Biology 8 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Natural selection involves energetic trade-offs between
A) choosing how many offspring to produce over the course of a lifetime and how long to live.
B) producing large numbers of gametes when employing internal fertilization versus fewer numbers of
gamet
e
What is the hydroxide ion concentration of the lake described in question 7?
A) 10-7 M
B) 10-4 M
C) 10-10 M
D) 10-14 M
E) 10 M
c
You have two beakers; one contains pure water, the other contains pure methanol (wood alcohol). The covalent
bonds of methanol molecules are nonpolar, so there are no hydrogen bonds among methanol molecules. You
pour crystals of table salt (NaCl) into eac
c
Often the growth cycle of one population has an effect on the cycle of another. As moose populations increase,
wolf populations also increase. Thus, if we are considering the logistic equation for the wolf population,
dN/dt = rN (K-N)
K
,
which of the fac
d
cancer
cancer is a group of diseases characterized by uncontrolled growth and spread of abnormal cells. If the spread is not controlled, it can result in death
Which of the following is the pattern of spacing for individuals within the boundaries of the population?
A) cohort
B) dispersion
C) Allee effect
D) iteroparous
E) semelparous
b
An example of a hydrogen bond is the bond between
A) C and H in methane (CH4).
B) the H of one water molecule and the O of another water molecule.
C) Na+and Cl- in salt.
D) the two hydrogen atoms in a molecule of hydrogen gas (H2).
E) Mg+and Cl- in MgCl2.
b
RNA Differs from DNA
RNA is single-stranded, NOT DOUBLE HELIXribose is 5 carbon sugar in RNAuracil (U) replaces thymine (T)
Which type of stem cells resides in differentiated cells?
adult stem cells
-Why is conservation biology described as a “crisis discipline?”                                                                            
analogous to study of AIDS in epidemiology.

List the organs/tissues that come from each of the following germ layers:Ectoderm 
Mesoderm
            Endoderm
Ectoderm – skin & nervous system,
Mesderm – muscles and bones,
Endoderm –        internal organs and systems
Silver
Ag
pheno-
show
Brown Algae
stramenopilesAutotrophicMulticellularMarine lifeAnchored to seafloorEx-kelp and seaweed
Arthropods-Insects
Bugs, classic insects
ground tissue
mostly parenchyma
Diuretics
agents “..that increase renalexcretion of water, sodium, and otherelectrolytes thereby increasing urineformation and output”
Lichens?
Fungus + green algae
Reactant
A substance or compound.
aquaporin
channel protein that specifically facilitates osmosis
telomeres
the "cap" on chromosome ends
does turbidity distinguish between live and dead cells
no
haploid
gametes of sexually reproducing organisms contain only a single set of chromosomes thus one set of genes (N=4)
meninges
three fibrous connective tissue membranes that enclose the brain and spinal cord; separate soft tissue of central nervous system from bones of cranium and vertebral canal; from superficial to deep – dura mater, arachnoid mater, and pia mater
all organic molecules have:
carbon backbone
What do ecologists study?
the entire biosphere!
non specific immune system
just there, innate
Regulator gene
regulates the transcription and translation of a repressor protein.
Oceans, atmosphere, and fossil fuels are large reservoirs of:
Phosphorus
ANTIGENS
substance that triggers the production of antibodies (e.g., viruses)
 
 
pectoral girdle
formed by scapula and clavicle
Independent Assortment
Independent segregation of genes during the formation of gametes.
Phenotype
Expression of the allel (seen)...hair color, height, build
ELEPHANTIASIS
Interstitial fluid is not absorbed back into the capillaries
chromosomes are pulled apart during which phase of mitosis
anaphase
Tundra
bitterly cold temperatures and high winds
nitrogen-containing base
a DNA nucleotide containing nitrogen, a sugar molecule, and a phosphate group
gymnosperms
plants that bear "naked" seeds (no ovary), cone is reproductive structure
pseudopods
temporary lobes that project from the cell, used in locomotion and in food capture.
Define Rough Endoplasmic reticulum
Define Rough Endoplasmic reticulum
 
