biological psychology Flashcards

Terms Definitions
tissue destruction
hyperpolarization of membrane, synaptic input selectively opens potassium gates and allows for ions to leave cell, allowing for cl- ions to enter.
Parietal Lobe
Primary somatosenosry cortex
a neurotransmitter's reabsorption by the sending neuron
-nausea, headache, intense thirst, fatigue-cause: residual acetyldehyde, gastric irritation, excess fluid loss, rebound for sugar drop
parietal lobes
middle, back of brain
nurotranmitter influcnec on the recving cell causing it to fire
involved in reward and reinforcement
two large hemispheres of the brain
Targets of neurons
oMuscles oGlands oOther neurons
__________ assist in getting nutrients across the blood brain barrier.
-means "time-giver" in german-light is the dominant zeitgeber for land animals-effects sleep schedule
limbic system
amygdala and hippocampus--memory and emotion
mimics or increases effects of transmitter
Glial cells
encapsulate and clear nurotransmitters from synapse, provide calcium homeostatis, migrate first during devlopment and provide roads for neronal migration, multiply after adultfhoo - cancer
Input zone
cellular extensions called dendrites that receive information from other neurons
released chemical acts on the releasing cell
drugs that excite neural activity and speed up body functions
What are antagonistic muscles
opposing sets of muscles
Research Methods (list them)
Cell stains
Many different types
   -Golgi: stains everything, yet only a few
   -Cell body stains: (name?)
   -Fat stains: shows axons b/c of myelin sheath(name?)
caused by calcium entering cell after action potential. - release of neurotransmitter from presynaptic neuron into cleft.
horizontal (retina)
inhibits bipolar cells, detect borders around objects. differences in shades of color (lateral inhibition)
Protects the brain, an essential part of the central nervous system. It is the counterpart to the spinal cord.
action potential
wave of electrochemical changes that travels down an axon when a neuron becomes depolarized
_________ is used to treat attention deficit disorder, its effects are similar to those of cocaine, but have a slower onset and offset and therefore less potential for addiction.
Deficines of what is liked to parkinsons disease?
powerful magneitc filed and is exposed to radio waves that cause parts of the brain to emit signals
approx what millivolt is the resting membrane potential?
relative refractory period
period of reduced sensitivity therefore only an extremely strong stimluation can cause another action potential
Sensory Neuron
bring information from outside CNS in
sensory neurons
carry messages from the body's tissues and sensory organs inward to the brain and spinal cord
thin covering of the brain that lies between the dura mater and pia mater
Brain activity leads to changes in ________.________ leads to changes in the brain.So, if you think about it, biological psychology and social psychology are related
behavior, behavior
Number of compressions per second of a sound wave
Osmotic thirst
-water moves from low to high concentration of salt-receptors around 3rd ventricle (leaky) --> responsive to high salt levelsADH released from pituitary
The view that only the mind really exists and that the physical world could not exist unless some mind were aware of it
How is SAD treated?
Light therapy (affects biological clock)
the cerebellum is most important for any process that requires_________?
precise timing
Nervous System-Central Nervous System-Brain-Forebrain-Cerebral Cortex-Neocortex-Temporal Lobe- Define Wernicke's Aphasia
Characterized by disorganized speech sometimes called "World Salad" (show anosagnosia)
Alzheimers related memory problems is asscoiated with what?
decreaes in ACh
what two neurotransmitters based on amino acids are excitatory?
glutamate and aspartate
neurosecretory cells
act like neurons except they release hormones into the blood
Sympathetic nervous system:
prepares the body for action, blood pressure increases, pupils widen, inhibits digestion, and the heart quickens
Name a few drugs classified as amphetamines
Benzedrine, Dexedrine, methamphetamines, ecstasy
What impact does acetylcholine and GABA, when released from neurons in the basal forebrain, have on alertness?
acetylcholine: excitatory, increase arousal, make more awakeGABA: inhbits synaptic activity; induces sleep
the belief that the mind and body are different kinds of substance – mental substance and physical substance – that exist independently
What is bipolar disorder?
Varying between mania and depression (formally manic depression)
What is cofigural learning?
