Biology 14 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
“GMO” stands for:
genetically modified organism
A recent study of ecological footprints (described in the text) concluded that
A) Earthʹs carrying capacity for humans is about 10 billion.
B) Earthʹs carrying capacity would increase if per capita meat consumption increased.
C) current demand by indust
To measure the population of lake trout in a 250 hectare lake, 200 individuals were netted and marked with a
fin clip, and then returned to the lake. The next week, the lake is netted again, and out of the 200 lake trout that
are caught, 50 have fin clips
-“ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny”:                              
Attempts to explain similarities between human and other                                                                                                                                                                       animals, embryo development mimics evolutionary                                                                                                                                                                                           development, & all vertebrate embryos develop in similar way
One of the buffers that contribute to pH stability in human blood is carbonic acid (H2CO3). Carbonic acid is a
weak acid that dissociates into a bicarbonate ion (HCO3-) and a hydrogen ion (H+). Thus,
H2CO3 ↔ HCO3- + H+
If the pH of the blood drops, one
At what stage of development are embryonic stem cells obtained?         
The blastocyst
-What is a naturalized plant?                                                                                                                 
  An established self-perpetuating population
-Biodiversity is defined as:                                                                                                                 
Number & variety of organisms found within an area
-The Hawaiian carnivorous caterpillar turned into:                                                                                 
 a moth or mystery pollinators which have never been seen
-Conservation biology is considered a synthetic field because:                                                                               
 it is a mixture of applied and theoretical fields.
Genetic makeup
embryo sac
female gametophyte
Photosynthetic Equation
6CO2+6H2O+Light Energy------>C6H12O6+6O2
pituitary (hypophysis) gland
what is the other name for the anterior pituitary gland?
contains the female egg
higher to lower
passive transport
Treacheary Elements
(vascular tissues)
Water conducting cells
organelles containing enzymes that dismantle captured bacteria, worn-out organelles, and debris. The enzymes inside are manufactured by rough ER. they fuse with vesicles carrying debris and break them down
most biological molecules; large molecule composed of smaller organic molecules linked together
Define the root word 'apsis-'
________ work against harmful fungi.
temperate grassland
temperate grassland: biome characterized by deep, nutrient-rich soil that supports many grass species
number of molecular weight of substance in grams
the sexual spores of a fungus
realized niche
actual habitat a species occupies
class chondricthyes include
sharks, skates + rays
endoplasmic reticulum
system of interconnected channels, called cisternae, enclosed by unit membrane
quickly removes nucleotides that have base-paired incorrectly during replication.
F1 generation
resulting offspring of P generation
cells are "chillin" before mitosis starts
used for asexual reproduction, growth of plant or animal bodies
consists of the biological community as well as the nonliving components
a small, cylindrical cell organelle, seen near the nucleus in the cytoplasm of most eukaryotic cells, that divides in perpendicular fashion during mitosis, the new pair of centrioles moving ahead of the spindle to opposite poles of the cell as the cell di
logistic growth
population growth slows or stops following a period of exponential growth
___________ chromosomes make up a pair and have the same length, centromere position, and staining pattern
A level of taxonomic hierarchy; a species ranks next below a genus. (5)
feeding extracellularly
cells will release digestive enzymes and digest food and then will absorb digestive materials - usually done in a digestive tract
Gametic Barriers
Sperm and egg don't react together.
What is the fluid within the chloroplast called?
A culture medium
Nutrients prepared for microbial growth
Movement of water from a hypotonic solution to a hypertonic solution 
phase in which the sytoplasm pinches in half and each cell has an identical set of duplicate chromosomes
Name the pathology term: recurrent episodes of pallor and cyanosis primarily in fingers and toes.
