiches that led him to the theory of evolution
High vasodilation and effective sweating (e.g., earlier onset, better distribution) maintenance of core temp (even during activity)
Acclimatization to Heat Stress: Full (~10 days)
Conditions that favor sexual reproduction
trade off fast reproduction for getting new variations, new combinations, one can shift from the second condition (unpredictable) to the first (predictable)
whats significant about Nyinba Marriage?
polyanderous they have multi male single female families, amoung brothers.
What has a brain size of ~900 cc?
  Homo erectus
DNA Replication
when a cell divides, the DNA must make copies of itself so that each new cell receives a full complement of the genetic code.
Where were primates found during this period and what happened to them?
Africa, Europe, Asia. Broadly distributed, sivapithecus gave rise to orangutans
Stabilizing selection
a plant that is too small (no sun) or too tall (not enough resources) won't do well, ones that are in the middle will end up doing the best, true for most species, humans
Ch 9: Origin of Primates
 
Postorbital Bar
A bony ring encircling the lateral side of the eye but not forming a complete cup around the eye globe
What is significant about the date of 2.5 MYA?
First homos and tool makers
Loss of vitamin c synthesis
non functional human gene for LGO (an enzyme essential for endogenous synthesis of vitamin C), human gene for making LGO has mutated to the point that it is now a pseudo-gene
Ch 8: Fossils
 
Daughter Isotope (product)
The isotope that is produced as the result of radioactive decay of the parent isotope
What is the end result of mitosis?
Process of somatic cell replication in which the diploid chromosome number is maintained in each of the daughter cells after a cell divides.
Humans have a brain size that is:
Three times larger than would be expected for a primate of our size
On the origins of species was written in 1859
On the origins of species was written in 1859
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Term:
Definition:
Definition:

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