Site of lipid and protein production
 
What is in charge of your metabolism?
Thyroid.
herbivores
second trophic level and are primary producers

monoculture

large fields are planted with a single variety year after year
Multipotent
able to differntiate only into a closely related cell
includes fluid in cell and all organelles between nuclear membrane to cell membrane
cytoplasm
Species
(spe´-sez) A population or group of populations whose members have the potential to interbreed in nature and produce viable, fertile offspring, but do not produce viable, fertile offspring with members of other such groups.
Connective Tissue
bind and connect structuressupport & protect organsstore fat (which cushions & insulates)transports substances in body
Some of these organisms, such as Euglena viridis are _________ and possess chloroplasts and photosynthesize to make their own food.
Autotrophic
2nd _______ level = 8 _________ max
energyelectrons
Which of these kingdoms is a paraphyletic group at best?
Protista
Granum
In some regions thylakoids are stacked like poker chips; each stack is called this.
sequence
the following of one thing after another; succession.
capillaries
tiny connectors b/t arteries and veins where gases, wastes, nutrients exchange
Aerobic Respiration
Oxygen is consumed along with organic fuel
absorption maximum
the wavelength at which a substance demonstrates a peak of absorbance
MRNA
Name of the copy of Dna in transcription
the interrelated food chains in an ecosystem
FOOD WEB
radial cleavage
mitotic cell divisions result in cuts that are parallel to body axis at first, then perpendicular
T/F A chronic conscious intense feeling of anger, anxiety or guilt will tend to produce "Psycho-somatic illness". One way to avoid such illness is to repress these feelings into the Individual, Collective Unconscious.
False
Sexual
Imperfrect fungi do not have a sexual phase.
Name the term: A slow-growing tumor of the meninges often creating pressure and damaging the brain and adjacent tissues, occurring most often in adults.
meningioma
Archaebacteria
a kingdom made up of prokaryotes (most of which are known to live in extreme environments) that are distinguished from other prokaryotes by differences in their genetics and in the makeup of their cell wall; currently, biologists prefer to classify members of this kingdom into the domain Archaea
 What is added to table salt to prevent formation of goiters
iodine
hereditary info in the form of a large molecule
DNA
What is "Peer Reviewed"?
When leading scientists review experiments and conclusions before publication
3 outcomes when photon strikes surface
absorption, reflection, transmission
58. bile
A bitter, alkaline, yellow or greenish liquid, secreted by the liver, that aids in absorption and digestion, esp. of fats.
Electron Transport Chain
A chain of cytochromes and other proteins in the inner membrane of the mitochondria that transfers electrons from NADH and FADH2 to oxygen. The energy released from the series of oxidations is used to create a proton gradient, which ATP synthase then uses to synthesize ATP
If there are 20 chromatids in a cell at metaphase, how many chromosome are there in each daughter cell following cytokinesis?-10-20-40
10
Directional evolution
when individuals at one end of the curve have higher fitness than individuals in the middle or at the other end, the range of phenotypes shifts (i.e. there are only large seeds available, large-beaked birds will do well)
prenatal tests Amniocentesis
removes amniotic fluid ( fetal cells) analyzed for chemicals, look for chromosome disorder, perform at 14 weeks, 1/2% of early birth
Whar can lysosomal enzymes do?
1.can hydrolyze proteins, fats, polysccharides and nucleic acids 
2.use enzymes to recycle organelles and maromolecules
maximum volume of air a person can expel after a max. inspiration
pulmonary capacity
The result of a ___mutation can be a completely new sequence of codons and nonfunctional proteins.
frameshift
What is ATP?
A molecule composed of adenosine and three phospha
biomass
the amount of living matter in a given habitat, expressed either as the weight of organisms per unit area or as the volume of organisms per unit volume of habitat.
What role might extraterrestrial objects play in mass extinction?
Asteroid-hot vapor and debris killed plants and animals.
The action potential deoplarizing the cells of the AV node is also called...
ventribular systole (diastole is relaxed)
receptor protein
 
