Biology Flashcards

Terms Definitions
vertebrata
subphylum
chordata
phylum
Viviparous
live birth
tympanum nervous
hearing
Urodela
Salamanders and newts
vocal chords
produce sound
stomach digestive
begins digestion
Swim bladder
Helps with buoyancy
glottis respiratory
opening into trachea
Ovoviparous
eggs hatch within the body
brain nervous
controls all body functions
Air contains about __ oxygen
20%
Water contains about __ oxygen
1%
mouth digestive
hold and take in food
Bearing young alive that have developed inside the female and recieved nourishment from her is known as ___
viviparous
right atrium circulatory
receive blood returning from body
kidney excretory
filters cellular wastes from the blood
oviduct reproductive
carries eggs from ovary to uterus
Marine fish are continually ___ water at their gills
losing
urinary bladder excretory
stores liquid waste from kidney (urine)
eustachian tube opening
equalizes air pressure in inner ear
Marine fish...
drink a lot and excrete very little
bile duct digestive
carries bile from gall bladder to duodenum
What is the difference in heart chambers for larvae and adult amphibians?
Larvae have two, Adults have three
Replication
Strands separate...Each strand now serves as template for synthesis of a separate DNA molecule as free nucleotides base-pair with complementary nucleotides on the existing strand
Which of the following describes having more than one reproductive episode during a lifetime?
A) cohort
B) dispersion
C) Allee effect
D) iteroparous
E) semelparous
d
A population of ground squirrels has an annual per capita birth rate of 0.06 and an annual per capita death rate
of 0.02. Estimate the number of individuals added to (or lost from) a population of 1,000 individuals in one
year.
A) 120 individuals added
B)
b
Combining DNA from two different sources result in:
recombinant DNA
Why does ice float in liquid water?
A) The liquid water molecules have more kinetic energy and thus support the ice.
B) The ionic bonds between the molecules in ice prevent the ice from sinking.
C) Ice always has air bubbles that keep it afloat.
D) Hydrog
d
-Darwin’s finches are an example of what type of speciation?                                                                                
Allopatric Speciation
The following organization is against the growing of genetically modified crops:
ELF (Earth Liberation Front)
-Which of the following would be an example of adaptive radiation?                                                     
Honeycreepers and Silverswords
-Where is adaptive radiation most commonly found?                                                                                             
 in every elevation and rainfall regime
-The melting of the ice caps in the North and South Poles was likened to:                                                        
       raise sea levels (?)
-Hawaiian Honeycreepers primarily differ by the shape & size of their____.                                                         
 Beak
Which of the following ionizes completely in solution and is considered to be a strong acid?
A) NaOH
B) HCl
C) NH3
D) H2CO3
E) CH3COOH
b
An ecologist recorded 12 white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, per square mile in one woodlot and 20 per
square mile on another woodlot. What was the ecologist comparing?
A) density
B) dispersion
C) carrying capacity
D) quadrats
E) range
a
You are observing a population of lizards when you notice that the number of adults has increased and is
higher than previously observed. One explanation for such an observation would include
A) reduction in death rate.
B) increased immigration.
C) increa
b
What is the overall function of gibberillins? 
germination
The slight negative charge at one end of one water molecule is attracted to the slight positive charge of another
water molecule. What is this attraction called?
A) a covalent bond
B) a hydrogen bond
C) an ionic bond
D) a hydrophilic bond
E) a hydrophobic
b
Name a homeostatic mechanism in your house. 
Furnace thermostat
What is the name of the long, thin, branching processes extending out from a cell body that receive incoming signals?
dendrite
-Of all the scourges of the native Hawaiian rainforest the worst is the:                                                 
   feral pigs
Place the following steps of nerve impulse conduction in the correct order.a.       Sodium channels open and sodium rushes into a cell depolarizing the membrane. b.      Potassium channels open and positive potassium ions leave the ce
D,a,b,e,c
Explain what each of the following terms related to chromosome number means.
2N
4N
N
Diploid
Haploid
2N  paired chromosomes
4N  chromosomes in fours (tetraploid)
 N single chromosome
Diploid  2H
Haploid N
bat
Chiroptera
Blue; Red
Veins;Arteries
Anthozoa
Corals, sea amenines
restriction enzymes
cuts DNA
Free Ribosomes
Creates secretory protiens
chromosome?
rod shaped,tightly packed DNA
what color is baciliophyta?
gold
Eukaryotes
cells that have membrane-bound organelles
Discuss how antibiotic resistance develops in bacteria and why this is an example of natural selection
order
structural and behavioral complexity and regularity
organism that carries out photosynthesis in a manner similar to plants
photoautotrophs
arrangements of polypeptides into regular structural units, alpha helix, beta pleated sheet
secondary
DNA
deoxyribonucleic acid; the genetic material that organisms inherit from their parents; a double-stranded helical macromolecule consisting of nucleotide monomers with deoxyribose sugar and the nitrogenous bases adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), and thymine (T) ; see gene
endocrine system
the body's "slow" chemical communication system; a set of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream
Species
A group of populations whose evolutionary history is distinct and independent from that of other goups.a distinct and independent path is achieved by the group's reproductive isolation from other groups.
Fit
Some individguals within a population leave more offspring than others so they are more fit
successful traits of the parents are passed to the next generation
survival of the fittest
traits that do not aid survival or reproduction are not passed on
food web
interconnected group of food chains
dinoflagellates
replicated chromosomes are attached to the nuclear envelope
Vascular plant
 