Remembering stimuli in relation to other stimuli
PNS has 2 subdivisons
Somatic Nervous sytem and Autonomic Nervous stystem
output zone
swellings at the ends of the axon known as axon terminals that communicate the cell's acitivity to other cells
what two principle hormones does the posterior pituitary gland secrete?
oxytocin (reproductive/parenting behaviour) and arginine vasopressin (increases blood pressure/inhibits urine production and can also serve as neurotransmitter in hypothalamus)
what do the cardiac muscles control?
heart muscles; properites intermediate b/w those of smooth and skeletal muscles
Autonomic nervous system (define)
all of the axons that innervate visceral tissues; supplies neural connections to glands, smooth muscle or cardiac muscles
What is the cerebellum involved with?
Involved with involuntary motor control (tying your shoes) - implicit memory - don't have to recall memories. Example: pianist playing stuff from memory (technical)
What are the two hormones that are synthesized in the hypothalamus and released by the pituitary gland?
oxytocin and vasopressin
Why is pain information carried relatively slowly?
-axons are unmyelinated, so slower
What are the characteristics of seasonal affective disorder (SAD)?
depression usually associated with winter
common near the poles where the nights are long (circadian rythms)
less severe than major depression
Definion of " Firing"
Nurons attempt to transmit messages to other nurons, muscles or glands
what is a neuromodulator?
not a transmitter but they affect either release of transmitter or the receptor response to transmitter
what effect does Tetrodotoxin and saxitoxin have on ion channels?
blocks sodium channels causing paralysis
Neocortex (List 5 lobes and descibe primary functions)
-Frontal lobe:  responsible for working memory-Parietal lobe: responsible for spatial processing and movement-Occipital lobe: responsible for vision-Temporal lobe: responsible for semantics, (“Jennifer Aniston cells”: facial recognition), and memory-Insula lobe: responsible for auditory recognition, phonological processing of speech, gestation (speech), olfaction (smell)
These lobes are all make up the _____.
What is resting membrane potential?
The resting potential is the potential across the neural membrane when the cell isn't receiving input, integrating, or conducing an "impulse"This electrical potential is at -60 mV.
How do drugs affect Dopamine transmission?
-dopamine synthesized by Dopa (AMPT reduces dopamine release)-L-dopa increases dopamine release-MAO breaks down dopamine, increase dopamine release-amphetamine: increases release of dopamine into synaptic cleftcocaine, nicotine, block reuptake(antagonist)
3 methods used to localize sounds
-intensity: sound becomes louder for one ear-time of arrival: what ear is it reached first?-phase difference between the ears - if turn head away from the source, it is phased out
What are the problems of interpreting twin studies?
sometimes difficult to disentangle heritability and prenatal influences
Environmental factors can inactivate genes, inactivated gene passed on to next generation
Genetic differences promote psychological differences by influencing experience (multiplier effect)
Define Central Nervous System (CNS)
Part of the Nervous System containing brain and spinal cord that enables mind and behavior
what do we use PET for?
maps radioactive tracers to produce images of brain activity
Where in the brain are the basal ganglia and limbic system?
in the cerebral hemispheres
Nicotine (bio and behavioral effects)
______ is an agonist of the _____ic receptor.
_____ can produce feelings of reward, alleviate anxiety/depression and produce cognitive enhancement
Too much dopamine =Too little dopamine =
Too much dopamine = Schizophrenia (crazy)Too little dopamine = Parkinson's (frozen) - Drugs are used to enhance their dopamine receptors and they are able to move again.
Which form of the alcohols is safe to consume? what is the elimination rate for alcohol?
-distilled alcohol and ethanol-10ml/hour
What did Tyron (1934) find in selective breeding experiment with maze dull and bright rats?
after 8th generation of selective breeding no overlap of task effectiveness, evidence genes influence the development of behaviour
What are 4 advantages to non-human subjects?
simpler nervous systems, use of comparative appraoch, fewer ethical constraints, easier to control for confounds
Real quick reminder: What is declarative memory and what is non-declarative memory?
Declarative - Things you know that you can tell others - Remembering your first day in school - knowing the capital of franceNon-declarative - Things you know that you can show by doing - Knowing how to ride a bicycle - Being more likely to use a word you heard recently - Salivating when you see a favorite food.
Describe what the cranial nerves are and what some of them do.
