Biology 9 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Which curve best describes survivorship in songbirds?(Based on a line graph, just memorize the letter)
A small population of white-footed mice has the same intrinsic rate of increase (r) as a large population. If
everything else is equal,
A) the large population will add more individuals per unit time.
B) the small population will add more individuals per
Equal volumes of vinegar from a freshly-opened bottle are added to each of the following solutions. After
complete mixing, which of the mixtures will have the highest pH?
A) 100 mL of pure water
B) 100 mL of freshly-brewed coffee
C) 100 mL of household cl
Which of the following might be expected in the logistic model of population growth?
A) As N approaches K, b increases.
B) As N approaches K, r increases.
C) As N approaches K, d increases.
D) Both A and B are true.
E) Both B and C are true
if individual cells break away and start a new tumor elsewhere
Which of the following groups would be most likely to exhibit uniform dispersion?
A) red squirrels, who actively defend territories
B) cattails, which grow primarily at edges of lakes and streams
C) dwarf mistletoes, which parasitize particular species of
Which type of bond must be broken for water to vaporize?
A) ionic bonds
B) nonpolar covalent bonds
C) polar covalent bonds
D) hydrogen bonds
E) covalent bonds
Creating Recombinant DNA
Step 1: PCR geneStep 2: restriction digestion of DNAStep 3: ligation of DNAStep 4: infect insect cells
-There are about ____ native flowering plant species in Hawaii and a thousand introduced ones that are now____.                                                                        
    980 & naturalized
-Embryonic stem cells for therapy may be produced by:
Embryonic stems from living embryos and Adult stem cells no                                                                                                                                                                             live embryo required found in brian, heart, skin, muscle, bone                                                                                                                                                                             marrow
HPV Vaccines
A vaccine is an preparation used to produce to a disease, in order to prevent or ameliorate the effects of infection by any natural or "wild" strain of the organism
Energy flow
Interspecific: between speciesIntraspecific: between SAME species
all plants are..
QRS complex
reflects ventricular depolarization
feeds on dead material
lower order plants
non-vascularmainly aquatic
Substances that absorb visible light.
eukarya excavata
heterophs but some are photosynthetic
have striped protein structure
Passive transport
no cell energy needed
A reaction center complex
Special pair of chlorophyll a molecules
Light harvisitng compex
Primary electron acceptor
reptiles,depend on external sources of heat
binomial nomenclature
a two-word naming system
Symbiotic relationship in which both species benefit from the relationship
the first eukaryote kingdom. Its ancestors were prokaryotes. Its decendants include fungi, plants, animals. They are eukaryotic, multicellular and unicellular, aerobic/anaerobic respiration, and heterotropic nutrition and autotrophic nutrition. Ex:paramecium, amoebas, diatoms, algae
the triploid nutritive tissue in angiosperm seeds is called
Hardy and Weinberg
• Hardy-Weinberg Principle: allele frequencies in a population will remain constant unless one or more factors cause those frequencies to change. • Genetic equilibrium is when all the allele frequencies remain constant  the population will not evolve. 5 conditions for maintaining genetic equilibrium:o Random matingo Population must be very largeo No movement into or out of the populationo No mutationso No natural selection
Harmful effects from mutated genes.
composed of two or more cells
Complete the sentence: The relaxation phase of the heartbeat is called _____________
radial symmetry stinging cells corals jellyfish sea anenomes
- 2 sugars- sucrose, lactose, maltose- Benedicts= no change, light blue
what are microscopic fungi?what are visible fungi?
a combining form meaning "heat," "hot," used in the formation of compound words:
that which has mass and occupies space
what protects the root and absorbs water
Jean-Baptiste Lamarck
Believed species changed over time. Most known for his (incorrect) theory, inheritance of acquired characteristics. Example of his theory: a human gets buff so then his child would be buff too WRONG
A substance that reduces the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution.
bottleneck effect
sudden reduction in population size due to a change in environment
domain archaea
domain of prokaryotes that like extreme environments.
cytoplasmic streaming
A circular flow of cytoplasm, involving myosin and actin filaments, that speeds the distribution of materials within cells.