SEED PLANT
 
What are the two distinguishing patterns in angiosperms?
flower and fruit
cladogram
phylogenetic diagram that is developed using cladistics
Alopatric specification
a geographical barrior seperates species
aggregate fruit
develops from flower w/many carpels
Spherical symmetry
An organism possesses spherical symmetry if it can be cut into two idnetical halves by any cut that runs through the organism's center
undernourishment
not nourished with sufficient or proper food to maintain or promote health or normal growth.
niche
a full range of physical and biological conditions in which an organism lives and the way in which it uses those conditions
gametophyte
has half the number of chromosomes (haploid) as found in a sporophyte
[Algae]
Phylum Rhodophyta:
Red algae
Compared to brown; smaller = (largest about 0.7 m long)
Warm marine waters - very few that are fresh water
Live in deepest water
Pigment they have allows this (catches light, pigment)

Some take in CaCO3 into cell walls
Economic value - Food & Fertilizer
compound
substance having two or more different elements united chemically in fixed ratio
Multicellular organisms arose when?
1 billion years ago
What type of number of chromosomes does the nucleus of the body cell have?
Diploid
Nuclear Envelope
Surrounds the nucleus, allows material to move in and out of the nucleus
Each codon consists of how many bases?
3
Echinodermata
(sand dollars, sea stars, sea urchins) animals that have radial symmetry as adults. Move and feed by using a network of internal canals to pump water to different parts of the body.
Which of the following flower parts develop into a seed?
ovule
what is each pleural cavity lined with
pleura
The hardening of arteries is known as:
arteriosclerosis.
Evolution
change over time in the gentic composition of a population
bacteriophage
a virus that infects bacteria; also called a phage
What is the range for a base?
7-14
fitness
the ability of a population to maintain or increase its numbers in succeeding generations
Control
The part of an experiment that you compare your results against
albumin
- made in the liver
- essential for maintenance of oncotic pressure (osmotic pressure in the caps due only to plasma proteins)
nitric acid
a component of acid rain; corrosive; damages buildings, vehicle surfaces, crops, forests, and aquatic life.
Isotopes
forms of an element made up of atomscontaining different number of neutrons and thusdiffering in atomic weight.
genes
along the length of each DNA milocule are units of inherited information called
Simple Epithelium- Pseudostratified
Location: Lining of parts of respiratory tract
Function: Secretes mucus, dense with cilia that aid in movement of mucus; provides protection
compound leaf
leaf made w/ leaflets and other parts
binary fission
a process of asexual reproduction that involves dividing into two identical clones
Homologous
Two sets of chromosomes from the male parent has a corresponding chromosome from the female parent.
Hermaphrodite
An organism that has both male and female reproductive organs (Platyhelminthes and Annelids)
parasympathetic division
tends to have calming effect; slows heart rate and breathing; stimulates digestive and urinary systems
hydroxide ion
hydrogen and oxygen compound that has gained an electron therefore bears a negative charge.
Element
A pure substance that cannot be broken down into other substances by chemical means.
interphase
the period of the cell cycle during which the nucleus is not undergoing division, typically occurring between mitotic or meiotic divisions.
frameshift mutations
muations that shifts the reading frame of the genetic message by inserting or deleting a nucleotide
What subphylum is agnatha?Describe this class.
Vertebrates. Agnatha are jawless (includes lampreys), endoparasites
neutrally charged atoms have the same number of ___________
protons and electrons
How many Carbon atoms are in an acetyl group?
2
saturated fat
fat in which all three fatty acid chains contain the maximum possible number of hydrogen atoms
multiple alleles
three or more alleles of the same gene
Where does translation occur?
Within the ribosomes (cytoplasm in both euk. and pro.)
bond energy
is the amount of energy required to break a particular chemical bond
Plasma membrane
Controls movement into and out of the cell
If a population is surviving and reproducing at full capacity, how will the population grow?
Exponentially (J shaped curve)
What are the two kinds of nucleic acids?
DNA and RNA
What is it called when viral DNA is fused with bacterial DNA? In eukaryote DNA?
Prophage, Provirus
The theory of catastrophism
held that after a series of massive extinctions the world was repopulated by the survivors of existing species.
what does glycogen do?
it is converted into glucose whenever enegry is needed.
how do intracellular receptors work?
direct response - ligand (usually a steroid hormone) binds to the receptor in the cytoplasm and then moves to the nucleus and activates gene expression directly
What are the basic structural features of cells?
Plasma membrane, cytoplasm, ribosomes, and DNA
When does lactic acid fermentation occur?
Happens in the stomach.When athletes are doing something like running and they are getting all the O2 that they can but your body wants more, so they perform lactic acid fermentation and get 2ATP. When we get too much lactic acid, our muscles cramp. When the O2 debt is replaced, the lactic acid reverses back to glucose.
What are the three characteristics of cancer
1.) Cells Divide and grow abnormally2.) rely on glycolysis for ATP. all energy is devoted to cell division.3.) Metastasis: When cancer cells spread to other parts of the body. Rough cell surface. Cells don't stick together well. -Travel through interstitial fluid to other body parts and form new tumors.
Green algae - CHLOROPHYTES group
most live in fresh water, but there are also marine species. Larger size and complexity evolved in chlorophytes by three different mechangisms (1)the formation of colonies of individual cells and in filamentous forms (2)the repeated division of nuclei with no cytoplasmic division (3)the formation of true multicellular forms by cell division and cell differentiation.
as oxygen runs out, mitochondria shut down
in cytoplasm, glycolysis continues to break down to form lactate
Give the meaning of the combining form axill/o
Of or pertaining to the armpit
why is having high specific heat important?
water can absorb large amounts of heat with small changes in weather
What is the correct path of a sound vibration until the signal is sent to the brain?
auditory canal - tympanic membrane - malleus - incus - stapes - oval window - spiral organ - cochlear nerve
Chloroplast
Green