They can be sensory, motor, or both-There are 12 nerves starting at the rostral(nose) -> caudal (tail).-Sensory - Bring in sensory info.-Motor - Carry out info (blinking/chewing)-Vagus - Heart Rate, Digestion, Respiration, (brings in sensory info on whats going on in digestive tract)-Autonomic nerves-Special nerves
What are the effects of caffeine at low doses and at high doses? How does caffeine produce these effects?
low doses: increase energy, alertness, etchigh doses: tensions and anxietyblocks adrenodine receptors (sleep)
What are the cause of Alzheimer's disease?
associated with aging 5% of 65-74 years, 50% of those over 85.
Genetic component- Down's syndrome (3 copies of chromosome 21) always aquire alzheimers in middle age.
Environmental component- half of all cases have no know relatives with disease.
Yoruba people of Nigeria have high-risk genes, but lower rate of Alzheimers maybe due to low calorie, low fat, low salt diet.
describe the purpose of the circle of Willis? what is it comprised of?
comprised of joint major cerebral arteries which provides an alternate route for blood flow incase any of the main arteries to the brain are damaged or blocked
What two things tells us how we know our acquaintances?
1) Looks2) EmotionsMust put both together to recognize acquaintances
What year was the neuron doctrine introduced and who introduced it? Also...what was it?
1900 - Ramon y CajalFound that neurons were the unit of the nervous system!
What did Cooper and Zubek (1958) find with environment and maze dull and bright rats?
Adult maze-dull rats only made more errors when raised in impoverished as opposed to enriched conditions therefore experience can overcome effects of genes
what is selective permeability of the cell membrane?
only allows certain types of ions to enter and exit freely
The thalamus is the gateway to all sensory imput except for the ______
The _______ is the gateway to all sensory imput except for olfactory
There are many anomalies with schizophrenia. Explain more...
There isn't just type 1 or type 2. Can be caused by other thins and can show different effects. Two identical twins who shared 100% DNA - 1 was affected the other was not. This was because one had big ventricles which squished certain parts of the brain.
What is the structure and function of the corpus callosum?
large set of axons that connect the two cerebral hemispheres, allows communication between the hemispheres.
What are the nodes of ranvier and what do they have to do with saltatory conduction?
The nodes of ranvier are spaces formed between the myelin sheath on the axon. The spaces are just far enough apart to spread Na+ and K+. Then it shoots down they myelinated axon - this is known as saltatory conduction = much faster
Towards the midline
Close to the center
a bundle of axons
Substance that activates neural receptors
Amacrine (retina)
modulate activity of cells
ability to activate a receptor
Who discovered the Cartesian reflex?
interconnected cells that help fathom our thoughts and actions, memories and moods
change towards 0mV (getting less negative)
collections of nerve cell bodies, belonging to the autonomic division of the peripheral nervous system, that are found in various locations and innervate the major organs
Metabotropic receptors
activated by neurotransmitter, no channel involved. neurotransmitter attaches to the receptor, receptor bends + releases G protein. can attach to an ion channel, react on 2nd messengers, alter metabolic activities, or effect gene transcription factors. THIS IS THE SLOWEST.
enhances Nitric Oxide levels in bloodstream to increase blood flow
cannabinoid, anandamide 2AG
marijuana stimulates ________ receptors, which also stimulated by endogenous peptides such as ______ and sn-2 arachidonylglycerol __________
Name two illeagal stimulant drugs?
Amphetamine, cocaine
What nurotransmitter acts as a hormone?
associate sensory and motor activity in the CNS (middle man for sending messages)
hormones used to communicate between individuals of the same species
the level of stimulation required to trigger a neural response
chambers in the brain that contain cerebral spinal fluid to act as a shock absorber for the brain and to provide a medium for the exchange of materials and nutrients between blood vessels and brain tissue
The Hippocampus is an ancient cortex which consists of _____ layers of cells!
ringing in earslike phantom limb for hearing
retinex theory
cortex compares info from various parts of the retina to determine the brightness and color of an area
gap between neurons across which they communicate
who discovered the properties of spatial and temporal summation using behavioral experiments on dogs reflexes
Charles Sherrington
What is ethology?
compares behaviours of different species, looks at function
what part of the hindbrain transmits information about body movmetns and is invovle din fucnitons realted to attention, sleep, alertness, and resp?
act as phagocytes (engulf and break down dead neurons) and protect brain from microorganisms; representatives from immune system
synaptic or neurocrine
invovles chemical release and diffusion across a synapse
what is pinocytosis?
process by which synaptic neurontransmitter is repackaged into synaptic vesicles
Axon Hillock
cone-shaped area from which the axon originates out of the cell body; has the lowest threshold for generating activity in the axon
____ is a neural mechanism that plays a role in experience dependent plasticity.
What effects do psychostimulants have?