What are pyrimidines?
Single Ringed, Cytosine and Thymine
internal structure and apperance of an organism
Name the correct term: Nitrate drug used in the treatment of angina
right hemisphere
hand movements controlled in this hemisphere.
a molecule that binds specifically to a receptor site of another molecule.
A representation within the nervous system of spatial relations among objects in an animal\'s environment.
Cognitive Map
houses the DNA and contains genetic blueprint
When water "sticks" to polar or charged surfaces, it is called __________.
noting a solution of lower osmotic pressure than another solution with which it is compared (
salivary amylase
in mouth, released by salivary glands and begins chemical breakdown of starch
protective cap on the end of a chromosome
the orientation of the ___ determines the plane of cell division in eukaryotic cells
mitotic spindle
Defined as the conversion of the RNA sequence into a string of amino acids.
Three Types of Cellular Work
Mechanical, transport, and chemical
all nucleic acids are made up of these
How many traits in pea plants did Mendal investagate?
set of identical haploid genomes for a specified unit of measurement
Inductive reasoning
A type of logic in which generalizations are based on a large number of specific observations.
A type of behavior that may decrease the reproductive success of the individual performingnit but benefits that of other individuals
Meristem cells left behind as the top of a plant grows higher, are:
Fluid Mosaic Model
Describes the arrangment of molecules that make up a cell membrane
single nutrient that either is scarce or cycles very slowly, limiting the growth of organisms in an ecosystem
limiting nutrient
land areas receiving less than 30 cm of rain per year
54. Monocot vs. Dicot
Monocot- single seeded, parallel veins, flowers mulitple or 3, vascular bundles scattered, fibrous roots.
Dicot- two seeded, branched veins, flowers multiple of 4 or 5, vascular bundles in a ring, taproot.
adrenergic tone
basal level of pressure is provided by a constant level of NE released by millions of sympathetic postgang innervating precap sphincters
Species Names
By convention, the first part of a binomial name identifies the genus to which the species belongs, and the second part distinguishes one species from others in a genus. The two names together are called the scientific name and are written in italics
does phylum annelida have segmentation? If so what is associated with it
yes, segmentation and regional specialization
part of nucleotide goes to DNA and the other half goes to RNA
Define the level "Cells"
The smallest unit of biological organisation that biologists consider alive. All true cells are surrounded by a plasma membrane, carry out complex chemical reactions, and are at least potentially capable of self reproduction. Cells come in a wide variety of shapes and sizes. Not all cells have a nucleus, but again all true cells have genetic material in the form of DNA.
What is a small circle of extra DNA with just a few genes?
What is biological species?
is based on interfertility rather than physical similarity (the definition of species is based on its reproductive isolation)
Food Chain
The flow of energy in an ecosystem, begining with producer. eg: Algae - carp - kingfisher bird - water snake.
the ruptuing of a cell due to excess internal pressure
What is the inflammatory response? What cells are involved?  Cell roles?
Infammatory response: a response system that is seen in most cases of infection or tissue injury, in which the affected tissue becomes swollen, and painfu.
Cells involved:
Platlets: relesase proteins taht form clots and lessen bleeding.
macrophages: secrete signaling moleculse called chemokines: they forma gradient that marks a path to the wound site
mast cells: relase chmical messengers ath constrict blood vessels near the wound site so the blood flow is reduced and blood loss. mast cells also relase histamie: they induce blood vessels that are farther away from the wound site so they dialate and become more permeable
neutrophils: destroy invading cells by phagocytosis(eating cells)
cytokines: attract other immune system cells to the site, stimulate bone marrow to make and release additional neutraphils and macrophaes, induce fever.
principal of independent assortment
assumes 9:3:3:1 or 3:1, inheritance of multiple traits, factors assort independently, Meiosos I randomness and variety
more effective at using resources ad would have increased in number through natural selection
chains created by linking subunits called monomers
carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids
How is mychorrizae symbiotic
helps the root hold water and breaks down organics in the soil to help the roots effectively hold water
How do you get down-syndrome?
