Biology 13 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
During exponential growth, a population always
A) grows by thousands of individuals.
B) grows at its maximum per capita rate.
C) quickly reaches its carrying capacity.
D) cycles through time.
E) loses some individuals to emigration.
b
Which of the following statements about the evolution of life histories is correct?
A) Stable environments with limited resources favor r-selected populations.
B) K-selected populations are most often found in environments where density-independent factor
c
Which of the following effects is produced by the high surface tension of water?
A) Lakes donʹt freeze solid in winter, despite low temperatures.
B) A water strider can walk across the surface of a small pond.
C) Organisms resist temperature changes, alt
b
-The Endangered Species Act was created in _____?                                                                                            
   1973
One of the buffers that contribute to pH stability in human blood is carbonic acid H2CO3. Carbonic acid is a
weak acid that when placed in an aqueous solution dissociates into a bicarbonate ion (HCO3-) and a hydrogen
ion (H+). Thus,
H2CO3 ↔ HCO3- + H+
I
a
As N approaches K for a certain population, which of the following is predicted by the logistic equation?
A) The growth rate will not change.
B) The growth rate will approach zero.
C) The population will show an Allee effect.
D) The population will increa
b
BT corn pollen was shown by entomologist John Losey to be lethal to:
kills monarch caterpillars
What is the pH of a solution with a hydrogen ion [H+] concentration of 10-8 M?
A) pH 2
B) pH 4
C) pH 6
D) pH 8
E) pH 10
d
-What is likely to become the greatest environmental problem of next century?                                     
an impending water crisis
-In the next 50 years the carbon dioxide concentration of the atmosphere will:                                                      
continue to increase, multiply by 5(?)
ANEU-
WITHOUT
Chromosomes
d
turgid
very firm
obligate aerobe
requires oxygen
bi-
two; twice; double
autotrophs
make their own food
glucose and fructose are
isomers
smallest unit of water
molecule
hindbrain
RHOMBENCEPHALON
- medulla: BP, RR
- pons: balance
- cerebellum: coordinates complex movements
Organelles
membrane bound compartments providing different internal environment than rest of cell

Fatigue

 


•Fatigue is the progressive weakness and loss of contractility from prolonged use


 
What does bacteriophage mean?
Bacteria eater
Cnidaria
RADIATA- nearly all marine -carnivorous -polyps and medusae -internal extracelluar digestion -(ex: hydroids, jellyfish, sea anemones, and coral)
Nucleus
Contains DNA – information specifying “recipe” for every protein a cell can make
Nuclear pores through nuclear envelope
Nucleolus assembles ribosomes
cotransport
a single ATP-powered pump that transports a specific solute can indirectly drive the active transport of several other solutes in a mechanism called _________
hemostasis
blood clotting, clotting can usually be used to prevent massive blood loss with pressure. Usually cannot help with a very large wound such as a bullet wound.
terrestrial biomes separated by:
temperature vs precipitation
__ phylum had triplobastic, with mesoderm giving rise to a thick, muscular mesenchyme (middle tissue layer in adult
platyhelminthes
_______________ groups organisms with similar molecular sequences into _____________.
Molecular systematics....clades
transcription
23. The process of copying genetic information from DNA to mRNA is called –
DNA Synthesis
-Always proceeds in 5'->3'-Leading Strand (5'):synthesized continuously-Lagging Strand(3'):synthesized discontinuouslyforms short okazaki fragmentsDNA primase synthesizes RNA primersDNA ligase links okazake fragments
heteromorphic
haploid & diploid stages exhibit different forms
Prophase 1
nuclear envelope breaks apart, chromosomes shorten, spindle forms; chromosome pairs with homologous chromosome
nonpolar covalent bond
Electrons are shared equally
monophyletic
consisting of organisms descended from a single taxon.
k-strategist
Populations that grow slowly and have small population sizes.