Raynaud disease
A population with an S-shaped growth curve is said to exhibit _____________ growth.
climax community 
a final, stable community in equilibrium with the environment
polymers or chains of amino acids form molecules called
Movement of large amount of particles in vesicles (out)
a membrane-bound cavity within a cell, often containing a watery liquid or secretion.
organic compound that is made of one or more chains of amino acids and is a principal component of all cells
Afferent arteriole
The small artery that carries blood toward the capillaries of the glomerulus.
Inductive logic
Make a general statement from specific observationsspecific ---> general
Describe the Sclera
Part of the Fibrous Tunic.Dense irregular connective tissue - strong and tough.Avascular
when a small subpopulation migrates to a new area, and starts a new population
Founder Effect
Trees that shed its leaves during a particular season of the year.
connective tissues
cells embedded in matrix excreted by cells
allele frequency
determined by dividing the number of certain allele by the number of all the alleles in the population
vestigial organ
organ that serves no useful function in an organism
The principle that events in the past occurred suddenly and were caused by different mechanisms than those operating today.
The smallest unit of an element that retains an element's properties.
struggle for existence
organisms and populations compete for resources, l
an organelle in the cytoplasm of cells that functions in energy production.
the formation of new species as a result of geographic, physiological, anatomical, or behavioral factors that prevent previously interbreeding populations from breeding with each other.
Cellular Repiration is ...
The sum of Glycolysis,
Krebs Cycle (Citric Acid Cycle),
and Electron Transport Chain (Oxidative Phosphorylation)
How many alleles can a species have for a given characteristic?
multiple alleles
What is the process by which liquid or small macromolecules are brought into a cell?
Why do bacteria need O2?
As e- acceptor for PMF
G protein-coupled receptor
A signal receptor protein in the plasma membrane that responds to the binding of a signaling molecule by activating a G protein. Also called a G protein-linked receptor.
negative feedback
= A control mechanism in which a chemical reaction, metabolic pathway, or hormone-secreting gland is inhibited by the products of the reaction, pathway, or gland. As the concentration of the products builds up, the product molecules themselves inhibit the process that produced them.
Multicellular organims exhibit three structural levels ABOVE the cell
tissues, organs, and organ systems
Members of one species inhabiting the same areaExample: herd of zebra
Levels of Organization:Community
Ribosomal RNA
Type of RNA that makes up the major part of ribosomes
retention (storage) elements:
when we build canals over marshes, we are decreasing the amount of storage (stream flow) and thereby releasing chemicals into other water bodies
  Evasion of Host Defenses
Survival of the most clever bacteria!Evasion of complement system:G-bacteria - lengthen “O” chains on LPSResistance to phagocytosisCapsules - Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria, Haemophilus
What is a viral enzyme that uses the mRNA as a template?
Reverse transcriptase
What are the gametes produced in male animals called? What about female animals?
males- spermfemale- eggs
What do wax and testosterone have in common?
They are both Lipids
How are index fossils used?
Index fossils (n.) are the fossil remains of an organism that lived in a particular geologic age,used to identify or date the era.
Name the technical name for vascular plants:
Tracheophytes-includes all the most familiar living plants; not restricted in size
what did thomas hunt morgan discover?
he found a correlation between a particular trait and an individual's sex.  specific genes are carried on specific chromosomes
 How is your body able to counteract the effects of entropy?

A. regular exercise
B. sunbathing
C. eating a balanced diet
D. bathing regularly
E. buffers
C. Eating a balanced diet
in the third step of the scientific method what do you do?
list observations using your senses
heteromorphic (het´ er oh more´ fik) [Gk. heteros: different + morphe: form]
Having a different form or appearance, as two heteromorphic life stages of a plant. (Contrast with isomorphic.)
Which of these statements is NOT true about DNA?

it contains the sugar ribose
it forms a double helix
adenine pairs with thymine and guanine pairs with cytosine
it is the genetic material of the cell
the sugar and phosphate groups form the backbon
DNA does NOT contain the sugar ribose.
as an organism develops from a zygote to a sexuall mature dult, the zygote's genes are...
passed on to all somatic cells by mitosis.
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