through a trisome in the 21st chromosome.
when an ionic bond is formed the result is
the transfer of electrons
inspiratory reserve volume (IRV)
the volume of of air that can be inspired after a relaxed inspiration
The Ames Test - Used to Identify Chemical Mutagens
Rapid screening methodUses mutant Salmonella strainhis auxotroph - unable to synthesize histidineMix Salmonella his- with test chemicalPlate on histidine-deficient mediaOnly revertant his+ cells with growSignificance of Ames TestMutagenesis => carcinogenesisIf chemical is a mutagen, it may cause cancer in animalsAmes test is used as a rapid screen for carcinogenic compounds
What is the importance of peer review?
To ensure accurate information before it is submitted for publication
how are steroids different from fats
the carbon skeleton is bent to form four fused rings
Explain how maternal effect genes affectpolarity and development in Drosophilaembryos
when a mother has a mutation in a maternal effect gene, (mutant in mother gene results in mutant in offspring regardless of offspring's own genotype) she makes defective eggs that when fertilzed develop improperly.  maternal genes control the orientation or polarity of the the egg.
List the four types of bones.
a.long b.short c.flat d.irregular
ATP Synthtase
Nuclear pore
material in nucleus
red blood cell.
Define: cardiac muscle
-involuntary-striations-1 nuclei/cell-connected to each other at intercalated disks
cell to cell contact
What do ribosomes make?
Same, Like (isotonic, isometric, isotope )
InterphaseS phase
synthesisregular cell activities sstopnew DNA is synthesized
Chromosomes consist of
Proteins and DNA
The most inclusive taxonomic category; larger then a kingdom.
Population Genetics
gene frequencies within populations
a product of metabolic action.
Cells that lack a membrane-bound nucleus
saprotrophic decomposer; the body is made up of filaments called hyphae that form a mass called a mycelium; mushrooms and molds
Which bond is the strongest?
Covalent bonds
is a membranous sac containing digestive enzymes, the enzymes and membrane a produced by teh EER and transferred to the Golgi for processing
Community is neither stably nor predictable.
the attraction between molecules that results in the rise of a liqu in small tubes
__________ is another name for analogous structures.
Nucleus (with a double membrane)Organelles2 or more chromosomes (DNA+proteins)
eukaryotic differences
molecules tending to raise the hydrogen ion concentration in a solution & to lower its pH numerically.
attributed existence of life and formation of those molecules to a life force independent of physical and chemical laws
The jellylike substance that separates the epidermis from the inner cells in a sponge
abiotic factor
a nonliving part of an ecosystem
descriptive of an allele in a heterozygous individual that appears to be the only one affecting a trait
The science that uses both biological discoveries and new technological procedures
results in type 2 diabetes breast, colon cancer, stress and heart attack
One gene influences the phenotype that a second gene usually controls, masking any effects of alleles at the second gene; the name literally means "stopping" or "standing upon"example: albinism is generally epistaticspot epistasis by modification of dihybrid cross results, getting ratios like 9:7 or 9:3:4 instead of 9:3:3:1
Lipids are important because we need them to be able to asorb some vitamins that are not water soluable.
(like k,a,d,and e)
This is also the best source of Energy
chromosomes at center of the cell, spindle fibers placed them there
DNA replication?
process of copying CNA in cells
atom with a postive or negative charge
excretory tubes in each segment in members of Phylum Annelida.
native to Florida, fern-like branches
bald cypress tree
Eon that occurred after Hadean Eon. Cyanobacteria dominated life on Earth during this period.
Animal can gain heat from surface they're on
atoms of the same element, but different number of neutrons.
noting a solution of higher osmotic pressure than another solution with which it is compared (
an arrangment of parts for the performance of the functions of life
Restriction Enzyme
Enzymes that cut DNA molecules at specific nucleotide sequences.
complete proteins:
contain all the amino acids necessary for good health
meat, eggs
What is succession? Example.
usually following some disturbance, the disturbed area may be colonized by a variety of species that are gradually replaced by other species, which in turn are replaced by other species.