TATA box
crucial promoter DNA sequence in eukaryotes
SELECTABLE MARKER
Enables transformed cells with plasmid to live on antibiotic
hydolysis
addition of water causing break down of macromolecules
Exaptation
Using a body part for another purpose.
wetlands
areas covered with water often enough to support aquatic plants. they are of the most productive biomes
scientist define the genetic code as triplets of mRNA nucleotides called
codons
Immediate hypersensitivity
Responses that occur quickly within minutes after exposure (bee sting or food allergy)
Sarcomas
in tissues that support the body-bone and muscles
Expand the abbreviation HTN
hypertension (high blood pressure)
How did plate tectonics affect evolution?
Allopatric speciation
organic
crops grown and processed according to USDA regulation defining the use of fertilizers, herbicides, insecticides, etc.
A taxon ending in ophyta:
is a plant
What common cell structure provides strength and protection to the cell membrane?
cell wall
Melvin Calvin said?
plants turn carbondioxide into glucose
forebrain
the anterior of the three primary divisions of the brain in the embryo of a vertebrate, or the part of the adult brain derived from this tissue including the diencephalon and telencephalon.
nonrenewable resource
A resource that cannot be replenished by natural processes.
Umbilical cord
Connects the vasculature of the fetus to the placenta
Define scavenger.(example)
Organism that feeds of flesh of organism. Ex:?
can mushrooms get carbon form a plant it lives in symbiosis with?
yes
Metabolic Pathways
Chains of reactions that move, store and release energy.
Carboxyl Group
A functional group present in organic acids and consisting of a single carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom and also bonded to a hydroxyl group
Intermediate Filaments
Part of the cytoskeleton of eukaryotic cells that is composed of several types proteins and probably functions mainly for support.
Falsifiable hypothesis
There must be some observation or experiment that could reveal if such an idea is actually not true.
Name the meaning of the combining form cyan/o
blue
RNA polymerase
the enzyme that synthesizes RNA from the DNA template
 
3' GCCAT 5'
5' CGGTA 3'
5' CGGUA 3'
What are treatments of cryptococcosis
Amphotericin B and flucytocine
Fats, oils, and waxes are all what type of organic compounds?
Lipids
members of each species compete reguarly to obtain
struggle for existence
vitamin
any of a group of organic substances essential in small quantities to normal metabolism, found in minute amounts in natural foodstuffs or sometimes produced synthetically: deficiencies of vitamins produce specific disorders.
mitochondria
an organelle in the cytoplasm of cells that functions in energy production.
What are the synapomorphies for Nematoda?
pseudo, long muscles, cuticle
Name four definitive characteristics of Chordates
Post-anal tailDorsal hollow nerve cordPharyngeal slitsEndostyle
Rapid Expansion of Homo sapiens
preceded by changes to ___ that made ____ ____ and other ____ ____ possible
Evidence of primitive ___ in other Homo
____ ____ allows more planning
HUmans have a more ____ ____ than neanderthals
brain, symbolic thought, cognitive innovations, society, symbolic thought, varied diet
What is negative pressure?
space between lungs and diaphragm increases. causing inhalation
eukaryotic cell
a cell with membrane bound nucleus and membrane bound organelles. present in protists, plants, fungi, and animals.
Passive immunity
A type of immunity that is acquired when a person is given antibodies, obtained form the blood of either another person of an animal to attack a particular antigen.
Unicellular Organisms
1 mother cell divides and ends up with 2 identical daughter cells
Lipids (3.4)
A member of a class of biological molecules whose defining characteristic is their relative insolubility in water (Ex: include triglycerides, cholesterol, steroids, and phospholipids)
RNA (ribonucleic acid)
type of nucleic acid consisting of nucleotide monomers with a ribose sugar and the nitrogenous bases (ACGU); single stranded, functions in protein synthesis, gene regulations and as the genome of some viruses.
In the circulatory system of a mammal, the .......... return the blood to the heart. The .......... carry blood away from the heart. Exchange of molecules between the cells and the blood occurs in the ..........