Psychostimulants: decrease appetitie, increase B.P. and other autonomic processes. give "high" feeling, increase alertness and moodincrease dopamine in NAC
Hypercomplex cells
has an inhibitory zone where response is weakened
What are auditory receptors in cochlea called?
hair cells
MDMA or ectasy, serotonic
long term us of methylenediioxymethamphetamine _________destroys _______ neurons increases anxiety, depression, sleep problems, memory deficits, attention problems and impulsiveness.
What is a fMRI scan?
(functional magnetic resonance imaging)- based on MRI (but shows changes over time rather than anatomy). Detects changes in oxygen content in blood (using strong magnetic field) which indicates amount of activity.
unleanred response to a stimulus that may invovle only two neurons...efferent and affernt
spinal reflexes
What two categories can the 'description' perspective be broken down into?
structural and functional
Schwann Cell
perform same function as Glial cells but in the PNS
what do they protect?
the brain and spinal cord
Efferent vs Afferent
Meaning to "exit" vs meaning to "arrive"
Inputs sum to threshold at the ____ ______. When this happens, an action potential is initiated.
axon hillock
Pituitary Gland: anterior v.s. posterior
anterior: gland tissue, allows synthesis + release of chemicalsposterior: nevous system tissue
What neurotransmitters are releases in the spinal cord in response to mild or strong pain?
mild: glutamatestrong: substance p
james olds, peter milner
_______ and ________ discovered that rats will work for electrical stimulation of certain brain areas
How is bipolar disorder treated?
lithium salts
Block synthesis of arachidonic acid (associated with brain inflammation)
Define Biological Psychology
The study of the brain and behavior
What inhibitroy nurotransmitter may help calm anxiety reactions
Gamma aminobutyric acid ( GABA)
axon collaterals
an axon that has divided into several branches allowing a single nerve cell to influence a wide array of other cells
what are the 2 perspectives that emerge out of Darwin's theory?
continuity and differences
what is the outermost layer of the meninges called?
dura mater
Meninges (describe and list types)
protective membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord
Dura Mater, Arachnoid, Pia Mater
Explain the Ionotropic receptors in terms of cation channels and anion channels and do the same for Metabotropic receptors
Ionotropic Receptors:-Cation channel - Both produce EPSP's - EXCITATION-Anion channel - Produces IPSPMetabotropic Receptors:-Cation Channel - Produces IPSP and EPSP-No channel...regulate second messengers and thus metabolism with many possible results.
what prevents extra GABA and glutamate from leaving cleft?
Astrocytes break them down
The problem of the minds
The difficulty knowing whether other people (or animals) have conscious experiences
what is reterograde amnesia?
loss of memory for events that happened a few years before brain damage.
How do antagonists affect the synapse?
Inhibit transmission at the synapse
Block neurotransmitter
Nervous System-Peripheral Nervous System-Autonomic Nervous System- Define Sympathetic Division
Engaged during a crisis, or after actions requiring FIGHT OR FLIGHT
Cat scan
passes a narrow x ary beam through the head and meausres brain strucutres
What are synaptic vesicles
sacs in the axon terminals whcih contain neurotransmitters
Golgi Stain
fill the whole cell and is often used to characterize the variety of cell types within a region
what is the name of the ventricle that each hemisphere contains?
lateral ventricle
G-protein coupled receptors are ___. Yet benefit from ____
Slow; metabotropic, and adjacent to the ion channel (thus it takes time for g-protein messengers to travel to the ion channel).
Though slow, they benefit by allowing channels to be open for longer periods of time
List two developmental themes and two mechanisms that relate to plasticity & development being a lifelong process.
