Biology Exam Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Density-dependent factors are related to which of the following?
A) cohort
B) dispersion
C) Allee effect
D) iteroparous
E) semelparous
c
Buffers are substances that help resist shifts in pH by
A) releasing H+ in acidic solutions.
B) donating H+ to a solution when they have been depleted.
C) releasing OH- in basic solutions.
D) accepting H+ when the are in excess.
E) Both B and D are correc
e
Pure, freshly-distilled water has a pH of 7. This means that
A) there are no H+ ions in the water.
B) there are no OH- ions in the water.
C) the concentration of H+ ions in the water equals the concentration of OH- ions in the water.
D) the concentration
c
In which of the following habitats would you expect to find the largest number of K-selected individuals?
A) a recently abandoned agricultural field in Ohio
B) the sand dune communities of south Lake Michigan
C) the flora and fauna of a coral reef in the
c
Gardasil
works against 4 strains of human papilloma virus (HPV), 2 for genital warts, 2 for cervical cancer. Gardasil is 100% effective for 4 years; but it must be given before exposure to the virus. Overall, an estimated 75% of sexually active individuals will be exposed to HPV in their lives.
The three basic variables that make up the life history of an organism are
A) life expectancy, birth rate, and death rate.
B) number of reproductive females in the population, age structure of the population, and life expectancy.
C) age when reproduction
c
Info
We can use the amelogenin gene to determine the sex of a blood sample. Male: XY: two different versions, two lines on the PCR sampleFemale: XX: same version, one line on the PCR
Creating Recombinant DNA
Step 1: PCR geneStep 2: restriction digestion of DNAStep 3: ligation of DNAStep 4: infect insect cells
-What is the IUCN Red List?                                                                                                                  
highlights species, subspecies and varieties of subpopulations                                                                                                                                                                        that are threatened with extinctions and to promote their                                                                                                                                                                        conservation
- What genetically modified corn variety was only supposed to be used for animal feed, but turned up in human foods?     
star link corn (identical to regular corn)

How is RNA different from DNA is the following:
Possible locations 


Nitrogen bases      


Kinds of RNA      

Difference in oxygen content 
Nucleus and cytoplasm
adenine, uracil, guanine, cytosine (A,U,G,C)
mRNA, tRNA, rRNA
1 less oxygen
iso
same
-cosmo-
universe
AB makes
none
Genetics
study of heredity
chelicerae
clawlike feeding appendages.
diffusion
solute moves toward equilibrium
Chromatin
Organized DNA and proteins
Plantae
kingdom of multicellular photosynthetic autotrophs that have cell walls containing cellulose
Even Distribution
located at regular intervals
neurons
specialized cells for transmitting nerve impulses
Implicit memory
-unconscious how-to memory-for perceptual and motor skills
haptophytes (Haptophyta) [45]
Unicellular, photosynthetic stramenopiles [6] with two slightly unequal, smooth flagella. Abundant as phytoplankton, some form marine algal blooms.
FAS
Extrinsic pathway I; cell-surface ligand;
Detritivore
Rotting matter and soil feeder
phospholipid bilayer
double layer of outward-facing phosphates and inward-facing fatty acids that form a cell membrane
The smallest units of living things.
Cells
Protisa
Algae, protozoa, slime molds, water molds
homologous structure
structures that have different organisms that develop in different organisms but develop from the same embryonic tissues.
ribosomes
protein "assembly lines" in the cellular factory.
High temperature (O2)
decreased solubility/availibilty of O2
Which are molecules of extra chromosomal DNA?
plasmids
PLC
activated by alpha subunit, after adrenaline binds; cleaves inositol phospholipid
Absorption
absorbs nutrients to the blood stream
rubisco
The common name of ribulose biphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase, the enzyme that catalyzes the fixation of carbon dioxide in the Calvin cycle.
Kingdom Fungi
(from Eukarya Domain)
mostly multicellular
decomposers
cell walls contain chitin, not cellulose ( a kind of carbohydrate)
mushrooms, yeast, molds (we have more in common with this kingdom)
Recombinant
possessing a new combination of alleles
Neutralization
An immune response in which an antibody binds to and blocks the activity of an antigen
storing energy to make atp involves what type of reaction?
condensation
HYDROGEN BOND
WEAK CHARGE ATTRACTIONS BETWEEN POLAR MOLECULESWEAKEST.
Tuartasa 
Found off the coast of New Zealand
have a lifespan of 100 years
__burrow into sand/mud; use siphon to draw water, pass it over their gills for food and oxygen
clams
Catalysis
the process of lowering the activation energy of a reaction
DNA Replication in Bacteria
 
