Biological Anthropology terms for exam Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Pronograde
horizontal
Paleocene
65 Mya
3 epidemiological transitions
-agricultural
-industrial
-post-industrial
Orangutans
solitary, females+young=stability, very sexually dimorphic
Dwarf lemurs
nocturnal insectivors
ape distribution
africa (gorillas+chimpanzees)
Asia (Gibbon, Orangutans)
Gregor Mendel
Father of Genetics
Menstruation (in Darwinian Medicine)
...
Chromatid
single strand of DNA
Buffon
reconized relationship between enviornment and nature
(Survival of the fittest)
paleoanthropology types of data
-fossil-bearing sites
-fossils
-artifacts
Phenetics
classification system based on existing phenotypic features and adaptation
Carolus Linnaeus
Created the taxonomic system.
staphylococcus
Genus of spherical gram-positive parasitic bacteria that tend to form irregular colonies
Hominidae
Family of Primates. Contains us....
Catarrhines
old world monkeys and apes
gigantopithicus
middle miocene ape
largest primate (900 lbs, 10")
pakistan & india 
artificial selection
favoring of specific traits
biostratigraphy
relative dating technique using comparison of fossils from different stratigraphic sequences to estimate which layers are older and which are younger
Aristotle
*Nothing ever changes.

Aristotle held back biology and medicine for 1500 years.

The idea that nothing ever changes meant that evolution was impossible so biology and medicine couldn’t move forward.
language
system of communication used by humans
toothcomb
lower canines and incisors together form a comb like structure used for grooming or feeding
Species of Cercopithecidae
Babbons, Macaques, and Langurs
hunter-gatherers
Societies that rely on naturally occurring sources of food.
Ethnography
deals with the scientific descriptions of an individual culture
Jean Baptiste Lamark
Inhertitance of Acquired Characteristics-interaction between organisms and their environment, changes in trait are inherited (giraffe scenario)
smaller animals need _____ calories than larger animals
more
Gamete
a mature sexual reproductive cell having a single set of unpaired chromosomes
Cercopithecoidea
Super family of primates. All old-world monkeys. Includes baboons, macaques, colobus monkeys, langurs (last two digest a lot of leaves)
Fossils
radioactive elements become stable at different rate of decay, ratio of potassium to argon used to age volcanic ash, goes back millions of years
Lyell
Considered the founder of modern geology. Charles Darwin's friend and mentor. He argued in his work "Principles of Geology" that the geological processes we see today are the same as those that occurred in the past. Also called uniformitarianism, also proposed by James Hutton in the late 1700s. Emphasized the obvious: that the world must be much older than anyone previously suspected.
Menopause
postreproductive live of women, after the cessation of ovulation and menses
theory
a broad statement of scientific relationships or underlying principles that has been substantially verified through the testing of hypothesis
endoplasmic reticulum
ER-organelle in the cytoplasm consisting of a folded membrane where metabolic reactions take place because there is increased surface area
omomyoids
family of mostly Eocene primates probably ancestral to all haplorhines
gene
the fundamental unit of heredity. consists of a sequence of DNA bases that carries the information for synthesizing a protein (or Polypeptide) and occupies a specific chromosomal locus
Proteins
provide amino acids—8 essential ones we have to get from food
quantitative variation
phenotypic variation that is characterized by the distribution of continuous variation (expressed using a numerical measure) within a population (for example, in a bell curve)
immigrants from 3 regions
-northeast asia (mongoloid)
-western africa (negroid)
-northern europe (caucasoid)
habilis findings
-tool making capabilities (mostly core tools, olduwan)
-larger brain size than any other australopithecine
-scavengers, not hunters (brain expansion, bipedality, terrestriality and free hands)
-fossil material was fragmentary
Macroevolution
evolution on a large scale extending over geologic era and resulting in the formation of new taxonomic groups
science
The method of inquiry that requires the generation, testing, and acceptance or rejection of hypotheses.
autosomal dominant trait
affects individuals in every generation and males and females equally
crossing over
exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes during the first prophase of meiosis; mechanism for genetic recombination
analogous
Having similar traits due to similar use not due to shared ancestry.
Visual Predation Hypothesis
Primates' adaptations suited for seeing and preying on small animals in branches; requires visual acuity and grasping hands
modern/evolutionary synthesis
the product of variation (mutation) and the shaping of it (selection) are both necessary to explain adaptation
Skeletal Biology
Like osteology, patterns and processes of human growth, physiology, and development
Termites
exception that proves the rule about kin selection, diplo-diploid, but the colony inbreeds generation to generation, gender roles are determined by hormones and pheromones and also influenced by social factors such as season, size and age of colony, queen can mate with her sons considering they don't move away much, non reproducing "soldiers" have big jaws to protect colony, workers also nonreproducers work to build the mound and more, queen is many times larger and lives much longer, produces hundreds of eggs a day, totally dependent on workers for protection, food, and delivery of her eggs, care for her young and to move her from place to place
Hybrids
Offspring of parents who differ from each other because of different inherited traits or genetic makeup. Heterozygotes.
Meiosis
Cell division that occurs in the testes and ovaries that leads to the formation of sperm and ova.
Biocultural Approach
language is a prime example
 
