Biology 6 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
tumors
Two types:Benign (non-cancerous) – this is not cancer!Does not spread; it can eventually become malignant in some casesMalignant (cancerous) – this is cancer!Has the potential to spread to other parts of body
Which of the following statements correctly defines a kilocalorie?
A) the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 g of water by 1°F
B) the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 g of water by 1°C
C) the amount of heat requir
d
-75% of Hawaii’s flowering plant species arrived by:                                                                                             
Wing
Which of the following is a density-independent factor limiting human population growth?
A) social pressure for birth control
B) earthquakes
C) plagues
D) famines
E) pollution
b
What is the single, large extension leaving the cell body that conducts signals away towards an effector or other neuron? 
axon
How many grams of the molecule in Figure 3.2 would be required to make 1 L of a 0.5 M solution of the
molecule?
(Carbon = 12, Oxygen = 16, Hydrogen = 1)
A) 29
B) 30
C) 60
D) 150
E) 342
b
Antigen
any protein from a pathogen that the immune system recognizes.
Which amino acid would be chosen by an anticodon of AAG?
Phe (Phenylalanine)
-Why is it hard to treat the common cold?                                                                                                           
rapid mutation.
Before the cell reprogramming break through, federal funds could only be spent on:
research on human embryonic stem cell lines that already exist
In a flower, what does the ovary become and what is its purpose? 
Fruit; supply the plant embryo a source of food and protection.
algia
pain
atom-
vapor
nucleolus
makes ribosomes
osteoclasps
bone reabsorbing cells
three cups
tres basos
Homeostasis
metabolic equilibrium actively maintained by several complex biological mechanisms that operate via the autonomic nervous system to offset disrupting changes
fastidious
requiring special nutrient supplementation in order to grow
tetrad
structure containing four chromatids that forms during meiosis
cristae
short, fingerlike projections formed by the folding of the inner membrane of mitochondria
Nociceptors
Mechanical, temperature, and other damaging stimuli
squid
largest brain, jet propulsion (siphon), closed circulatory system; multiple hearts.
Arachaebacteria
kingdom of unicellular prokaryotes whose cell walls do not contain peptidoglycan
well developed head parapodia(almost feet) with setae
Ecdysozoa
Climograph
terrestrial biomes can be graphed temperature vs precipitation
krebs cycle
-second stage of respiration-before: pyruvate + coenzyme A = acetyl coA-gives off 1 CO2 & produces 1 NADH for every mol. of pyruvate-acetyl coA + oxaloacitate = citrate-oxaloacitate=1st reactant & final productsignificance: produces..•3 NADH } ets•1 FADH2 } ets•1 ATP•2 CO2 given off
how do organisms give off heat?
radiation
conduction
convection
evaporation
organic molecules required in small amounts
vitamins
sporangium
spore capsule which eventually turns into haploid
Extend the abbreviation: PET
positron emission tomography
What are Lichens?
A type of fungus
________help regulate what our body (cells, tissue, etc) does
hormones
cells without a nucleus/very primitive (bacteria, blue green algae)?
prokaryotic
Borrelia burgdorferi
(bullseye on skin)
causes Lyme disease
(Lyme, Connecticut)
Kinetochore
located at centromere where sister chromatids are attached to each other
Phylum Gnetophyta
Phylum that contains Ephedra and Gnetum
secretion of too much growth hormone during childhood may cause ________.
giantism
During the Kreb's cycle, the products of ________ are further broken down generating additional ATP
glycolysis
Radial cleavage
Planes of cell division are perpendicular or parallel to the vertical axis of the embryo
class gastropoda have __ body with single, usually spiral coiled shell
asymmetrical
Embryos
a class of transitional forms between the fertilized egg and the adult.
what does the gall bladder do?
stores bile
Functional Group: Amino Acid
-NH2 (ex. amine, ionized)
Name the term for the definition: disease of nerve roots (of spinal nerves).