(where is it?)
the molecule to which a receptor binds
 
on plasma membrane or within the cell
What are the substance of A, C, T, and G?
AdenineCytosineThymineGuanine
what is a cycad?
a palm like tree, with no branches along the trunk
what do at home pregnancy tests test for?
the presence of HCG
What is a species?
A type of kind or appearance of animals
Temperate Rain Forest
Parts of California / Coastal with low mountains / high precipitation / Cool temperatures
List 3 new diseases that have been identified since 1970
Aids/HIV
West Nile
SARS
Legionnaires
What is the secondary immune response and how long does it take to become effective?
Secondary immune response deals with memory cells and attacks an antigen much faster, usually within 2-7 days.
The immune system attacks abnormal or foreign cells and destroys them because these cells carry
non "self" recognition codes on the membrane
What is optimal yield and why is it useful?
halfway between the carrying capacity and 0. useful when breeding animals like fish farms
In recombinant DNA methods, the term vector can refer to
a plasmid used to transfer DNA into a living cell
theca
case
Random fertilization
(2^n)(2^n)
homozygous
same alleles
oligodendrocyte
cns- mylen sheath
Plant Behavior
A. Tropisms:
What does xylem carry?
Water
Eurkaryotic chromosomes
___ chromosomes
every species has (the same/different) # of chromosomes
composed of _____ (a complex of DNA and protein)
heterochromatin ___ expressed
euchromatin ___ expressed
linear
different
chromatin
not expressed
is expressed
1. Lysosomes2. Peroxisomes3. vaculoes
Lysosomes
41. AIDS is caused by
HIV
created
in chemical reaction atoms are
Yellow-billed Magpie
Foothill Woodland
Yellow Pine Forest
Hybridization
crossing dissimilar individuals to bring together the best of both organisms.
predation, herbivory, parasitism
benefits both species
embryo
the rudimentary plant usually contained in the seed.
Antibody
Also called immunoglobulins, these are proteins secreted by activated B-cells (plasma cells) that bind in a highly specific manner to foreign proteins (such as those found on the surface of pathogens or transplanted tissues). The foreign proteins are called antigens. These generally do not destroy antigens directly, rather, they mark them for destruction through other methods, and can inactivate antigens by clumping them together or by covering necessary active sites.
Platelets play an important role in..
HEMOstasis
2nd generation Horsy thigns have longer average necks?
Evolution.
Paradigm
A conceptual framework useful for understanding a body of evidence
mutualism
symbiotic relationship in which both species benefit from the relationship
most common autosomal recessive dissorder; about 1 in 20 U.S. citizens are heterozygous carriers for the gene; abnormal sections in the body; mostly respiratory system; bacteria grow b/c of excess mucus; 1 out of 3,200 births; mortality is 33yrs.
Cystic Fibrosis
lytic or lysogenic?examples are aids, cold sores and chicken pox
lysogenic
Which organisms release carbon dioxide into the atmosphere?
All organisms
Multicellular
consist of specialized cells that fullfill different functions
binary fission
fission into two organisms approximately equal in size.
Biotic Factors
living things, such as plants, animals, fungi, and bacteria.
sporangium
container for haploid spores found on the underside of fronds
polar molecule
a molecule in which the charges are unevenly distributed 
producers
:those that transform the sun's energy (in the form of light) into chemical energy in the form of sugars and starches
Synapsis is associated with a. crossing overb. recombinationc. syngamyd. none
crossing over
compound
substance consisting of two or more different elements combined
Skeletal Muscle
long, threadlike cells – muscle fibers; most attach to bone; contains multiple nuclei adjacent to plasma membrane; striations – alternating dark and light bands; voluntary – conscious control over skeletal muscles
Population
 
Agroup of individuals of the same species occupying a given area
 
Place these steps of vitamin D production in order: A. An inactive form of vitamin D travels to the liver. B.The kidneys convert a compound into active vitamin D C. Ultra-violet waves change a substance in skin into an inactive form of vitamin D D.The liv
CADB
VanDerWaals Forces
A slight attraction between the positive and negative portions of molecules very close together. Example: Geckos foot
uracil
nuecleotide base in Rna only: pairs with adenine
What is the Central Dogma of Molecular Biology?
DNA-RNA----Proteins
Do isotopes interact with other atoms in the same way?
Yes
Dispersive Replication
Replication results in both original and new DNA dispersed among the two daughter strands (impossible)
diffusion
act of diffusing; state of being diffused.
convergent evolution
the appearance of apparently similar structures in organisms of different lines of descent.
Beta configuration
we cannot tear it down, glucose monomers of cellulose (this is roughage or fiber)
phagocytic cells
attach to prey via surface receptors that bind to structures found on many microorganisms but not normal body cells
dominant
capital letters; only need one to show trait/disorder/disease
Four steps of signal transduction
-reception-processing (something is going to change the signal)-response -deactivation (stop the signal)
In human males where does spermatogenesis occur to form sperm?
In the testes
the most commonly used isolation technique is the
streak plate method
fats
lipids with one, two, or three fatty acids that dangle like tails froma small alcohol called glycerol
checkpoint
a control point in the cell cycle where stop and go-ahead signals can regulate the cycle
What does bacilli look like?
 