human culture behavior shapes human evolution
Prosimian
In zoology, any animal belonging to the suborder Strepsirhin of primates. Prosimians are characterized by a wet nose with slitlike nostrils, the tip of the nose having a prominent vertical groove. Examples are lemurs, pottos, tarsiers, and the aye-aye.
amino acids
small molecules that are the components of proteins
stratigraphy
study of the sequential layering of deposits
reproductive isolating mechanisms
RIMs- any factor (behavioral, ecological, or anatomical) that prevents a male and female of 2 different species from hybridizing
genetic code
the system whereby the nucleotide triplets in DNA and RNA contain the information for synthesizing proteins from the 20 amino acids
lemurs
Superfamily Lemuroidea. Only found on Madagascar. Live in diverse social systems, mostly diurnal.
Charles Darwin
wrote ''The Origin of Species\" describing his evolutionary theory. Described natural selection as \"survival of the fittest\"
Sex Cells
reproductive cells or gametes

Egg and sperm serve for reproduction to form zygote (becomes individual)
species
an interbreeding group of animals or plants that are reproductively isolated through anatomy, ecology, behavior, geographic, distribution, from all other such groups
balancing selection
type of natural selection that favors intermediate phenotypes ex. baby's weight
Genes
sequence of DNA that codes for a protein and thus determines a trait
chromosome
linear body in cell nucleus that carry genes and appear during cell division
sexual dimorphism
difference in size shape or color between the sexes
PTC
inability to taste is b/c it's a homozygous recessive genotype
ecological species concept
-adapted individuals have the same ecological niche
- focuses on adaptive factors
Cell
has 46 chromosomes w/DNA and RNA in them
New world Monkeys (Ceboids)
outward facing nostrils, three premolars, ring for auditory canal
Complementary
In genetics, it means that the DNA bases will form pairs in a precise manner. (Adenine to thymine, guanine to cytosine)
what are Omomyids?
fossil prosimians from the eocene, they had grasping hands and feet large eyes and were nocturnal. lived everywhere but africa.
folivores
__________ are animals who eat a diet composed mainly of leaves or foliage.
mutation
a change in DNA; can include changes in chromosome structure and/or number
hylobatid
member of the gibbon or lesser ape family
postorbital constriction
the pinching-in of the cranium just behind the orbits where the temporalis muscle sits. Little constriction indicates a large brain and small muscle; great constriction indicates a large muscle
nucleus
in eukaryotic cells, the part of the cell in which the genetics material is separated form the rest of the cell (cytoplasm) by a plasma membrane
Antibodies (immunoglobins)
o proteins that are produced by some types of immune cells and that serve as major components of the immune cells. Antibodies recognize and attach to foreign antigens on bacteria, viruses, and other pathogens. the other immune cells destroy the invading organisms
population genetics
the study of genetic variation within and between groups of organisms
direct model of phenotype
combination of environment and alleles to make phenotype
synthetic theory of evolution
the 20th century conception of evolution being caused by a number of complex and often interacting processes. This is essentially a combination of Darwin's concept of natural selection, Mendel's basic genetics, along with the facts and theories of population genetics and molecular biology.
folate
a B vitamin that is essential for cell growth and reproduction
Primate Vision
eyes in front of face, bony sockets, overlapping field of vision, color vision, reduced olfaction
Lorises
south east asia, hunt at night and use stealth to get their food, forward facing eyes, short noses, grasping hands and feet
Last common ancestor
calculating backward to one of these nodes, ours is about 5-7 mya
The Basic Processes of Natural Selection
Biological variation, competition, favorable traits (advantage and "fitness"), context (environment), traits that can be inherited, a gradual process, geographical isolation (which leads to a new species over time)
what is eugenics?
* the study of methods of improving genetic qualities by selective breeding (especially as applied to human mating)
Ch 8: Fossils
 