 
 

ΠSemiconservative
 
Semiconservative DNA replication Each synthesized copy contains one new and one old strand.
Gravity
The force of attraction between all masses in the universe
Name the term: Inflammation of several nerves at one time, marked by paralysis, pain, and muscle wasting
polyneuritis
Mainly structural in nature
Tough and give support to cells
Keratin (in skin cells)
Intermediate Filaments
how many autosomes do human somatic cells have
44
Exponential growth
when full reproductive material is achieved.
photosynthesis
uses sunlight to convert water and carbon dioxide into oxygen and sugars (glucose)
Which atom consists solely of one proton and one electron in its elemental form
hydrogen
allosteric
pertaining to regulation of the rate of an enzymatic process.
food web
network of interconnected food chains in an ecosystem
Vascular cambium
A cylinder of meristematic tissue in woody plants that adds layers of secondary vascular tissue called secondary xylem (wood) and secondary phloem.
Deaminating Agents
* a base modifying factor* REMOVES -NH3
Ommatidia are found in
the compound eye of arthropods
All organisms use what basic biochemical molecules?
-DNA-ATP-nearly/identical enzymes-many developmental genes-Degree of similarity between DNA base sequences and amino acid sequences indicates the degree of relatedness
Name the term: local widening of an artery
aneurysm
niche
the role of the organism int he ecological system
Good and bad of fungi.
Food products, decomposers; pathogenic.
Valence electron
an electron in the outermost electron shell
  ships out side of golgi appartus
 
ships by giving rise to vesicles that pinch off
trans face
The change in the frequency of a particular allele within a population over time
Microevolution
The part of the cardiovascular system that serves body parts and does not include the gas-exchanging surfaces of the lungs.
Systemic circuit
What do nephrons do?
filter blood to produce urine
Consumers
an organism that obtains its food by eating plants or by eating animals that have eaten plants
extinct
no longer in existence; that has ended or died out:
Cytochromes (cyt)
Most of the proteins in the electron transport chain, their prosthetic group, called a heme group, has four organic rings surrounding a single iron atom. In mitochondria and chloroplasts.
pseudostratified columnar epithelium
 
single layer of cells of differing height, some not reaching the free surface; nuclei seen @ different levels; amy contain mucus secreting cells and bear cilia
 