Photosynthesis
ribose formula
C6H12O6
Antibiotic
Kills microorganisms
 
Nucleotides A binds
T
Characteristics of Animals
-multicellular
-heterotrophic
-no cell walls
-usually mobile
-usually responsive to short term stimuli
-grow determinately
-lack alternation of generations
gemmae
method of asexual reproduction
F2
offspring of F1 generation
cells without ribosomes
smooth ER
cytosol
semifluid substance in which organelles are found
Monosaccharide
building block of a carb(sugar)
Atomic Number
The number of protons
chlorophyll
light collecting unit in a chloroplast; principal pigment of plants and other photosynthetic organisms 
communications network between nucleus and cell membrane
Endoplasmic Reticulum
heterotroph
an organism requiring organic compounds for its principal source of food.
Leaves
are a plants main photosynthetic system
Smooth ER
syntheizes lipids, controls liver cells, detoxifies drugs, helps muscle control
Asthma
Chronic respiratory disease in which the air passageways become narrower than normal
In noncompetitive inhibition the inhibitor binds to the enzymes?
Allosteric Site
Secretory Vessicle (2)
exocytosis (secretion)they secrete hydrolytic enzymes which are lysosome
Liliaceae
6 tepals, 6 stamens, 3 carpels
during embryonic development, many protostomes undergo _____ cleavage, whereas most deuterostomes undergo ________ cleavage, and the resulting embryos therefore have different cell arrangements
spiral; radial
G1 phase
growth and development of cell
extensive system of internal membranes that move proteins and other substances through the cell
endoplasmic reticulum
Individual features of all organisms are the result of ______ and the ______
genetics,environment
cladisticses
classification of organisms based on the branchings of descendant lineages from a common ancestor.
population
group of individuals that belong to the same species and live in the same area
cleavage
The rapid mitotic divisions of a zygote that begin within 24-36 hours after fertilization.
Mating behavior
cortship behavior cortship rituals to calm male bird down. also to make sure breeding with right species. providing organization
Heterozygous
Having different alleles for a given trait. (Dd genotype)
Clone
identical copy of cell donor (Dolly, identical twins)
fertilizing
the union of haploid gametes to produce a diploid zygote.
In cystic fibrosis, children may grow poorly, have foul smelling feces and cough alot because of....
pleiotropy
Repressor
In an operon, the protein that prevents attachment of RNA polymerase to the promoter by binding to the operator. It is coded for by the regulator.
RFLP analysis
 
restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) are generated by...
 
