biology act vocab Flashcards

Terms Definitions
herb
vegetation
delitition
swallowing
bile
digest fats
osteichthians
first jawed vertebrates
blood signifies _____
life
glycolipid
carbohydrates proteins covalently bonded to lipids
Arterioles
Small branches of arteries
allele
alternative form of genes
Climate
the long-term prevailing weather conditions in a particular area
proteins
amino acidsmade of polypeptide chains
nonmotile bacteria
Do not have Flagella
MPF
maturation-promoting factor; a protein complex required for a cell to progress from late interphase to mitosis. The active form consists of cyclin and a protein kinase
Autotrophs get their energy from...
sunlight
20 Hydrophillic
Water loving polar molecules.
Cohesion
A particular element being attracted to itself
Peristalsis
series of smooth muscle contractions that push food through the alimentary canal
hydrocarbons
An organic molecule consisting of carbon and hydrogen
Axial Skeleton
Midline of the body
Provides protection and support
hypotonic
describes a solution whose solute concentration is lower than the solute concentration inside a cell
biotechnology
Manipulating the molecular basis of inheritance by recombinant DNA technology is called
independent assortment
independent segregation of genes during the formation of gametes
Macroevolution
Major biological changes evident in the fossil record
how many species of fish?
25 k
What is circulation in plants called?
Translocation
What is Biology?
The study of life.
Population
Individuals of the same species occupying a given area at the same time / Students on Campus, Sunfish in Pond
Phylum Myxomycota
Orphan phylum that contains plasmodial slime molds like Physarum.
Osmosis
The diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane.
Individuals with three sex chromosomes due to nondijuntion.
klinefelters syndrome
Spiracle
Openings on the thorax and abdomen where air enters and leaves the tracheal tubes.
in mollusca ___ is rasping sponges, tissue from other animals
predation
second trimester
fourth months to end of sixth
loose connective tissue
loosely-packed fibroblast cells in matrix of collagen and elastin fibers, binds epithelia, pads and stabilizes organs
prokaryote
lack a membrane bound nucleus and other organelles
Part of chromosome breaks off and reattatches to a different chromosome
translocation
Errors or changes in the nucleotide sequence.
Mutation
Isotope

• One of several forms of an
element, each containing the
same number of protons in their
atoms but a different number of
neutrons.
__(#) different amino acids are commonly found in proteins, which are synthesized at the __in the cytoplasm of cells.
20; ribosomes
What is the action of chewing called?
Mastication
collagen
A fibrous protein found extensively in bone and connective tissue
equilibrium
the condition existing when a chemical reaction and its reverse reaction proceed at equal rates.
germ-cell mutation
mutation that occurs in an organism’s gametes
Evaporation
Process by which water changes from a liquid into an atmospheric gas
1. Large lymphocytes
2. Small lymphoctyes
3. Monocytes 
The 3 agranulocyte types
electron microscope
A microscope that uses magnets to focus an electron beam on or through a specimen, resulting in resolving power a thousandfold greater than that of a light microscope.
Define: capillaries
sight of nutrient, waste, and gas exchange
___ wavelengths have more energy that ___ wavelengths
shorter longer
Genome
all the DNA in one 23-chromosome set; 3.1 billion nucleotide pairs in human genome; 46 human chromosomes comes in two sets of 23 chromosomes; one set of 23 chromosomes came form each parent; each pair of chromosomes has same genes but different versions (alleles) exist
 
 
 
epiphyseal plate
-band of cartilage between primary and secondary ossification centers
-(between epiphyses and diaphysis)
-growth occurs along epiphyseal plates as this band of cartilage turns into bone
Give the term: ulcer that forms on genital organs after infection with syphilis.
chancre
_______ refers to the number of protons.
Atomic number
Use of channels to bring materials from a lesser concentration area to a greater conncetrated area
active transport
The relative number of individuals of each age in a population.
Age Structure
A solution that is stronger than the cell is said to be
hypertonic
occurs in the intermembrane space between the inner and outer membrane of the mitochondria
citric acid cycle
speciation
the formation of new species as a result of geographic, physiological, anatomical, or behavioral factors that prevent previously interbreeding populations from breeding with each other.
Oxygen and carbon dioxide
adjustable pores conserve water and let what enter and exit the leaf
air pressure
the alveoli are kept open by ____so that gas exchange can take place
Metaphase I
Tetrads line up along the midplane of the cell - the presence of tetrads (bundles with 4 total chromatids) is the key distinguishing feature of metaphase I of meiosis.
terminating action of neurotransmitters
1. enzymatic degradation (ACh by acetylcholinesterase)2. diffusion - neuropeptides3. active transport - biogenic amines and amino acid transmitters
Uracil
A pyrimidine found in RNA but not DNA; it forms hydrogen bonds with adenine.
derived character
a feature that evolved only within the group under construction
Compare N2 and depth?
As depth increases more outside pressure increases, and n2 gradient increases so more n2 will diffuse into tissues.
ATP is also known as the ________
Cellular energy molecule
zygote
the cell produced by the union of two gametes before it undergoes cleavage or cell division
glomerulus-proximal tubule-loop of Henley-distal tubule-collecting duct
the correct order for an excreted water molecule moving through a nephron


Describe the structure and function of steroids.