Developmental Themes:1) Components are overproduced and then weeded out in an orderly process - Where we make too much of something and weed it out when we don't need it2) Genes and experience interact to guide brain development.Two mechanisms:1) Experience expectant - genetics2) Experience dependent - experience
The brain has a very abundant _____ supply. Why is it when you have a stroke, paralysis occurs in only a certain place and not throughout the entire body?
blood.The brain is compartmentalized
What are the 3 bones that are connected to the Tympanic membrane called?
1. Hammer2. Anvil3. Stirrup
IPSPS result from the outflow of ___ ions and or the inflow of ___ ions.
potassium k+ chloride cl-
How do drugs work?
both illeagal and legal drugs tend to imitate substances already present in our nevous system, particularly those that effect transmission at the synapse.
What three major divisons is the brain composed of?
hindbrain, midbrain, and forebrain
can dendrites transmit action potentials?
no because dendrites can only be stimulated chemically
doctrine of specific nerve energies
response of the sensory organs to stimuli is specific to the sensory system
Methods for classification of Neurons (3,+6subpoints)
oShape of cell body
  -Ex. Oval cells: spherical shaped
oSize of cell body
   -Small in terms of diameter (<40 micrometers)
   -Large in terms of diameter (>40 micrometers)
oNumber of processes
   -Unipolar neuron: one process
   -Bipolar neuron : two processes
   -Multipolar neuron: more than two processes
True or False: The cerebral hemispheres are the same
FALSE!!!!! They are NOT the same! Biatch! They do different things!
What does glutamate (GLU) and (GABA) do? What types of receptors do they have?
(GLU)- major excitatory system(GABA) - Counter part to GLU. Inhibition or it produces no potentials! Major inhibitory system.Both GLU and GABA have bot types of receptors (ionotropic and metabotropic)
make sense of the interactions between glucose, insulin and glucagon
liver maintains glucose by converting stored nutrientsglucose regulates: insulin and glucagons-INSULIN: enables glucose to enter cells if...used as fuel, stored as fat, or stored as glycogenGLUCAGONS: stimlate liver to convert stored glycogen to glucose
What were Clive Wearing's symptoms after he severly damaged hippocampus and marginally damaged temporal and frontal lobes and amygdala, after contracting herpes?
Spends every day 'waking up' diary. Has only moment to moment conciousness, however he can still play the piano and conduct a choir though he has no memory of recieving a music education, this is because he still has an intact cerebellum, which is responsible for the maintanence of procedural memory.
Name the spinal nerves and their relative 'amount'.
8 cervical (neck), 12 thoracic (trunk), 5 lumbar (lower back), 5 sacral (pelvic), 1 coccygeal (bottom)
_____ (percent/fraction) of neurons reside in the cortex?
2/3 (66%) of all neurons reside in the ____?
List the three things that occur at the presynaptic terminal.
1) Action potential propagated to terminal2) Terminal membrane depolarizes (Na+) - Voltage gated Ca2+ channels open as a result of depolarization.- Ca2+ flow into terminal based on concentration gradient3) Ca2+ causes synaptic vessicles (pieces of neural membrane) to fuse with membrane-Neurotransmitter "spilled" into synapse-NT diffuses across synapse
What is the insula known as?
-Primary taste cortex -A bad taste will be processed in this region and may result in facial response that we call disgust.
 -sweet, sour, salty, bitter glutamate
Which two factors will affect the speed of an action potential?
The presence of myelin and the diameter of the axon
what are the two subdivisions of the hindbrain?
metencephalon which develops into both the cerebellum and pons and myelencephalon (medulla)
Explain what the meninges are in the brain and what they do. What exists inside the CNS? What does the Coride Plexus do?
Meninges are three layers of tissue that surround the CNS and protect and support it from the outside.Inside the CNS there is a ventricular systemThe coride plexus (ventricles) make cerebralspinal fluid (CSF) which provides nutrients and also gives the brain shape.
What is the law of specific nerve energies in modern terms?
activity by a particular nerve always conveys the same kind of information to the brain.
What is the function of the primary motor cortex (precentral gyrus)?
Regulates movement of body by sending axons to the brainstem and spinal cord
what are the 4 ways of interaction between hormonal and neural systems?
neural to neural, neural to endocrine, endocrine to endocrine, endocrine to neural (systems exert reciprocal influence on each other and hormones affect experience, experience affects hormone secretion, behaviour affects future experiences)
What's the point of us having a "god" circuit and what's the point?