secretion particularly of mucus; propulsion of mucus by ciliary action
 
noncilated type in male sperm carryin ducts and ducts of large glands
ciliated variety lines the trachea, most of the upper respitory tract
You turn your key and the car doesn't start. Your explanation for this is that the car's battery is dead. This would be an example of a:
hypothesis
Osmosis
flow of water from one side of a selectively permeable membrane to the other; from side with higher water concentration to the side with lower water concentration
Lymphatic System
The lost fluid and proteins return to the blood via this system. Fluid enters this system by diffusing into tiny lymph capillaries intermingled among capillaries of the cardiovascular system.
Gamete
A haploid cell such as an egg or sperm. Gametes unite during sexual reproduction to produce a diploid zygote.
___________ has a ½ life of 5703 years, which makes it suitable to date ________ samples.
Carbon-14, young
functional group
in a molecule of a substance: a combination of two or more atoms that are bonded together and tend to act as a single unit in chemical reactions
dna replication
process of making an identical copy of a section of duplex (double-stranded) DNA
What is selective permeability?  What cell structure does this term describe?
cell membrane
allows only ceartin materials to go in and out of cell
death phase
the point at which the cells are dying faster than they are being produced (some species create endospores at this phase)
 each cell has 2 nuclei and all lack cell wall; some lack lysosomes and mitochondria; some parasitic; swim with flagella; asexual reproduction; intestinal parasites
Excavata (diplomondicla)
Which best describes a hypothesis?
An observation of the living world
What is mutualism? Provide an example.
Both spieces benefit from a relationship. Ex(ant and aphids).
*first, carboxyl group is split off as CO2*then, remaining 2-carbon fragment is oxidezed and electrons transferred to NAD+*finally, oxidized two carbon group is attached to coenzyme A
Formation of acetyl CoA
A tropical savanna is characterized by:
grasses and grass-like plants with scattered trees.
What is an autotroph?
an organism that can make its own food.
alternation of generations
a life cycle in which there is both a multicellular diploid from the sporophyte, and a multicellular haploid form.
1. Lots of producers like plants.2. Less primary consumers (herbivores).3. Less secondary consumers (like birds).4. At the top is tertiary consumers (like foxes).
Why should we all be vegetarians?
What is believed to be the reason that children with autism have difficulty with social skills?
they have broken mirror neurons
Describe the structure of water, and explain how this structure makes water a polar molecule that forms hydrogen bonds with other polar molecules.
H2O; the electrons of the covalent bonds are not shared equally between the O and H. The 2 H's are slightly + and the O is slightly - ;the electrons will spend more time on the oxygen shell; this makes it polar (opposite charges on opposite ends)--they form weak attractions with other water molecules called hydrogen bonds
What is the main functions of root hairs
absorb water and minerals from the soil. They increase the roots surface area for this purpose.
surface-area-to-volume-ratio
deutero
second
protist
eukaryotic; unicellular
Annelida
segemented worms
earthworms
each segment has a bristle = satae
organs repeated in segments
alimentary canal
Entropy
spreading of energy
atom
building blocks of matter
Protein synthesis
central dogma DNA--RNA--Protein
Interpretation of sensory input
Integration
true or false...genotype determines phenotype?
true
biology is...
the study of life 
Where is calcium stored?
smooth ER
proteins
long chains of amino acids
Mesotrophic
• Moderate Nutrient Enrichment• Moderate Planktonic Growth• Some Sediment Accumulation Over Most of Lake Bottom• Usually Supports Warm-water Fish Species
Hypertonic
high solute, will lose water
nucleic acid
structure: macromolecules that exist as polymers called polynucleotides
characteristics:store/transfer energy
Heterotroph
organism that depends on the autotrophs to get food.
mycelium
mass of hyphae
part of multicellular fungus
The atomic number represents the number of ?
Protons
mendel established how many factors2 or infinite
2
Reduction
Reduces complex systems to simpler components. Only one components of the system is studied.
The rod shaped prokaryotes are called?
bacillus
Learning
the modification of behavior results from specific experiences.
in fungi, a wall-like division between cells within a hypha; wall that internally divides body segments in annelids; thick wall that divides the heart’s atrium or ventricle into right and left halves
Septum
Mortality
percent of the entire at-risk (exposed) population who actually died in the event
centriole
a small, cylindrical cell organelle, seen near the nucleus in the cytoplasm of most eukaryotic cells, that divides in perpendicular fashion during mitosis, the new pair of centrioles moving ahead of the spindle to opposite poles of the cell as the cell di
ecology
the branch of biology concerned with the relations between organisms and their environment
therapsid
a lineage of synapsids that were abundant during the late Permian period and gave rise to mammals; characterized by limbs positioned directly beneath the body; some may have been endothermic
Meristem
tissue in all plants where the majority of growth takes place.
endocytosis
process by which substances are moved into the cell from the environment by phagocytosis (cellular eating) or pinocytosis (cellular drinking); includes receptor-mediated endocytosis.
What is the largest class of annelids?
polychaeta
a theory that is nearly universally supported is a
principle
Nuclear Envelope
-composed of two membranes -surrounds the nucleus
emergent properties
Each level has ingredients or components which interact to make something greater than the sum of the parts
Phylum Platyhelminthes-Class Turbellaria-Planarians
Free-living flatworms found in unpolluted ponds and streams. Move by using cilia on ventral epidermis.
metaphase
3rd subphase of mitosis; spindle is complete and the chromosomes are all aligned at the metaphase plate
aneuploidy
a chromosomal aberration in which one or more chromosomes are present in extra copies or are deficient in #
energy level transfer what percent of energy to the next level?
10%
T or F
A species designation should always include the genus
True
Which of the following names SCIENTIFICALLY identifies a bee?
Apis mellifera
chain of related chemical reactions will be done through glucose metabolism or photosynthesis
metabolic pathway
transmembrane
occurring across a membrane, as an electric potential or the transport of ions or gases
density-dependent limiting factor
limiting factor that depends on population size
pancreatic exocrine:
pancreatic proteases
hydrolyze polypeptides to di- & tripeptides
DNA fragment must incorporated into host genome in order to have
stable genetic recombination
Cambrian Explosion
oxygen levels raised and the fossil record dropped
Photon
particle of light. Acts as discrete bundle of energy inversely proportional to wavelength of light.
Action of Proprioceptors?
Allow animal to perceive body orientation and positions of its parts-muscle spindles-golgi tendon organs-joint receptorsRespond to:tension, movement
___ is the "business part" of redox proteins and is an electron donor
Fe
natural selection
organisms that are best suited to their environment survive
operator
other region. O site is where DNA binding protein lac repressor can bind to DNA
terminal cisternae
dilated end-sacs of SR which cross muscle fiber from one side to the other
fungi that cause ringworm are in what phylum?
deutermycota
Genetic Code Dictionary
determined from trial and error experiments to work out which codons matched with which amino acids-same genetic code is used by all living things
oil
any of a large class of substances typically unctuous, viscous, combustible, liquid at ordinary temperatures, and soluble in ether or alcohol but not in water: used for anointing, perfuming, lubricating, illuminating, heating, etc.
recessive
that one of a pair of alternative alleles whose effect is masked by the activity of the second when both are present in the same cell or organism.
Key traits of mammmals?
hair, mammary glands, endothermy, legs positioned under body rather than lateral.
Batesian mimicry
the type of mimicry in which one species evolves to resemble a species that has superior protection against predators
describes that cells are surronded by a selective boundary, the plasma membrane, that cells contain DNA and the have organelles w/ specialized functions
THE CELL THEORY
What is the name of the enzyme that straightens sections of the DNA before replication?
Topoisomerase
Characteristics of Living Things
-Made up of cells-reproduce-based on DNA-grow and develop-obtain and use things for energy-respond to enviroment-maintain stable internal enviroment-change over time
Light dependent reactions of photosynthesis
Chlorophyll and other molecules embedded in the membranes of the thylakoids capture sunlight energy and convert some of it into the chemical energy stored in energy- carrier molecules (ATP and NADPH) Oxygen gas is released as a by-product
chemical formula
showing the number of atoms of each element present. often called molecular formula.
carrier proteins
most cells also have a different kind of transport protein that can bind to a specific substance on one side of the cell membrane, carry the substance across the cell membrane, & release it on the other side.
Animals get bigger at each level but
total weight is lower
Why can't general transcription factors run byitself?
When general transcription factos run by itself, its interaction with the transcription factors and RNA polymerase II with a promoter usually leads to only a SLOW rate of initiation and making of RNA transcripts
lagging strand
this strand has its 5' end at the fork; synthesized in the opposite direction that the fork moves