Functions


The starting point from which your body produces other steroids
Increased risk for cardiovascular (heart and blood vessel) disease
What occurred during the Cambrian explosion?
All modern body plans evolved
Predator/prey relationships
Occured 542 MYA
) The egg that is released from the ovary during ovulation is known as a(n)
secondary oocyte.
Point mutation
A change in a gene at a single nucleotide pair.
ATP is a nucleotide that has a base called? which is connected to a sugar called? which is connected to how many phosphate groups?
Adenine: Ribose: 3
A)The proof that genetic recombination occurs when crossin over takes place during meiosis came from what sort of expiriments?
Experiments in which the parental chromosomes differed with respect to both the genetic and cytological markers.
What are the levels of organization of a multicellular organism? List in order of complexity.Give an example of each?
Cells
Tissue
Organs
Organ System
Three Stages of Cellular Respiration
 
1. Glycolysis
 where, does what?

 
occurs in the cytoplasmic fluid of the cell, outside the organelles. 
Glycolysis begins respiration by breaking glucose into two molecules of a three carbon compound called pyruvate.
 
 
pentose and hexose sugars form what kind of structure?
ring structures in solution -this often creates diastereomers
why do Anaerobic pathways have enough to run for very small animals?
it only provides enough energy for very small animals
B. Chemicals: consists of a large variety: like Terpemes= molecules that taste bad, but they help stop insects. Chitianases= kills fungus cells--ROI's (machine oxygen species) like H2O2 or o- radicals that damage proteins in fungus, found in white blood c
C. Symbiosis: Acaia trees= long thorns that are hollow. Ants use these as homes--kill catepillars and other bugs that are on their tree--example of symbiosis.
List below the 7 characteristics of All Living Things:
a.made of cells
b.based on a genetic code (RNA or DNA)
c.responds to environment
d.grows and develops
e.reproduces
f.obtains and uses materials and energyg.maintains internal balance (homeostasis)
When the sun is low in the sky, the amount of solar radiation received at the spot where the sun is observed:
is lower than when the sun is high in the sky because the same amount of solar radiation is being spread over a larger area.
Neutrophils
Logy
study of
-graph-
drawn, written
Cytology
study of cells
genetics
study of heredity
reductionist
approaches--seeking mechanisms, casual processes (ex: caterpillars feed and grow faster on nitrogen-rich leaves)
Magnoliaceae
Laminar Stamens; Large, showy flowers
sedimentary rock
layer upon layer
which anteriory pituitary hormone stimulates milk production by mammary glands?
PRL
bones are classified by _____
shape
Green Algae
Multicellular or unicellularTwo groups-Charophytes-• closest living to land plants• volvox colonies- hollow balls composed of 100s or 1000s of biflagellatedcellschlorphytesEx. Sea lettuce
KARYOTYPE
micrograph of chromosomes visible during cell division
show's an individual's chromosomes arranged in homologous pairs
in order of diminishing size
Cancer Cells
exhibit neither density-dependent inhibition or anchorage dependencedo not respond normally to the body's control mechanismsForm tumorsBenign tumor remains at site of orginmalignant tumors invade surrounding tissues and can metastasize exporting cancer cells to other parts of the body where they may form secondary tumors
sulfur dioxide
a colorless, nonflammable, water-soluble, suffocating gas, SO2, formed when sulfur burns: used chiefly in the manufacture of chemicals such as sulfuric acid, in preserving fruits and vegetables, and in bleaching, disinfecting, and fumigating.
Acid
substance that increases the hydrogen cation concentration (HCL -> H + Cl)
Disorders caused by dominant alleles
Huntington's disease
Vacuole
Provides storage for water, salts, proteins, and carbohydrates
The resulting cells are called?
Daughter Cells
Proteins are polymers of _____.
amino acids
Annelida
segmented worms; different from other worms because of its segmentation.
vascular cambrium
lateral meristematic tissue that produces vascular tissues and increases the thickness of the stem over time
flexible cell membrane, no cell wall
amoeba
the four nitrogen containing bases
adenine-guanine-thymine-cytosine (guanine and cytosine, adenine and thymine)
the 3 domains
Eukarya, Bacteria, and Archaea
habitat
the natural environment of an organism; place that is natural for the life and growth of an organism:
transpiration
evaporation of water from a plant's leaves
fibroblast
- all connective tissue (bones for example) cells are derived from this single progenitor
- secretes collagen
___ T cells respond to exogenous antigens that are taken up by an APC and then complexed with MHC class II proteins
Helper
solution where water is the solvent
aqueous solution
the spread of cancer cells beyond their original site
METASTASIS
Calcitonin
lowers calcium levels in blood and inhibits release of calcium from bones.
anabolic pathway
consumes energy to synthesize a complex molecule from simplier compunds
Domain Bacteria and domain Archaea
comprise the prokaryotes
Pulmonary Circuit
animals that have double circulation with a pulmonary circuit(lungs) and a systematic circuit.
compounds that block the growth and reproduction of bacteria
antibiotics
Body cavity located within the mesoderm
Coelomate animal
Foramen
round or oval opening through a bone
Phosphate Group
A functional group important in energy transfer.
metaphase
second part of mitosis, spindle fiber form, chromosomes begin to move to the equator
the centrioles may be involved in formation of cilia and flagella
n/a
inbreeding
to breed (individuals of a closely related group) repeatedly.