Thermoluminescence
Electron trap technique that uses heat to measure the amount of radioactivity accumulated by a specimen such as a stone tool since its last heating
ischial callosities
patches of tough, hard skin on the buttocks of Old World monkeys and chimps that serve as sitting pads
autosomal recessive disease
a disease caused by a recessive allele; one ocpy of the allele must be inherited from each parent for the disease to devleop. Ex: Sickle cell disease
supraorbital torus
thickened ridge of bone above the eye orbits of the skull, a browridge
Eukaryotic Cell
(have a nucleus) allows first time for multi-cellular organisms. Each human has about 1 trillion eukaryote cells.
ischial tuberosities
-bony part of the pelvis that you sit on
-only found in OWM
Traits of new world monkeys
smaller body size, three premolar teeth, arboreal
Polymorphism (in terms of sickle-cell and malaria)
Sickle-cells are a non-lethal condition, maintained by balancing selection in humans due to its resistance to the malarial parasite. Polymorphisms maintained by this mechanism are balanced polymorphisms.
what is oldawan technology?
mode one tools, flakes and hammer stones. from 2-1.5 mya small excavation sites littered with animal bones of various types


Ch 9: Origin of Primates

Omomyoids


family of mostly Eocene primates probably ancestral to all haplorhines
ate insects and fruits
larger orbits=nocturnal
quadrupedalism/leaping
old world monkeys
wider are of habitat than new world monkeys, thickened calluses on their behinds, double-ridged molar teeth, greater size range, greater degree of sexual dimorphism
complete replacement model
-arose in africa and moved to asia and europe
-no interbreeding with existing hominids
-neadertals were a separate species from homo sapiens
Penalty clause (in Darwinian Medicine)
Good traits conferred early in life may be linked genetically to cancers post-reproductively.
what is H.neanderthalensis?
lived 127 to 30 kya in europe, example is in shanidar and le chapellle. had brow ridges with big face and robust body short limbs. used mode 3 tools.
compound temporonuchal crest
bony crest at the back of the skull formed when an enlarged temporalis muscle approaches enlarged neck (nuchal) muscles, presen in apes and A. Afarenis
certain traits that are found at higher frequency in certainat higher frequency in certain populations
Ancestry in forensic anthropology is generally determined by observing...
what are the anthropoid adaptations?
trend from nocturnal to dinural led to increase importance on sight over smell. eyes rotated more forward, fully enclosed eye socket, dry nose separate from upper lip, molar cusps, shorter snout.
What are the four factors needed for evolution?
Four factors that influence evolution are: mutation, migration, genetic drift, and natural selection. Any one or a combination of one or more of these factors can cause a species to evolve and change.
what is characteristic of the upper paleolithic?
characterized by shift to thin blades of mode 4 tech. evidence of trade up to 100 km away. used a wider variety of foods and fished. they had more complex clothes and domestication of dogs.
who has a postorbital bar?
bar in the side of the head to hold the eye in place, prosimians developed it.
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