radiculopathy
Members of the domain Eukarya
Contain membrane-bounded nucleus
Contain specialized organelles
Contain plasma membrane
Organelles communicate with each other
Eukaryotic Cells
auxins
a group of plant growth regulators promote growth by lengthening cells rather then increasing the number of cells
A replication error that persists is a ___, a permanent change in a gene that can cause a change in the phenotype.
mutation
Define Univalve
an organism with a single shell
Carbohydrates serve two major purposes. These purposes are
energy and structure
fruiting body
an organ that produces spores; fructification.
phospholipid monomers
phosphate group, glycerol, 2 fatty acids
Stomata
Small openings on the underside of a leaf through which oxygen and carbon dioxide can move.
totipotent
a cell that can generate a complete new organism
Compare an asconoid, a syconoid, and a leukonoid sponge.
Define: Epiglottis
flap located in pharynx which closes off trachea as food is swallowed
Avery and DNA
scientist avery treated bacteria with enzymes that could kill protein, lipids, carbs, and nucleic acid, but transformation still occurred. then they used DNA breaking enzymes- no transformation soo the nucleic acid that DNA stores and transmits the genetic info from one generation to the next- transforming factor
Sexual Cannibalism [give an example from the animal kingdom that uses this behavior]
praying mantis
organ
a collection of tissues that carry out a specialized function of the body
cross- polination
Mendel cut away the pollen bearing male parts of the plant and dusted the plants flower with pollen from another plant. this process is called cross polination
Feedback that increases the output of a system
positive feedback
Would penicillin be used to treat a gram negative bacterial infection?
No
pleiotropy
one allele can cause more than one phenotype effect.
What sea animal is greatly elongated on oral-aboral axis?
Sea Cucumbers
a measure of the clarity of an image
resolution
vascular tissue
plant tissue consisting of ducts or vessels, that, in the higher plants, forms the system
benign tumor
A mass of abnormal cells that remains at the site of its origin.
Aqueous Solution
When water is the solvent, the result is called an
RNA (ribonucleic acid)
RNA serves mainly as an intermediary between the information in DNA and the realization of that information in proteins.
complement system
group of about 30 blood proteins that may amplify the inflammatory response, enhance phagocytosis, or directly lyse pathogens; activated in a cascade initiated by surface antigens or by antigen-antibody complexes
in an experiment, the factor that a scientist deliberately manipulates
independent variable
Gametes
A haploid cell, such as an egg or sperm. Gametes unite during sexual reproduction to produce a diploid zygote.
activation energy
energy that must be added to cause molecs to react w/one another; enzymes lower Ea, but not ▲G
when water expands..
water freezes: becomes less dense ad floats
cell plate
(in plant cells) a plate that develops at the midpoint between the two groups of chromosomes in a dividing cell and that is involved in forming the wall between the two new daughter cells.
interphase I
as the diploid (2n) cells move from G0 into meiosis, the chromosomes replicatte during the S phase during
Induced Fit
The change in shape of the active site of an enzyme so that it binds more snugly to the substrate, induced by entry of the substrate.
many bacteria are _________ and must have oxygen to live, where as other bacteria are __________ and cannot live where oxygen is present.
obligate aerobes/ obligate anaerobes
a complex & dynamic player in the cell's compartmental organization
the endomembrane system
Allele Frequency
how often a form of a gene appears in a gene pool
What does Pluripotent mean?
Any cell has the ability to develop into a wide range of tissues
what does carbonic acid immediately dissolve into
hydrogen ions and a bicarbonate ion
Kt diffueses from
the ICF to the ECF through the protien channel
what is one of the main differences between conjugation and transduction
the donor cell remains alive
what is endocytosis
when a cell gets rid of a substace by unsurrounding it
When researchers fused a human cell with a mouse cell
they were able to visualize the membrane proteins of the two species rather quickly intermingling
Channel proteins that open or close in response to stimulus.
ion channels function as gated channels
What is the function of a ribosome?