Pioneer Species
first species to populate an area during primary succession
What is the synapomorphy for all  vertebrates?
look up
Dipeptidase, Tripeptidase
Located in the gall bladder. Breaks down materials on a molecular scale.
sub phyla of phylum anthropoda
trilobites, chelicerta, myriapoda, crustacea, hexapoda
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
An extensive membranous network in eukaryotic cells, continuous with the outer nuclear membrane and composed of ribosome-studded (rough) and ribosome-free (smooth) regions.


Name three polysaccharides and describe their functions.
Starch
 
Serve  as sugar stockpiles
When plants break down starch molecules, the stored glucose becomes available
Glycogen


For animal cells only
Store excess sugar in the form of a polysaccharide
A chain of many glucose monomers
Stored as granules in liver and muscle cells
Breaks down these glycogen granules, releasing glucose
Cellulose


Serve as building materials
Protect cells and stiffen plant
 
DNA helicase
_____ unwinds and opens the DNA helix
Alveolus
Basic functional unit of the lung; a tiny sac specialized for passive gas exchange between the lungs and the blood.
What's the longest cycle in a cell life?
Interphase
Convergent evolution
The evolution of the out ward similarities in organisms that are not closely relates because they have to meet similar problems in their habitats.
Primary protein structure.
Primary structure is the primary sequence of amino acids.
Hydrogen Bonds ch.2
2weak bonds--> but hydrogen bonds along a long molecule can result in sustantial stability (example: DNA)Form when: an atom with partial - charge and a hydrogen atom that is covalently bonded to oxygen or nitrogen.
organs that have layers of respiratory tissues stacked like the pages of a book
Book lungs
homeostasis
the tendency of a system, esp. the physiological system of higher animals, to maintain internal stability, owing to the coordinated response of its parts to any situation or stimulus tending to disturb its normal condition or function.
Density-dependent growth (factors)
increases in size of population affects r (biotic - predation rates, competition for food)
Growth
an increase in body size; no growth in shape.
seasonal mixing regimes
water is densest at 4 degrees C
polar covalent bond
two different atoms share an electron, with one pulling the electron nearer to itself, thus giving the two atoms slightly opposite charges
Major groove
A groove that spirals around the DNA double helix; provides a location where a protein can bind to a particular sequence of bases and affect the expression of a gene.
Name the term: valve that lies between the right atrium and the right ventricle
tricuspid valve
monotremes (platypuses and echidnas)
only living mammals that lay eggs
If you cross an unknown male with a homologous female and the offspring has a recessive trait, what must the male have been genetically?
Heterogeneous.
In 1858, this man claims all cells arise from other cells.
Rudolph Virchow
nonsense mutation
change a codon for an amino acid into a stop codon
Process of cniderians stinging people?
Nematocist harpoon comes out of cnidocyte, attaches to prey, pumps toxins, paralyzes, and consumes prey alive
Functions of the digestive system include:
mechanical and chemical breakdown of food, elimination of waste products, absorption of food molecules.
Which functional group(s) is polar and tend to make oraganic compounds hydrophillic or water soluble?
carbonyl, carboxyl, hydroxyl, amino.
Jenner developed smallpox vaccine how?
Long term observation that cowpox exposure protected milkmaids from small pox
What is the voltage across a membrane called-membrane potential-chemical gradient-electrochemical gradient
membrane potential(VOLTAGE is POTENTIAL energy)
In eukaryotes, why are certain genes expressed only in certain cell types
Regulatory transcription factors vary from cell to cell
What are the major types of connective tissues in verbrates?
1. Loose Connective2. Adipose Tissue3. Fibrous Tissue4. Nervous Tissue5. Muscle Tissue
Viral vectors: Deliver genes to certain body parts
- where they're needed (e.g., herpes for nervous system disorders)
What are the three main components to cellular communication within a cell?
Activation of a receptorTransduction of the signalFunctional response
What do we mean by an adaptation?
An adaptation is a specific feature that an organism has to allow it to survive better in its environment
What kinds of cells do Viruses attack?  What effects does this have on the victums?
Viruses attack the "T helper cells" and when this happens, the bodies immune system is practically shut down.  
What is the function of a cell wall?
It surrounds the cell, giving it protection and support.
Do reptiles have a loop, fish, amphibians of henle?
No they don't they don't need it to conserve water, because they are fairly well hydrated.
iso
equal
Ptyalin
Salivary amylase
Bacteria
Domain containing bacteria
Virus
(virology) ultramicroscopic infectious agent that replicates itself only within cells of living hosts noun
Ex. many are pathogenic; a piece of nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) wrapped in a thin coat of protein
Protista
Eukaryotic kingdom containing protozoa, algae, water molds, etc. Unicellular or simple organisms
Carbon
an abundant nonmetallic tetravalent element occurring in three allotropic forms: amorphous carbon and graphite and diamond
epitope
aka antigenic determinant- small accessible portion of an antigen recognized by lymphocyte
oncogene
cancer-causing gene. oncogenes code for proteins that stimulate the cell cycle and inhibit apoptosis
Evolutionary Time
occurs over many generations
glyoxysomes
specialized peroxisomes found in fat-storing tissues of plant seeds
carbohydrate
an essential structural component of living cells and source of energy for animals
Carbohydrates
Organic compounds made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms in the proportion of 1:2:1.