these fragments are often not _____ in different individuals
 
can be detected by ___ blotting
 point mutations or sequence duplications
 
identical
 
southern
guanyl cyclase
example of a g-protein coupled receptor; causes GTP to be turned into cGMP
nerve
a cordlike organ composed of numerous nerve fibers (axons) bound together by connective tissue
genetic instructions for which type of cell are housed in the nucleus?
eukaryotic cells
Hypotonic
has less solute and will gain water
facilitated diffusion
movement of molecules across a membrane from high to low concentration assisted by proteins
phylum tracheophytes
vascular tissue, true roots stems and leaves---ferns, trees, or flowers
Lytic Cycle
Virus binds to receptors on host cell
Injects DNA into bacterium
DNA takes over host's bacterial machinery and makes copies of its own DNA
Takes over transcription/translation of viral proteins/capsids
Adds glycolipids and other proteins to make up new viruses
Could add viral envelope from the nuclear membrane
When there are around 100 new virulent cells, bacterium ruptures
Mitochondria
Energy for the cell is mostly makes aerobic cell respiration
seed
an embryo with a food supply and protective coat
multicellular
young sporocyte
sperm does not need water to swim to egg
wind and animals transport pollen
Diacylglycerol (DAG)
A second messenger produced by the cleavage of a certain kind of phospholipid in the plasma membrane.
Fibroblasts
Cells found in the dermis that produce collage, elastin, matrix, and fibronectin
transcription factors
bind to the promoter and facilitate the binding of RNA polymerase to the site
Polyps
The sessile form of the cnidarian body plan; they are cylindrical forms that adhere to the substrate by the aboral end of the body (end opp. the mouth) and extend their tentacles, waiting for prey.
The ___ of some genes can be influenced by the environment
expression
Goal Of Science
To investigate and understand the natural world.
Characteristics of Viruses
Made of protein and genetic materialAll viruses are parasitesAll have CAPSID(protein shell)Some have proteins in envelope alsoSpike proteins signal where to attach toNon enveloped- just Genome entersEnveloped, whole thing enters2 stagesLysogenic- viruses DNA incorporates into hosts DNA, then allows for mutliple replication. Uses Integrase to enter host cell DNA After a while enters Lytic Phase- cell replicates DNA and proteins until bursts or viruses bud off.
Moves food through the esophagus to the stomach
Trachea conducts air to the lungs
Esophagus conducts food from the pharynx to the stomach
Swallowing Reflex
an anumal whose anus is formed from the blastopore
deuterostome
acid
a compound usually having a sour taste and capable of neutralizing alkalis and reddening blue litmus paper, containing hydrogen that can be replaced by a metal or an electropositive group to form a salt, or containing an atom that can accept a pair of ele
Phagocytosis
plasma membrane of a cell surrounds a smaller cell or food particle and engulfs it, delivering resulting structure to lysosome
Organ System
A group of Organs that work together to perform a specific function
plant nutritional requirements
macronutrients- C, H, O, N, P, K
Name 3 common lower respiratory diseases
1) bronchitis