Biologically it gives us something to live for and makes us feel better when we feel lost and are searching for answers?? Actually, who the hell knows? Question not meant to be answered really.
What is the result of damage to the temporal lobe?
can have similar affect to amygdala damage (Kluver-Bucy syndrome)
what are the 9 principles of hormone action?
1. hormones act ina gradual fashion 2. hormones act by changing probablility or intensity of behaviour 3. relationship between behaviour and hormones is reciprocal 4. a hormone may have multiple effects and one behaviour can be affected by several hormone
What were the problems with Gull's proposal?
if you bumped you head at a young age your injury shoul change your moral faculties
suprachiasmatic nucleus
circadian rhythms
Away from the midline
furrows in the brain
___________ connections modify and make it easier for other circuits to work
causes: diet, poor sleeping conditions, stress, neurological problems, lactose intolerance
acetylcholine, dopamine
Nicotine stimulates nicotinic receptors, which are a type of ________receptor and are found amoung other places, on neurons that release _______ in the nucleus accumbens.
carries information into a region
biological psychologists
study links between biological activity and psychological events
Source of dopamine for ventral striatum (nucleus accumbens) and prefrontal cortex
-slow acting, broad effects-bind to receptors to alter 2nd messenger systems -can control release of other hormonesex: pituitary gland = "master gland," because controls hormone release Hypothalamus synthesizes: oxytocin (maternal behav, sexual arrousal) and vasioressin (increase water intake in kidneys)
Frequency theory
-low frequencies -basilar membrane vibrates in synchrony with a sound, causing auditory nerve axons to produce action potentials at the same frequency-rate of action potentials = frequency of sound-up to 100 Hz
_________ blocks the reuptake of dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrin
Define Neurons
Nerve cells specialized for communication
What effects movments, learning, and arousal?
consists of brain and spinal cord
block the receptor from being activated
psychoactive drugs
change perceptions and moods thru their actions at the neural synapses
Postganglionic neuron:
”after the ganglion” referring to neurons in the autonomic nervous system that run from the autonomic ganglia to various targets in the body
If NMDA receptor is blocked, ___ cannot be induced!
Jet lag
sleepy during day, sleeplessness at night
autonomic nervous system
peripheral; carries messages between CNS and heart, lungs, glands, etc.; autonomous because we don't think about it
some neuropeptides are
endorphins, substance p, neuropeptide Y
Research on rats has demonstrated similarities between bulimia and______?
drug addiction
What is the specifically tairlored protien on the receving nuron where the chemcial key fits?
Receptor site
What does the substantia Nigra contain, which degengerate in Parkinsons diseas?
Dopamin nuerons.
consists of all nervous system parts outside the bony skull and spinal column
retrograde labeling
axon terminals transport enzyme back to the cell body
chemicals released by one species to affect the behaviour of another species
mesostriatal pathway
plays crucial role in motor control
Postsynaptic potential:
the direct effects of the chemical transmitter molecules on the target structure; recorded in the target neuron from the one that was stimulated
LTP is a form of ______ __________.
neural plasticity
What three properties must a drug possess in order for it to cross the blood brain barrier?
-uncharged-small-lipid solluble
Opponent-process theory
we perceive color in terms of opposites
The "cracks" in a skull. Closes it up
insulin release, as a result of eating carbohydrates, can increase the production of __ in the brain
The surest way to disrupt the biological clock is to damage the_____?
suprachiasmatic nucleus
What is a lesion?
damage to a brain area
What is the section called ware the spinal cord meets the brain?
The system that is invoved iwth memory, emotion, the dirve for hunger, sex and agression is that what?
limbic sytem
remove part of brain and observe which behaviour change or remain
Multipolar neurons
neuron with one axon and many dendrites; most common type of neuron
corpus callosum
bundle of axons crossing the midline of the brain allowing communication between both hemispheres
Node of Ranvier
small gap between myelinated segments where axonal membrane is exposed; increase speed of impulses
Five phases of action potential
1) latent period2) initial depolarization: first change towards 0 mV3) spike potential (firing level of the neuron; overshoot)4) after depolarization (repolarization)5) after hyperpolarization (correction of undershoot)
This process describes _____.