Nucleus
In cells, the centrally located compartment of eukaryotic cells that is bounded by a double membrane and contains the chromosomes.
capsule
sporangium; uses materials from seta and foot to produce spores
Molarity
A common measure of solute concentration, referring to the number of moles of solute per liter of solution.
Ribosomes function
carry out protein synthesis
-proteins with bound ribosomes specialize in secretion
heterozygote advantage
Greater reproductive success of heterozygous individuals compared to homozygotes; tends to preserve variation in gene pools.
transduction
the process whereby a transducer accepts energy in one form and gives back related energy in a different form
compound
(chemistry) a substance formed by chemical union of two or more elements or ingredients in definite proportion by weight
hydrogen bond
the bridging of hydrogen atoms
RFLPs
differences in DNA sequence on homologous chromosomes that can result in different patterns of restriction fragment lengths
karyotypes
the chromosomal characteristics of a cell or the chromosomes themselves or a representation of them
Innate immunity
General, non-specific protection to the body, including the skin (barrier), gastric acid, phagocytes, lysozyme, and complement.
Spermatogenesis
Sperm production; occurs in human males on a daily basis from puberty until death. Spermatogenesis results in the production of four mature gametes (sperm) from a single precursor cell (spermatogonium). For maximum sperm viability, spermatogenesis requires cooler temperatures and adequate testosterone.
Mitochondrion
An organelle surrounded by a double=membrane (two lipid bilayers) where ATP production takes place. The interior (matrix) is where PDC and the Krebs cycle occur, and the inner membrane contains the enzymes of the electron trasport chain and ATP synthase.
Lipid
a fatty substance that does not disolve in water
Peroxisome
An organelle that houses reactions in which toxic peroxides are formed. The peroxisome isolates these peroxides from the rest of the cell.
The major idea that Darwin presented in his boook The origin of species was that
...
Autotrophs
An organism that obtains organic food molecules without eating other organisms. Autotrophs use energy from the sun or from the oxidation of inorganic substances to make organic molecules from inorganic ones.
Hydrophobic
Having an aversion to water; tending to coalesce and form droplets in water.
kinetochore
an assembly of proteins that attaches to the centromere of a chromosome during mitosis
Proton
a subatomic particle with a positive charge
Fat
large lipid made from glycerol and fatty acids
ionic compound
A compound resulting from the formation of an ionic bond; also called a salt.
inbreeding depression
decrease in fertility and survival because of inbreeding
chytrid
A member of phylum Chytridiomycota and kingdom Fungi. Molecular analysis suggests that chytrids are most similar to the common ancestor of fungi. Some chytrids possess flagellated gametes, and it is possible that the first fungi possessed flagella
product
An ending material in a chemical reaction
primary growth
Growth initiated by the apical meristems of a plant root or shoot.
Cellular Respiration
process that releases energy by breaking down glucose and other food molecules in the presence of oxygen
Thermocline
a narrow stratum of rapid temperature change in the ocean and in many temperate-zone lakes
adhesion
the attraction of water molecules to other polar molecules
Deductive reasoning
Begin with premises, supplied info, and draw conclusions (Holmes)
Homologous structures
Physical structures in two different organisms that have structural similarity due to a common ancestor, but may have different functions. Homologous structures arise from divergent evolution.
Nucleotide
A nucleoside with one or more phosphate gropus attached. Nucleoside triphosphates (NTPs) are the building blocks of RNA and are also used as energy molecules, especially ATP. Deoxynucleoside triphosphates (dNTPs) are the building blocks of DNA; in these molecules, the ribose is replaced with deoxyribose.
Pilus
A long projection on a bacterial surface involved in an attachment, e.g., the sex pilus attaches F+ and F- bacteria during conjugation.
Fascicle
A bundle of skeletal muscle cells. Fascicles group together to form skeletal muscles.
Eukaryotic
A cell characterized by the presence of a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles. Eukaryotes can be unicellular (protists) or multicellular (fungi, plants and animals).
Cerebellum
The region of teh brain that coordinates and smooth skeletal muscle activity.
Theta replication
DNA replication in prokaryotes, so named because as replication proceeds around the single, circular chromosome, it takes on the appearnce of the Greek letter theta.
Arousal
A function in the reproductive system, controlled by the parasympathetic nervous system, that includes erection (via dilation of erectile arteries) and lubrication.