G1 gap phase

The first growth phase of the cell cycle after mitosis and before S phase.
why does DNA replicate?
replace cells lost to disease, injury and promote cell division
What is systems biology?
It seeks to creat models of the dynamic behavior of whole biological systems and predict how changes in one part of a system will affect the rest of the system.
what is a structural isomer?
isomers that differ in the covalent partnerships between their atoms
What goes on during glycolysis?
Glucose (C6H12O6) is taken and using 2ATPs, the C6H12O6 is turned into 2 Pyruvates. (2C3H6O3) During this process, 4ATP are produced using ADPs and phosphate, making a net gain of 2ATP.
List the 4 major components of a negative feedback mechanism
Stimulus, Sensor, Integrator, and Effector
what are the main functions of microtuble
1.shaping the cell
2. guiding movement of organelles
3. separating chromosome during cell division
 
Whats exactly is the cause of stomach ulcers?
A bacteria called Heliobacter pylori
chromosomes are very long and must be ____ within the nucleus
nucleosomes -
nucleosomes are spaced ____ nucleotides apart in DNA
further coiling creates a ____ fiber or ____
 
condensed
DNA wrapped around a core of 8 proteins
200
30 nm, solenoid
What is histone acetylation, what does it do?
Addition of an acetyl - COCH3 group (deacetylation also), acetylation causes uncoiling, because acetylated histones lose affinity for each other, uncoiling helps transcription factors bind to DNA
Free Energy (delta G) and types of systems:
Free Energy: energy that can be used to do workUnstable systems: change spontaneously, lots of free energy, more orderlyStable systems: Unlikely to change spontaneously, little free energy, less orderlySome occur spontaneously but require activation energy
vacca
cow
Autosome
body chromosome
testudinata
turtles and tortoises
Chordata
animals with backbones
Carnivore
Eats herbivores (EX: Lion)
Coelom
Cavity that holds organs.
active transport
requires ATP
against gradient
polysaccarides
large macromolucules formed from monosaccarides
thermal pollution
resolution - cooling tanks
Experimentation
The testing of a hypothesis
Brassicaceae
tertadynamous stamens, 4 parted flowers; herbacious
essential vitamins and minerals
13 vitamins
Provides energy for the cell
Mitochondria
globular proteins
polypeptide chains folded into compact, rounded shapes
lysosome
a membrane-enclosed sac of hydrolytic enzymes found in the cytoplams of eukaryotic cells
Air sacs make the bird _______________,which assists in flight.
lighter
what phyla are the vertabrates in
chordata
Eosinophils
defense on large worms, discharge destructive enzymes from cytoplasmic granules
What is a unikont
has single flagella.
bacteriophages "phages"
a virus that infects bacteria
hyponatremia
decreased concentration of sodium in the blood
Vitamins:
any of various organic substances that are essential in minute quantities to the nutrition of most animals and some plants
Hyphae
long, branching filament cells of fungi
ATP
is a nucleoside triphosphate with ribose instead of deoxyribose.
diaphragm
a muscular, membranous or ligamentous wall separating two cavities or limiting a cavity.
primer
RNA chain added to begin DNA replication
Potassium-Sparing Diuretics
􀂄 Action: These drugs are aldosterone
antagonists
􀂅Aldosterone normally promotes Na retention;
the drug prevents Na retention