What dictates what the membrane potential will ultimately be?
The ion concentration extracellularly
Ionotropic v.s. Metabotropic receptors
Ionotropic: ions can travel through receptors. require neurotransmitter to bind before they can open. It is the fastest.Metabotropic: activated by neurotransmitter, no channel involved. neurotransmitter attaches to the receptor, receptor bends + releases G protein. can attach to an ion channel, react on 2nd messengers, alter metabolic activities, or effect gene transcription factors. THIS IS THE SLOWEST.
gate theory
if disturb signal for pain and flood pathway with other sensations, then decrease pain experience, because only so much touch info can reach brain at a time.
methadone, buprenorphine, LAAM
_________, _______ and _____ are used to treat opiate abuse, they have effects similar to those of morphine and heroin, but are taken orally and therefore have slower onset and offset.
What is an EEG?
recorded electrical activity in the brain through electrodes.
what side of the brain is primarly intutive creative and emotional
right brain
insitu hybridization
uses radioactive lengths of RNA or DNA which identifes neurons that contain a specific mRNA message
what is another type of cell that provides the same functions as a Glial cell?
satellite cell
Neuron membranes are impermeable to:
Na+, and negatively charged proteins, are ____ for neuron neuronal membranes.
Pons & medulla: (describe two function)
responsible for breathing and regulating sleep
(two parts)
List and describe two neural events involved with epilepsy.
1)Over-excitation and insufficient inhibition - can't keep up with excessive excitation. Needs to be balanced and epilepsy means out of balance.2) Treatment - enhance drugs that work on GABA systems (inhibition).
where is the detection of pain processed?
somatosensory cortexcortex of contralateral hemisphere
peripheral nervous system
parts of nervous system not housed in bone; sensory and motor functions
What are the differences and similarities between alzheimers and korsakoffs syndrome?
both associated with widespread damage
Cortical damage and hippocampal damage.
Both lose pevious memories and abilities to form new ones.
Differences, more prefrontal cortex damage in Korsakoffs therefore confabulations.
what area of the brain seems to be a key area for learned fears?
What type of matter is found in the brain and spinal cord and is myelinated?
white matter
what secretes thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)?
pituitary gland releases it through negative feedback from blood
what does castration result in?
changes in behaviour and physiology shows that testes secretes chemical into bloodstream
Glutamate is the _________ (describe effect) neurotransmitter
______ is the main excitatory (depolarizing) neurotransmitter
Describe the mechanism for habituation
Since there is no consequence, neural support for response is diminished. Axon terminal branches are literally pulled back into the main axon. Its a pretty cool mechanism because our circuitry is only supporting what it needs to.
What is the primary treatment for Parkinson’s disease and what is a serious side effects of this treatment?
L-dopa: increase dopamine release; increase psychosis
By what mechanism does infection initiate fever?
white blood cells (leukocytes) release CYTOKINES, which stimulate the vagus nerve ---> signals hypothalamus to initiate fever
dopamine type 4 COMT
two genes that have been implicated in alcoholism control the _____ receptor and _____ the enzyme that breaks down dopamine.
What emotions are associated with the flight-or fight system (sympathetic nervous system)?
Fear associated with escape (Flight)
Anger associated with aggression (Fight)
Central Nervous system ( CNS)
Consits of the brain and spinal cord
what is an inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP)?
when an inhibitory presynaptic neuron fires it shows normal action potential but it causes hyperpolarization (IPSP) in the postsynaptic neuron bringing the postsynaptic neuron farther away from firing an action potential.
Limbic system (descibe its function, its six subcomponents and their independent functions)
The _____ system works various parts of the brain to guide emotion. These parts are:
-Cingulate cortex: emotion formation and processing (along with learning)
-Olfactory bulb: smell and related memory
-Hippocampus: “seahorse”; responsible for memory, context processing, (e.g remembering places, with emotional memory)
-Amygdala: “(angry) almond”; attaches emotional valence (a meter of how great or small something is) to stimuli, emotional processing; guides emotional behavior such as aggression
-Fornix: fiber that connects the hippocampus to the mammillary body
-Thalamus: relay station of the brain (contains mammillary bodies)
These two areas make up the ______ system
List the three types of memory.