Genotype
The combination of alleles of an organism carries. In a homozygous genotype, both alleles are the same, whereas in a heterozygous gentorype the alleles are different.
protein synthesis
the formation of proteins by using information contained in DNA and carried by mRNA User-contributed
Mitosis
the stage of the cell cycle during which the cell's nucleus divides into two new nuclei and one copy of the dna is distributed into each daughter cell
Double Helix
two strands of nucleotides wound about each other; structure of DNA
Scientists have inferred that the first cells were
prokaryotic and heterotrophic
Calorie
The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of water by one degree Celsius (1°C) from 14.5°C to 15.5°C. Calorie spelled with a capital C refers to the kilocalorie (1 kcal = 1,000 cal).
hydrogen ion (H+)
free(or unbonded) proton; one hydrogen atom that lost its electron and now bears a positive charge
Photosynthesis
process by which plants and some other organisms use light energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into oxygen and high-energy carbohydrates such as sugars and starches User-contributed
Atomic number
the number of protons an element has
Cytoskeleton description
-supports the cell and provides shape
-centrioles, flagella,cilia
chemoautotrophs
Require only CO2 as a carbon source, Use H2S, NH3, and Fe, Unique to prokaryotes
internode
The segment of a plant stem between the points where leaves are attached.
elements
a molecule composed of one kind of atom; cannot be broken into simpler units by chemical reactions
Temperate Broadleaf Forest
a biome located throughout midlatitude regions where there is sufficient moisture to support the growth of large, broadleaf deciduous trees
energy level
electrons that are the same distance from the nucleus
Metabolism
Sum of all chemical activities of the organism
Genetic Mutation
a disruption in the correct sequence of genetic base pairs that may be transferred to daughter cells during mitosis or meiosis
hydrolysis
a chemical process in which a compound is broken down and changed into other compounds by taking up the elements of water.
Ventricle
One of two large chambers in the heart. The ventricles receive blood from the atria and pump it out of the lungs of the heart. The right ventricle has thing walls and pumps deoxygenated blood to the lungs through the pulmonary artery. The left ventricle has thick walls and pumps deoxygenated blood the body through the aorta.
Bohr effect
The tendency of certain factors to stablize the hemoglobin in the tense conformation, thus reducing its affinity for oxygen and enhancing the relase of oxygen to the tissues. The factors include increased PCO2, increase temperature, increased bisphosphoglycerate (BPG), and decreased pH. Note that the Bohr effect shifts the oxy-hemolobin saturation curve to the right.
Corpus luteum
'Yellow body.' The remnants of an ovarian follicle after ovulation has occurred. The cells enlarge and begin secreting progesterone, the dominant female hormone during the second half of the menstrual cycle. Some estrogen is also secreted.
Acinar cells
Cells that make up exocrine galnds, adn that secrete their products into ducts. For example, in the pancreas, acinar cells secrete digestive enzyme; in the salivary glands, acinar cells secrete saliva.
high energy bonds
the bonds between the phosphate groups User-contributed
Cellular Differentiation
The process by which a cell becomes specialized in order to perform a specific function, as in the case of a liver cell, a blood cell, or a neuron.
CO2, ATP, NADPH
Products of the light reactions of photosynthesis that provide energy for the Calvin cycle are
covalent bond
sharing of one or more electrons b/w atoms or groups of atoms
interphase
strages of the cell cycle (G1, S, G2) during which growth and DNA synthesis occur when the nucleus is not actively dividing
Cell wall description
rigid, tough, made of cellulose, only in plants
Structural formula
A type of molecular notation in which the constituent atoms are joined by lines representing covalent bonds
Angiosperm
The more modern of the two groups of seed plants that produce flowers and seeds enclosed in plant tissue (ovaries). Angiosperm means "enclosed seed." Angiosperms include monocots and dicots.
petiole
The stalk of a leaf, which joins the leaf to a node of the stem.
single bond
a covalent bond in which two atoms share one pair of electrons
Covalent Bonds
a type of strong chemical bond in which two atoms share one pair of valence electrons
A band
The band of the sarcomere that extends the full length of the thick filament. The A band includes regions of thick and thin filament overlap, as well as a region of thick filament only. A bands alternate with I bands to give skeletal and cardiac muscle a striated apperance. The A band does not shorten during muscle contraction.
haploid (n) number
cell condition in which only one of each type of chromosome is present
companion cell
A type of plant cell that is connected to a sieve-tube cell by many plasmodesmata and whose nucleus and ribosomes may serve one or more adjacent sieve-tube cells
Cell Nucleus
a part of the cell containing DNA and RNA and responsible for growth and reproduction
Diploid organism
An organism that has two copies of its genome it each cell. The paired genomes are said to be homologous.
periodic table of the elements
A chart of the chemical elements, arranged in three rows, corresponding to the number of electron shells in their atoms
Neutral, acid, base solution
*Solution - A liquid mixture of two or more substances that are evenly spread out
*Neutral - 7 living pH cells
*Acid - any compound that increases the number of hydronium ions when dissolved in water; acids react with bases and some metals to form salts (below 7 pH cells)
*Base - any compound that increase the number of hydroxide ions when dissolved in water; bases react with acids to form salts (above 7 pH cells)
Viroid
contains only DNA
White matter
Myelinated axons
cancer
malignant tumor whose non-differentiated cells exhibit loss of contact inhibition, uncontrolled growth, and the ability to invade tissue and metastasize
granum
each stack of thylakoids
Microfilament
Minute fibrous structure generally composed of actin found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They play a role in the motion of cells.