a. grape-like
b. pill shaped
c. noodly and squiggly
d. none of the above
b. pill shaped
What is pulse pressure?
Heart pumping blood to body
What is a component of amino acids, coenzymes, nucleic acids, an chlorophyll
nitrogen
If a cell has enough ATP the enzyme____will not be made until the cell needs ATP
phosphofructokinase
Chlorophyll
A green pigment that is the primary catalyst of photosynthesis
mullerian mimicry
the resemblance in appearance of two or more unpalatable species, which are avoided by predators to a greater degree than any one of the species would be otherwise.
yeast artificial chromosomes
a cloning vector that combines the essentials of a eukaryotic chromosome (an origin for dna replication, a sentromere, and two telomeres) with foreign dna

what type of circulatory systems do arthropods have?
Open circulatory systems
Rh factor
a protein antigen on the surface of red blood cells designated Rh-positive. If an Rh-negative mother is exposed to blood from an Rh-positive fetus, she produces anti-Rh antibodies of the IgG class
THe steps or middle of the helix (DNA)?
nitrogenous Base
gene pool
the aggregate of genes in a population at any one time- consists of all alleles at all gene loci in all individuals in a population
gamete
a haploid cell, such as an egg or sperm. Gametes unite during sexual reproduction to produce a diploid zygote.
5 Elements of a Quality
Assurance Program
1.Commitment
2.Facilities and Resources
3.Technical Competence
4. Technical Procedures
5. Problem Solving Mechanism
What are A group of organisms of the same species living in teh same place
Population
Muscle Use and Disuse; Hypertrophy + Atrophy
Hypertrophy: forcefully exercised, enlargement due to additional filaments but no new muscle fibers.Atrophy: Disuse, muscles shrink. Mitochondria levels drop, capillary networks/respiratory capacity diminished. Can shrink 50% in size in few months.
cells and tissues
a typical organism made up of many different kinds of
sulfhydryl group
consists of a sulfur atom bonded to an atom of hydrogen
interspecific competition
a type of interaction in which two or more species use the same limited resource
heat of vaporization
the quantity of heat a liquid must absorb for 1 g of it to be converted from the liquid to the gaseous state
Leads to random changes in allele frequenciesHas a greater effect if the population is smallGenerally reduces the variation in the population
70. During evolution, ‘genetic drift’:
post anal tail
This is an extension of the body past the anal opening.
What does the pancreas do?
gland - secretes glucagon to help maintain blood sugar levels
"Every energy conversion musst include an overall increase in entropy" is one way of stating the second law of thermodynamics. A consequence of this physical law is that:
no energy conservation is 100% percent efficient.
What is the function of tRNA?
to bring amino acids to the ribosome
Name the 7 characteristics of living things
 Living things change overtime, this is also known as?
Name the 7 characteristics of living things
 Living things change overtime, this is also known as?
 
Evolution
Is a decapods crustaceans eg lobster, an open or closed system and where is hemolymph found
This invertebrates system is open and this is found continously in interstitual fluid.
Quels sont les points de la théorie cellulaire?
1. Chaque cellule est provenue d'une autre cellule vivante.
2. La cellule est l'unité de base de la vie.
3. Toutes les organismes vivants se composent d'une ou plusieurs cellules.
4. L'activité de l'ensemble de l'organisme dépend de l'activité globale des cellules qui les composent.
Why did people think it was impossible for bacteria to be the cause of stomach ulcers?
A vast majority of bacteria are killed by acid in the stomach
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