A good example is a "nurse log" in a forest. A mature tree falls, and begins to decay. Other forms of plant life start to make use of the tree. Mosses, lichens, ferns, fungi, and even young tree seedlings can grow there. I see these a lot in the Pacific Northwest because of our abundant rainfall; it's hard to STOP things from growing here!
basal angiosperms
less derived and include the flowering plants belonging to the oldest lineages.
if a cell does not successfully repair a mutagen, it and its descendants are called
proteins are constructed of ______ ____ ____
amino acid monomers.
If carbon dioxide is removed from a plant's environment, a plants sugar production would __________
Conjugative plasmids may pick up _____ ____
additional genes
an organism that produces its own food (ex: plants) Are always producers.
smooth ER (eu cell)
no attached ribosomes; sythesizes lipids
What is formed following the cortical reaction?
Fertilization Envelope
Fluorine has 7 valence electrons. Therefore, fluorine is likely to
gain one electon
the tendency of a system, esp. the physiological system of higher animals, to maintain internal stability, owing to the coordinated response of its parts to any situation or stimulus tending to disturb its normal condition or function.
Human population growth
Human population growth over the past 10,000 years. Note the effects of worldwide disease (the Black death) and technological advances on the populatiuon size.
lutenizing hormone begins to falter
embryonic cells produce chorionic gonadotropin
which model shows the nbumber of organisms at each trophic level in an ecosystem
pyramid of numbers
Functions of cervix:
secretion of mucus that enhamces sperm movement into the uterus and reduces embryos risk of bacterial infection.
meristemic tissue
is growth tissue and the location of most cell division
The process in which the nucleus of an atom gives off radiation or charged particles; changes the atom to another isotope or a different element.
The stamens of a flowering plant are broken down into two separate parts. The long, stalk-like structure is the _________ and the pollen-producing bodies on the tips are the __________.
filament; anthers
A functional group that consists of a nitrogen atom bonded to two hydrogen atoms; can act as a base in solution, accepting a hydrogen ion and acquiring a charge of +1.
amino group
What part of the kidney filters blood plasma, selectively re-absorbs salt and excretes potassium ions?
the nephron
3 types of cellular respiration how much atp
aerobic respiration-38lactic acid fermentation-2alcohol fermentation-2
in mollusca, eggs develop into a __, next stage is __ unique to molluscs (marine snails and bivalves)
trochophore larva
veliger larva
origin of replication
site where the replication of a DNa molecule begins, consisting of a specific sequence of nucleotides
neural integration
carried out in the gray matter of the cerebrum
Transmission Electron Microscopes
This microscope is used to study the internal ultrastructure of cells. It aims an electron beam through a thin section of the specimen. It uses electromagnets to focus and magnify it.
Eukaryotic cells vs Prokaryotic cells..(prokaryotic features)
No nuclear envelope, circular DNA and plasmids, no endomembrane system, or if there is one, its is simple.
ventral (anterior)
in front of toward or at the back of the body
What is the role of ADH?
Increases blood volume by increasing the permeability of the collecting duct to water. Released when baroreceptors in hypothalamus recognize a drop in blood pressure.
What are the two bases that are Purines?
Adenine and Thymine (double ringed)
Because of pea plants structure they naturally self-fertilize; however, Mendel was about to cross-fertilize two different pea plants how did he do this?
the female parts of the pea plant(carpels) were dusted with pollen from other selected plants
What is the general formula for an amino acid?
carboxyl group, amino group, central alpha-carbon, and the side chanin group(R).
How many vitamins do humans need for good health?  How do we categorize these vitamins?
water soluble (B, C, volic acid)
Fat soluble ( A, D,E, K)
we catogize them into fat and water soluble ..duh
If water flows from a region of more positive (higher) water potential to a region of morenegative (lower) water potential, how does the water potential in the root compare to that in thesoil outside the root?
The water potential in the soil must be higher than it is in the root.
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