chemokines
secreted near injury/infection, helps direct movement of blood cells to injury site and induces other changes central to inflammation
Phosphate group
P bonded to 4O
tracer
any radioactive isotope introduced into the body to study metabolism or other biological processes
reduction
the gain of an electron
Chromosome
threadlike structure within the nucleus containing the genetic information that is passed from one generation of cells to the next
Phospholipid
The primary membrane lipid. Phospholipids consist of a glycerol molecule esterified to two fatty acid chains and a phosphate molecule. Additional, highly hyrohpilic groups are attached to the phosphate, making this molecule extremely amphipathic.
catalyst
(chemistry) a substance that initiates or accelerates a chemical reaction without itself being affected
ATP
a nucleotide derived from adenosine that occurs in muscle tissue
Enzyme
specialized proteins that speed up chemical reactions
Buffer
A substance that can transiently accept or release hydrogen ions and thereby resist changes in pH.
Xylem
vascular tissue that conducts most water and minerals. Includes tracheids
apoptosis
programmed cell death involving a cascade of specific cellular events leading to death and destruction of the cell
Nucleolus description
a structure inside the nucleus
parasites
organsims that absorb nutrients from the body fluids of living hosts
septa/septum
Cross-walls that divide fungal hyphae into cells. Septa generally have pores large enough to allow ribosomes, mitochondria, and even nuclei to flow from cell to cell; singular septum.
dna
(biochemistry) a long linear polymer found in the nucleus of a cell and formed from nucleotides and shaped like a double helix
Animalia
Eukaryotic kingdom made up of organisms that eat each other for nutrients
organic compound
covalently bonded compound that contains carbon, excluding carbonates and oxides
Pacemaker potential
A self-initiating action potential that occurs in the conduction system of the heart and triggers action potentials (and thus contraction) in the cardiac muscle cells Tee pacemaker potential is triggered by the regular, spontaneous depolarization of the cells of the conductions system, due to slow inwar leak of positive ions (Na+ and Ca2+). Because the SA node has the fastest leak, it typically reaches the threshold for the pacemaker potential before any other region of the conduction system, and thus sets the pace of the heart.
Acid hydrolases
Enzymes that degrade various macromolecules and that require an acidic pH to function properly. Acid hydrolases are found within the lysosomes of cells.
Macrophage
A large, non-sepcific, phagocytic cell of the immune syste. Macrophages frequently leave the bloodstream to crawl around in the tissues and perform 'clean up' duties, such as ingesting dead cells or cellular debris at an injury site, or pathogens.
Norepinephrine
The neurotransmitter used by the sympathetic division of the ANS at the postganglionic (organ-level ) synapse.
Antibody (Ab)
Also called immunoblobins, the antibodies are protiens secreted by B-cells upon activation that bind in a highly specific manner to foreign proteins (such as those found of the surface of pathogens or transplanted tissues). The foreign proteins are called antigens. Antibodies generally do not directly destroy antigens, rather they mark them for destruction through other methods, and can inativate antigens by clumping them together or by convering necessary active sites.
Thylakoid
A flattened sac within a chloroplast. Thylakoid membranes contain all of the chlorophyll in a plant, in addition to the electron carriers of photophosphorylation. Thylakoids stack to form grana.
Enantiomers
Molecules that are mirror images of each other
What type of population is most susceptible to loss of genetic variability as a result of genetic drift?
...
peristome
ring of toothlike structures on the upper part of the capsule
Negative Feedback
A primary mechanism of homeostasis, whereby a change in a physiological variable that is being monitored triggers a response that counteracts the initial fluctuation.
cell cycle
repeating sequence of events in eukaryotes that involves cell growth and nuclear division; consists of G1, S, G2, and M
Neutron
a subatomic particle with a neutral charge
Cholesterol
a steroid that is important component of animal cell membranes
reactant-
A starting material in a chemical reaction.
ovule
The female reproductive organ in a seed plant containing the female gametophyte with an egg cell and surrounded by one or two integuments. The ovule becomes a seed after fertilization by the male pollen.
molecular formula
A type of molecular notation indicating only the quantity of the constituent atoms
hydrogen ions
The basis of the pH scale
Eukaroyte
a cell that has membrane bound organelles
Basin Wetlands
develop in shallow basins, ranging from upland depressions to filled-in lakes and ponds
cation
an atom with more protons then electrons and thus a net positive charge
Systematics
Field of biology that studies the diversity of organisms and their evolutionary relationships
Penetration
The second step in viral infection, the injection of the viral genome into the host cell.
Bronchioles
Very small air tubes int eh respiratory system (diameter 0.5 - 1.0 mm). The walls of the bronchioles are made of smooth muscle (thus involunatry) to help regulate air flow.
Central chemoreceptors
Receptors in the central nervous system that monitor the pH of cerebrospinal luid to help regulate ventilation rate.