The site of protein synthesis in the cytoplasm
osmosis
auto
self
Phylogeny
evolutionary history
Herbivores
feeds on plants
-osis
disease; state of
Cistic Fibrosis
Resessive genetic disorder
behaivoral isolation
fireflies (aggresive mimikry)
Mitosis
-division of nuclear material
-process where diploid (2n) cells duplicate DNA and divide, resulting in two identical diploid (2n) daughter cells
Amniota
amniotic eggs (membranous) impermeable skin, rib cage to ventilate
bacteria
rRna sequences unique, prokaryotes, gram stains, circular dna, dna exchange= pilus, anthrax
coelom
enclosed, fluid-filled body cavity (allows circulation of oxygen and nutrients)
the study of evolutionary relationships
systematics
Autotrophs
mainly phtosynthetic organisms, get nergy form sun and used CO2, H2O
mitochondrion
cell's powerhouse. provides constant supply of energy to drive the work being done throughout the cell.
Spores
Haploid cells that can develop directly into adult plants.
attraction of water molecules to other, non-water molecules through H bonding
adhesion
tissue
group[ of cells with simillar structure and function
endospore
resistant cells developed by certain bacteria when an essential nutrient is lacking. the original cell produces a copy of its chromosome and surrounds it with a tough wall, forming the endospore. water is removed from the endospore, and its metabolism stops. the rest of the cell disintegrates, leaving jsut the endospore behind.
The cell cycle control system regulates the process of cellular division through specific _________. Enable the cell to determine whether the conditions are acceptable for it to progress into the next phase. Feedback from the intracellular events of the c
Checkpoints
enzyme
a biological catalyst made of proteins
Defusion:
materials defuse across the cell membrane with no blood carrying it;
blood consists of
plasma-55% (water, salt, proteins)cells-45%
resolving power
measure of clarity of image
Theory
well-tested explanation that unifies a broad range
arginine
an essential amino acid, C6H14N4O2: the free amino acid increases insulin secretion and is converted to urea in the liver by arginase.
Which of the examples below provides appropriate abiotic and biotic factors that might determine the
distribution of the species in question?
A) The amount of nitrate and phosphate in the soil and wild flower abundance and diversity
B) The number of frost
b
Punnett Square
diagram showing the gene combinations that might result from a genetic cross
lens
focuses on the incoming images onto photo receptors - changes with focus
What are nephridia?
invertebrate organs which function similar to kidneys. They remove metabolic wastes from an animal's body
Define: menisci
cartilage between bones w/in the joint; shock absorbers (ex: knee)
CoDominance
Both alleles are pretty much equal effect, and both are detectable in heterozygotes
kilocalorie
Measure of how much energy is contained in food. 1000 calories. Also known as a Calorie with a capital C.
glycogen
sugar storage equivalent of starch in plants, stored by muscle and liver cells
when sugar levels fall, liver cells break it down and released into the blood
Mucosa
The type of epithelial tissue that lines moist body cavities; a mucous membrane.
DNA fingerprint
an individual's unique banding pattern on an electrophoresis gel, determined by restriction fragments of the person's DNA
Genetic Drift
random change in allele frequencies that occurs in small populations
gymnosperms
bear their seeds directly on the scales of cones
study of human beings and their physical, social, material, and cultural development.
anthropology
Steward showed that a single carrot root cell can be made to grow into a whole carrot during the year
1950
in a eukaryotic cell, biology, a membrane-bound organelle that contains the cell's DNA and that has a role in processes such as growth, metabolism, and reproduction
nucleus
selection
a process that results in differential reproduction among a population so that the inheritable traits of only certain individuals are passed on
biome
group of ecosystems that have the same climate and similar dominant communities
Recessive Trait
Trait that is apparent when two recessive alleles for the characteristic are inherited.
pH scale
used to indicate the concentration of H+ ions in a sloution
essential gene
the gene that is the lethal allele
Warning coloration
serves to convey a message of avoidance to potential predators
the dominant trees are evergreens with needle-like leaves
coniferous forest
Direct evidence for macroevolution is found in?