Veins; Arteries; Capillaries
when do monosaccharides form ring structures?
monosaccharides form ring structures when they have more than 3 carbons and are placed in water
how is most carbon dioxide transported
in the form of bicarbonate
What role does cholecystokinin play?
Production of pancreatic enzymes and contraction of gall bladder.
sympathetic cholinergic fibers that dilate arterioles
Increase in flow in skeletal muscle prior to exercise is b/c of
The current biological theory of evolution...
Neither implies nor denies the existence of a creator God
Which types of organisms incorporate carbon into food
Only plants can incorporate (fix) carbon into the food called glucose during the process of photosynthesis.
What are the four preservation types of fossils?
1. Unaltered soft parts
2. Unaltered hard parts
3. Altered hard parts
4. Traces of organisms 
33.9. The binding of caffeine to the adenosine receptor results in_____________.A) decreased release of GABAB) decreased release of glutamateC) decreased release of serotoninD) decreased release of norepinephrineE) increased release of all neurotransmitte
increased release of all neurotransmitters
1. Root cap
is a section of tissue at the tip of a plant root Root caps contain statoliths which are involved in gravity perception in plants.
a macrophage's ability to destroy bacteria involves the whole cell, coordinating components such as the cytoskeleton, lysomes and plasma membrance. this is an example of?
how cells rely on the integration of structures and organelles in order to function
(cyctoskeleton, lysosomes and plasma membrane work together so that marophage can destroy bacteria)
In chordates, what is the function / purpose of pharyngeal slits?
Pharyngeal gill slits -series of openings in pharyngeal region between digestive tract and outside body. -in some chordates, have become: *gill pouches (gills never break to outside) *earliest chordates used them for filter feeding *some (fishes) have developed gills in pharyngeal pouches for gas exchange *gill slits of higher vertebrates are mainly embryonic
what does semiconservative mean in relation to DNA replication
new strand will be made up of one new and one old one
meter
measure
random
rare, patternless
homeostasis
dynamic equilibrium
Phenotype
are physical characteristics
Taxonomy
describing or classifying
Spore
small, typically single-celled structure capable of producing a new individual, either immediately or after a period of dormancy
animals that have feathers
birds
Change sugar to
lactic acid
molting
to shed old skinfeathers
Neutrons
particles that have no charge
eukaryote
characterized by membrane enlcosed nucleus and organelles
uniform
results from interactions between individuals in a population
Statoliths
Specialized plastids containing dense starch grains. Used to determine "up from down."
Cells contain membrane bound structures that have a specific function called:
organelles.
ribose
a white, crystalline, water-soluble, slightly sweet solid, C5H10O5, a pentose sugar obtained by the hydrolysis of RNA.
photosynthesis
process that occurs in the chloroplasts of plant cells
Extinction
when a species ceases to exist
capsid
the protien coat covering a virus
Lipid
building blocks of the body;protects some interna; organs; helps with the homeostasis
What enzyme catalyzes lengthening of telomeres?
Telomerase
niche
a species' role in a community
biofilms
surface coating colonies in which metabolic cooperation between different prokaryotic species often occurs
producer
aka autotroph; An organism that synthesizes complex organic compounds from simple inorganic raw materials.
Eubacteria
found in soil, water, and humans
Both prokaryotes and eukaryotes have ribosomes. (T or F)
true.
aerobic
chemical reactions that require the presence of oxygen
analogous
corresponding in function, but not evolved from corresponding organs, as the wings of a bee and those of a hummingbird
hybrid
offspring of crosses between parents with different traits
Leaf
specific outgrowth of a vascular plant that captures sunlight for photosynthesis
pigemnt in the skin that makes melanin
melonocytes
how many chromosomes do humans have?
46 chromosomes
primary growth
this elongation, enable roots to ramify throughout the soil and shoots to increase their exposure to light and carbon dioxide
4 properties of water
cohesion, temperature moderation, density anomaly, global solvent
Which enzyme break hydrogen bonds and unwinds DNA?