Antagonist
Something that acts to oppose the action of something else. For example, muscles that move a join in oppoiste direction are said to be antagonists.
what are important molecules to living organisms
protiens
cell divison
process by which a cell divides forming two new daughter cells
Carrying Capacity
The maximum number of individuals of any species that can be supported by a particular ecosystem on a long-term basis
Neuron
a nerve cell; the basic building block of the nervous system
Bases found on nucleotides
purines(Adenine and Guanine) and pyrimidines(Thymine and Cytosine) are
mast cells
a vertebrate body cell that produces histamine and other molecules that trigger the inflammatory response.
pH scale
measure of the concentration of free hydrogen ions (H+) in blood, water, and other solutions
Gene
(genetics) a segment of DNA that is involved in producing a polypeptide chain
anchoring junctions
fasten cells together in long sheets (common in muscle cells)
Molecule
Two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds
phenotype frequency
equal to the number of individuals with a particular phenotype divided by the total number of individuals in the population
Northern Coniferous Forest
a terrestrial biome characterized by long, cold winters and dominated by cone-bearing trees
radioactive isotope
an isotope whose nucleus tends to break up into elements with lower atomic numbers, this breakup emits energy called radioactive decay
middle lamella
a thin layer rich in sticky polysaccharides called pectins (b/n primary walls of adjacent cells)
cell division
the process in reproduction and growth by which a cell divides to form daughter cells
Relication fork(s)
The site(s) where the parental DNA double helix unwinds during replication.
Power stroke
The step in the sliding filament theory during which yosin undergoes a conformaitonal change to its low energy state, in the process dragging the thin filaments (and the attached Z lines) toward the center fo the sarcomere. NOte that power stroke requires ATP only indirectly: to se the myosin molecule in its high-energy conformation during a different step of the sliding filament thoery.
Sebaceous gland
Oil-forming glands found all over the body, especially on the face and neck. The product (sebum) is released to the skin surface through hair follicles.
Internodal tract
The portion of the cardiac conduction system between the SA node and the AV node.
human genetics
The study of how some traits appear and others disappear in the process of heredity
Dominate Trait
The trait observed when at least one dominant allele for a characterisitc is inherited
Glycolysis and aerobic respiration
Cellular respiration takes place in two stages that are
chemical bond
a union b/w the electron structure of two or more atoms or ions
binary fission
splitting of a parent cell into two daughter cells; serves as an asexual form of reproduction in bacteria
Mitochondria function
supplies most of the energy for the cell
ovary
Structure at the base of a carpel that contains one or more ovules. A ripened ovary, together with seeds, forms a fruit. The ovary distinguishes angiosperms from gymnosperms.
terminal bud
Embryonic tissue at the tip of a shoot, made up of developing leaves and a compact series of nodes and internodes.
diploid
term used to refer to a cell that contains both sets of homologous chromosomes
triple bond
a covalent bond in which two atoms share three pairs of electrons
Punnett Square
a chart that shows all the possible combinations of alleles that can result from a genetic cross
A site
Amino-acyl tRNA site; the site on a ribosome where a new amino acid is added to a growing peptide.
Recessive Trait
a trait that is apparent only when two recessive alleles for the same characteristic are inherited
Surface tension
the tension of the surface film of a liquid caused by the attraction of the particles in the surface later by a bulk of liquid
orbital
a region in an atom where there is a high probability of finding electrons
Hemizygous gene
A gene appearing in a single copy in diploid organisms, e.g. X-linked genes in human males.
Gibbs free energy
The energy in a system that can be used to drive chemical reactions. If the change in free energy of a reaction (Delta G, the free energy of the products minus the free energy of the energy of the reactants) is negative, the reaction will occur spontaneously.
Amino acid acceptor site
The 3' end of a tRNA molecule that binds an amino acid. The nucleotide sequence at this end is CCA
energy
ATP
Telencephalon
The cerebral hemispheres.
organic compounds
compound containing carbon
adaptation
inherited characteristic that increases an organism's chance of survival
desmosomes
specialized junctions that hold adjacent cell together, consist of dense plate at point of adhesion plus extracellular cementing material
smooth ER description
lack attached ribosomes
mold
A rapidly growing, asexually reproducing fungus.
electron
negative charged (-) subatomic particle
Protein
macromolecule that contains carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen; needed by the body for growth and repair and to make up enzymes
EPSP
Excitatory postsynaptic potential; a slight depolarization of a postsynaptic cell, bringing the membrane potential of that cell closer to the threshold for an action potential.
Flagellum
Long, whiplike appendage that propels cells.
pseudopodia
ceullar extensions that extend and contract
caspase
cell cycle regulatory enzyme that initiates apoptosis
atomic nucleus
atom's central core, containing protons and neutrons
zygomycete
Fungi commonly called zygote fungi that have flagellated cells characterized by the formation of a durable structure, called a zygosporangium, as part of their sexual life cycle.
mutualism
the relation between two different species of organisms that are interdependent
conidia
(plural, conidia) A naked, asexual spore produced at the ends of hyphae in ascomycetes.
Organs
When tissues organize into functional structures they become _____
Carbonhydrate
a biomolecule composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen with a ration of about two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom for every carbon atom
Hydroxyapatite
Hardy crystals consisting of calcium and phosphate that form the bone matrix.
Differentiation
The specialization of cell types, especially during the embryonic and fetal development.