The fossil record
pinocytosis
process by which a cell takes in liquid from the surrounding environment.
telophase
The final stage of mitosis or meiosis during which the chromosomes of daughter cells are grouped in new nuclei.
uniformitarianism
The slow changes occurred at a uniform rate. Slow and continual geological change. Now know it is not uniform.Lyell-show the Earth is very old.
mineral resorption
the process of dissolving bone and releasing minerals into the blood
What are the five molecules of life?
CarbohydratesLipidsProteinsNucleic acidsC, H, O, N
Some of Darwin's most important discoveries were based on studies of birds captured in:
the Galapagos Islands
substitution
to replace (one or more elements or groups in a compound) by other elements or groups.
Glycolysis does what
Breaks down glucose into smaller particles
Specificity Theory
– hypothesis that pain is related to specific anatomic structures and physiologic functions
Sexual Reproduction
Egg and Sperm (sex cells) are produced by a process called meiosis. These sex cells or gametes carry one-half the number of chromosomes as other cells and are called haploid. The egg and sperm join during fertilization to form a diploid zygote, which grows by mitotic cell division to an adult.
migration
a strategy to move organisms to a more favorable habitat
What is the name of a root like structure?
Rhizoid
Mole (mol)
The number of grams of a substance that equals its molecular weight in daltons and contains Avogadro’s number of molecules.
lytic infections
referring to a virus that infects and destroys (lyses) susceptible cells
What two factors cause population to decrease?
Emigration and mortality
B. Animals who cooperate with pollination--don't produce as much pollen: often times go to female plants, which crosses the plants.
*Pollination – fertilization → Wind
Lactose Absent (Inducible Operon)
repressor active, operon off, the lac repressor is innately active, and in the absence of lactose it switches off the operon by binding to the operator
surrounding the cell walls of some prokaryotes are either
Capsules or slime layers
MELANOCYTES and TACTILE CELLS
scattered among the stem cells and keratinocytes.
Feeding Mechanisms: Digestion: Human Digestion: Oral Cavity (Saliva)
mucin is a lubricant, amylase catalyzes breakdown of startches, buffers to control pH, and antimicrobial agents.
What are microtubules?
small cylinders which lie free in the cytoplasm
the adrenal cortex produces ___. how does this affect the stress response?
steroid hormones (glucocorticoids and mineralcorticoids) cortisol and aldosterone --- regulate homeostasis and mineral balance which causes water retention and weight gain during long term stress
What is the role of progesterone?
shuts down hypothalamus and anterior pituitary. Negative feedback loop. Ovary
Define protoplast, primary and secondary cell wall, middle lamella, pectin, plasmodesmata, and vacuole.
PROTOPLAST: all of the plant cell except the cell wall1&2 CELL WALL: the 2 is found in some plants in between the membrane the the 1 cell wall. the 1 cell wall always is to the furthest outsideMIDDLE LAMELLA: the glue that holds adjacent cell walls together, specifically the PECTINPLASMODESMATA: pores that connect the cell walls of adjacent cells. Can be located in specific areas calls PITSVACUOLE: large membrane bound organelle that functions in maintaining th water balance in a plant.
if a neuron was depleted of ATP as an energy source and was not able to actively transport ions across the membrane, what feature of nerve biology would be directly affected?
resting membrane potential
genome is criti­cal to life because it performs these functions
Stores information in a stable form
Provides continuity from generation to generation
Acts as an instrument of evolutionary change
gametes, haploid, diploid, zygote
1) egg and sperm cells, 2) a cell with a single chromosome set, 3) a cell with two homologous sets of chromosomes, 4) the fertilized egg
The most important source of genetic variation in prokaryotes
The most important source of genetic variation in prokaryotes is mutation and genetic drift.Prokaryotes are haploid, mutations can have immediate consequences. Beneficial mutant alleles spread rapidly through a population.
Explain why prok are not placed into the same domain
many prokl once classified as bacteria are actually more closley related to euk and belong in the own domain
Give the meaning for the term heart transplantation
A donor heart is transferred to a recipient
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Term:
Definition:
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