2) bronchiolitis
3) pneumonia
response to a stimuli?
Organisms react to external and internal stimuli. Some reactions are slow and can’t be seen
base pairing rules
the rules stating that cytosine pairs with guanine and adenine pairs with thymine in DNA, and that adenine pairs with uracil in RNA
Properties of DNA
double stranded, has one less oxygen in the sugar molecule.
Diploid Cell
has 2 sets of each of its chromosomesOne set of chromosomes from mother and one set from the fatherGenerally humans, 26 chromosomes (2n=46)Diploid produce Haploid daughter cells with Meiosis (halving the chromosome number)
Bases of RNA typically form what kind of bonds with complementary basees on the same strand?
Hydrogen Bonds
Root pressure
The upward push of xylem sap in the vascular tissue of roots.
Who is Linnaeus?
A guy who developed the basis for modern taxonomy
The Anabolism of Histidine
10 steps from ammonia and glycerol derivativeHistidine is its own noncompetitive inhibitorNegative feedback at first step saves energyADP also inhibits, as more ATP is changed to ADP, it binds to first enzyme and inhibits
Principals of evolution by natural selection
1. Variation- different charateristics in individuals in any species that may be helpful2. Overproduction3. Competition4. Adaptation- come from variations; they help organisms survive and reproduce. They are inherited traits that help an organism in a given envirnment5. Natural selection- the envirnment chooses the best adaptation to survive and reproduce6. Speciation- favorible adaptations gradually accumulate and over time new species are formed
What are Darwin's Ideas?
Wrote origin of species in 1859. Descent with modification: All organisms are related with a common ancestor, When they wen tot different habitats that evolved different. Natural selection. he believed in Gradualist: over time things would grow
what is the (total) presure of air at sea level?
760 mm Hg
a disaccharide is (3)
1) a double sugar, 2) constructed by two monosaccharides, 3) formed by a dehydration reaction
If body temp is low
• Constrict blood vessels of skin – Decrease blood flow – Decrease heat loss• Muscle Shivering – Generates heat• Stimulate cellular respiration – Generate metabolic heat
what are the effects of high altitude initially?
Ventilation rate increases
heart rate increases
Photosynthesis – the reaction
carbon dioxide + water + sun energy glucose and oxygen

6CO2 + 6H2O C6H12O6 + 6O2
The bony pelvis consists of what bones?
Hip bones, pubic symphis, and ths sacrum.
Darwin was the greatest biologist of the 19th century, but he sure misunderstood genetics, which he believed was due to "blending inheritance." This is the belief that:
d. the hereditary traits of both parents blend in the offspring, like two differently colored inks.
Describe how an enzyme's shape is important to its function.
The shape of each enzyme fits the shape of only particular reactant molecules.
What facts point to the idea that bacteria are small but not simple?
Their behavior. They will move toward nutrient-rich regions. Aerobes move toward oxygen, and anaerobes move away from it. photosynthetic types move toward light, but will move away if the light gets too intense.
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