Pinocytosis
The non-specific uptake of liquid particles into a cell by invagination of the plasma membrane and subsequent 'pinching off' a small bit of the extracellular fluid.
Operator
A specific DNA nucleotide sequence where transcriptional regulatory proteins can bind.
Taxis
response directed toward or away from a stimulus. When one shoots a gun in the air, Canadian geese will flee.
Consumer
an organism that obtains energy by feeding on other organisms
Cell Wall
A relatively rigid structure that encloses cells of plants, fungi, many protists, and most prokaryotes. Gives these cells their shape and limits their expansion in hypotonic media.
Geometric isomers
Have the same covalent partnerships, but they differ in their spatial arrangements
tracheids
tube-shaped cells that carry water and mineral up from teh roots
signal <<
molecule that stimulates or inhibits an event in the cell cycle
Cell wall function
protects and supports plant cells
product-
An ending material in a chemical reaction.
gene pool
combined genetic information of all the members of a particular population
moss
A small, nonvascular plant that varies in appearance, from miniature evergreen trees to filamentous plants. It belongs to phylum Bryophyta with hornworts and liverworts.
Microclimate
very fine scale patterns of climate, such as the specific climatic conditions underneath a log
element
any substance that cannot be broken down to any other substance by ordinay chemical means, or atoms with the same atomic number
Neurotransmitters
The name for the electrical impulses and chemical compounds that transmit info in the nervous system
Ligase
An enzyme that connects two fragments of DNA to make a single fragment; also called DNA ligase. This enzyme is usedd during DNA replication and is also used in recombinant DNA research.
Prostate
A small gland encircling the male urethra just inferior to the bladder (only reproductive structure not paired). Its secretion contain nutrients and enzymes and account for approximately 35% of the ejaculate volume.
Operon
A nucleotide sequence on DNA that contians three elemtns: a coding sequence for one or more enzymes, *a coding sequence for a regulatory protein, and upstream regulatory sequences where the regulatory proteins can bind. An example is the lac operon found in prokaryotes.
Centromere
A structure near the middle of eukaryotic chromosomes to which the fibers of the mitotic spindle attach during cell division.
Vasa recta
The capillaries that surround the tubules of the nephron. The vasa recta reclaims reabsorbed substances, such as water and sodium ions.
Altruism
an action that lessens the fitness of the individual but perpetuates the fitness of other animals
Genetic Variation
The variety of different types of genes in a species or population
...
What did Pasteur do in his experiment on spontaneous generation that other scientist before him had not done?
monocyte
type of white blood cell that travels into tissues and develops into macrophage
Ionic Bond
A chemical bond resulting from the attraction between oppositely charged ions.
valence electron
An electron in the outermost electron shell.
natural selection
a natural process resulting in the evolution of organisms best adapted to the environment
dalton
A measure of mass for atoms and subatomic particles.
biennial
A plant that requires two years to complete its life cycle.
Adaption
a trait that helps an organism survive and reproduce
Oligotrophic Lakes
a nutrient-poor, clear lake with few phytoplankton
Nucleotides
Chemical subunits that make up a DNA molecule, Four types
secondary cell wall
between plasma membrane and primary wall; strong and durable
Peptidoglycan
A complex polymer of sugars and amino acids; the substance from which bacterial ell walls are made.
Secondary spermatocytes
Haploid cells resulting from the first meiotic division of spermatogenesis. Secondary spermatocytes are ready to enter meiosis II.
Emission
A subphase of male orgasm. Emission is the movement of sperm (via the vas deferens) and semen into the urtehra in prepartion for ejaculation.
Oncotic pressure
The osmotic pressure in the blood vessels due only to plasma proteins (primarily albumin) --> causes water to rush back into capillaries at end.
Water reaches its greatest density at what degree celsius
4 degrees celsius
Mass
The average mass of an atom of an element on the amu scale. (The average depends upon the relative amounts of different isotopes of an element on Earth.)
Ecosystem
All the organisms in a given area as well as the abiotic factors with which they interact; a community and its physical environment
Water has a ___ structure and is ___
bent, polar
van der Waals interactions
Weak attractions between molecules or parts of molecules that are brought about by localized charge fluctuations.
Wallace
came up with the same theory as Darwin but gave Darwin more credit because he developed it more (and first)
sporophyte
One of two alternate forms in the life cycle of a plant or animal. The sporophyte, a diploid organism, produces reproductive haploid spores
Aqueous humor
A thin, watery fluid found in teh anterior segment of the eye (between the lens and the cornea). THe aqueous humor is constantly produced and drained, adn helps to bring nutrients to the lesn and corena, as well as to remove metabolic wastes
Fast block to polyspermy
The depolarization of the egg plasma membrane upon fertilization, designed to prevent the entry of more than one sperm into the egg.
Nodes of Ranvier
Gaps in the myelin sheath of the axons of peripheral neruons. Action potentials can 'hump' from node to node, thus increasing the speed of conduction (saltatory conduction).
RNA dependent RNA polymerase
A viral enzyme that makes a strand of RNA by reading a strand of RNa . All prokaryotic and eukaryotic RNa polymerases are DNa dependent; they make a strand of RNa by reading a strand of DNA.
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