1) Sensory memory2) Working memory - short term memory3) Long Term Memory
In the brain, the bumps are called what? The grooves are called what?
Bumps = gyrus/gyriGrooves = sulsas/sulsi
What are the three classes of motor symptoms in Parkinson’s disease?
-Bradgkinesia: abnormal movement, loss of voluntary movement-rigidity: resistance to passive movement-tremors: rhythmic involuntary movement
What is the difference between gender and sex?
gender: how you identify yourselfsex: genetics
Do sons of alcoholic fathers show predispositions to alcoholism?
1. Show less than average intoxication- tolerance to alcohol
2. Show greater decrease of stress when drinking
3. Slightly smaller amygdala so possibly increased risk taking
What did Elbert (1995) find in the brains of muscians?
Larger cortial representation
More pronounced in musicians that sarted at an early age
State 3 Functions of The Nervous System
(1) Receive information (input), (2) Integrate with past experiences (processing), (3) Guide actions (output)
what is co-localization when refering to neurotransmitter?
when more than one typ eof neurotransmitter in a given presynaptic terminal is released
What is Long term potentiation (LTP)?
LTP is the persistent increase in the efficacy of synaptic transmission that results from high frequency stimulation of certain CNS fiber systems. - A form of neural plasticity first found in the hippocampus.
Explain what a ligand-gated receptor is. What is an ionotropic receptor? Does it excite or inhibit? Fast or slow?
A ligand-gated receptor is like a gate with a lock that requires a key. The correct transmitter binds to the binding site and the pore opens, allowing the influx or efflux of ions.An ionotropic receptor is a ligand-gated receptor which attracts ions. This results in fast (excitation) transmission at the synapse.
How do drugs like benzodiazepine's and anxiolytic drugs like valium help with anxiety? How is GABA part of a continuum.
These drugs bind and facilitate GABA binding. This makes GABA work better which relieves anxiety. It is like a continuum in that reduced levels of GABA = anxiety which can lead to seizures if levels get to low. On the other end, increased levels of GABA can cause euphoria (feel good) which can eventually lead to anesthesia (excessive transmission) (pass out).
in short, all or nearly all perceptions depend on...
the pattern across an array of axons
What did Adolph (1995) find when he asked patients with amygdala damage to draw faces showing different emotions?
Couldn't depict fear, however Adolph et al (2005) follow up study found when asked to attend to the eyes, there was no problem, impairment seems to relate to attending to the eyes (more important for fear than happiness)
what does the sodiumpotassium pump do?
pumps sodium out of the cell and potassium (K+) in rapidly enough to counter leakage
List the 3 signaling systems in our bodies
1) Nervous system - NT2) Endocrine system3) Immune system
What is the cochlea and what is it filled with?
-snail shaped structure in inner ear-filled with 3 fluid-filled tunnels: scala vestibuli, scala media, and scala tympani
what are the 2 parts of the adrenal glands?
adrenal cortex (80%) and adrenal medulla (20%)
Describe Arthur and his disconnecting High-order perception and emotion.
- Capgras' Syndrome - Arthur - close acquaintances become impostors - cannot connect cognitive and emotional memory - Have - face recognition, emotion - Do not have - face memory elaborated with emotionArthur thought his parents were impostors. He can recognize a face and distinguish different faces, but he doesn't remember the faces from one moment to the next. He can't connect emotion and cognitive memories. He also lost the emotional aspect of himself as well and consider himself an importer.
What is the result of damage to the prefrontal cortex?
damage causes people to lose social inhibition
what is the name of the group of cells contained in the pancreas? function of them?
islets of Langerhans that secrete insulin and glucagon into blood
List six things that are required to be a neurotransmitter.
1) Must be able to be made in the presynaptic terminal2) Enzymes for NT synthesis must be made in the presynaptic terminal or cell body3) NT must be released when action potential reaches presynaptic terminal via Ca2+ depedent mechanism - doesn't have to come out of vessicles.4) Specific receptor(s) on postsynaptic membrane that can be cloned5) NT on postsynaptic membrane produces PSP - needs to be able to happen6) Blocking NT release must prevent presynaptic cell from producing PSP in postsynaptic cell.
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