Helicase
____ movement of molecules from area of high concentration to an area of low concentration
diffusion
The smallest particle into which an element can be divided.
atom
amino acid
An organic compound containing an amino group (-NH2) and a carboxyl group (-COOH); may be joined by peptide bonds to form a polypeptide chain.
Amines
Any organic compound with an amino group
Eutrophication
An increase in the number of photosynthetic material at a lakes surface.
that have a high energy requirement generally have many
mitochondrion
red blood cells
most numerous cell containing hemoglobin and carrying oxygen
heterozygous
having two different alleles for a trait
tsunami
an unusually large sea wave produced by a seaquake or undersea volcanic eruption.
avifauna
the birds of a given region, considered as a whole.
solute
the substance dissolved in a given solution.
Product
elements or compounds produced by a chemical reaction
inertia
objectsd tend to keep doing what they were doing
stage of the cell cycle during which the cell's nucleus and nuclear material divide
mitosis
NAD+ is essential as a coenzyme to accept and carry __________ during key processes in cellular respiration and photosynthesis.
electrons
go into deep sleep during the winter months
hibernate
what is the haploid number number of humens?
23.
adenine
A nitrogenous purine base that is a component of nucleic acids and ATP.
Alpha Helix
A delicate coil held together by hydrogen bonding between every fourth amino acid
prey
An organism that is killed and eaten by another organism.
In DNA or RNA, guanine always pairs with:
cytosine.
hypothalamus
part of the brain that controls body temp, thirst, blood pressure, etc
Cardiac Muscle
Cells are branched cylinders with one central nuclei. Involuntarily controlled and striated.Attatched to and communicate with each other by intercalated discs and desmosomes.
condensation
a reaction between two or more organic molecules leading to the formation of a larger molecule and the elimination of a simple molecule such as water or alcohol.
sex chromosomes
a chromosome, differing in shape or function from other chromosomes, that determines the sex of an individual.
polygenic traits
trait controlled by two or more genes
structure of a mitochondrion
oval-shaped; inside surface is larger than outside
sieve plates
in angiosperms, the end walls of the sieve tubes, have pores that presumably facilitate the flow of fluid from cell to cell
Receptor Mediated Endocytosis
Protein sticking off a membrane helps the substance attatch to vesicle and go into the cell
Large intestine
Organ also known as the colon, that removes water from the undigested materials that pass through it
Fatty Acid
Has a long carbon skeleton, usually 16 to 18 carbon atoms in length with a carboxyl group at the "head."
The citric acid cycle completes the breakdown of glucose to:
CO2 and H2O
List the taxonomix hierarchy.
Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species
ribosomal rna
a type of RNA, distinguished by its length and abundance, functioning in protein synthesis as a component of ribosomes.
what are the two functions of a cytoskeloton
muscele and skeloton
cell biology
the study of the cell as a complete unit, and the molecular and chemical interactions that occur within a living cell
Zero population growth
Occurs when the per capita birth rates and death rates are equal
Connective Tissue Cell Types.--2. Plasma Cells
Plasma Cells develop from B lymphocytes (type of White Blood Cell) And produce antibodies that fight against foriegn substances.
obligate intracular parcite
a paracite that require a host cell in order to reproduce
What are the products of lactic acid fermentation in yeasts?:
ethyl alcohol and CO2
What are the 4 growth phases of Bacteria?
1. Log Phase
2. Expenantial Growth
3.Stationary Growth (platoe)
4. Death Phase (catastrophic event)
How would an adherent to punctuated equilibrum explain the lack of intermediate links in the fossil record?
The intermediate links would not exist for very long so the chance of being fossilized is very small.
What is the Cambrian Explosion? Why is it a problem for macroevolutionists?
It is the "explosion" of life in Cambrian times; because it all happend in a short period of time when its suppose to take eons of time and there was no way to understand it and no intermediate links.
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