􀂅K is not excreted in exchange for Na, so
excess K is not lost

􀂄 Prototype: spironolactone (Aldactone)
Mechanoreceptors
Respond to very small forces that change the shape of the sensory neuron (compressed, stretched, vibrated.
telophase
fourth and final phase of mitosis, during which the chromosomes begin to disperse into a tangle of dense material
Hydrolysis
A chemical process that lyses, or splits, molecules by the addition of water, functioning in disassembly of polymers to monomers.
Simple Epithelium-Cuboidal
Location: Lining of some glands, kidney tubules, covering of ovaries.
Function: Cells rich in specific transport channels; functions in secretion and absorption.
elements
pure substances that can't be broken down further
enzymes
an important class of catatlysts, each one made for a different chemical reaction
dna polymerases
an enzyme that assembles DNA nucleotides into polynucleotides using a preexisting strand of DNA as a template
monohybrid cross
a cross between individuals that involves one pair of contrasting traits
Chitin (4)
A chemical that provides both toughness and flexibility to a cell wall
A union between the electron structures of two or more atoms or ions.
Chemical bond
the function of bile is...
emolsify oily fats
Trace Minerals (30.5)
Minerals needed in small amounts
capillary
one of the minute blood vessels between the terminations of the arteries and the beginnings of the veins.
reproductive barriers
a collection of mechanisms behavior and physilogical processes that prevent the members of 2 differents species that cross or mate from producing offspring
Sorus
The cluster of sporangia found only in ferns.
True or False.
Axon with larger diameters conduct impulses at a slower speeds than do axon with smaller diameter 
False. higher
What are the three requirements for life?
Membranes(enclose),metabolism(Chemical reaction),Reproduction
Plasma Membrane
Seperates our cells from the external environment.
no definite volume or shape but takes volume and shape of container
gas
Broca's aphasia
inbility to speak-broca's area is a region of the higher motor cortex
pollination
transfer of pollen from male to female parts of the plants
Name the term: Hormone produced by the corpus luteum in the ovary and the placenta of pregnant women.
progesterone
pH Scale
Measurement of the relative acidity of a solution.
0 (acidic)- 7 (neutral)- 14 (basal)
In her message, Audrei also tells us that her sister Liz and brother Paul are also color blind, but that her brother David has normal vision. How will Liz be represented on the family pedigree?
affected
What is the Discovery Institute?
A conservative think tank
process by which a cell releases large amounts of material
exosytosis
nucleus
a central part about which other parts are grouped or gathered; core:
sympathetic nervous system
the division of the autonomic nervous system that arouses the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations
Cartilaginous Joint. What kind of cartilage is it made of?
Hyaline or fibrocartilage.
what typ eof tissue is found in wood
secondary xylem
what is osmosis?
the diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane
stop codon
a codon on mRNA that signals the termination of DNA translation (UAA, UAG, or UGA)
Natural law states
Biology is a science. Living things must obey the laws of nature such as gravity, the atomic law, and the law of thermodynamics
disruptive selection
a type of natural selection in which two extreme and often very different phenotypes become more frequent in a population
zygote
the cell produced by the union of two gametes before it undergoes cleavage or cell division
Name and describe the locations that lead to making of a new species. Be able to recognize differences.
Geographical Isolation-seperated by physical barrier Ex:river
Behavoirl-difference in courtships ritual or dont respond to mating signals Ex:?
Temporal-species reproduce at different times of the year Ex:?
the body of the water leech
 
a. has suckers on the front and back
b. is segmented
c. has no parapodia
d. all of the above
. b. is segmented
what is S?
is a synthesis of DNA and its associated proteins.
primates can ...
see in 3-D, have complex brains and athumbs and flexible shoulders
dna polymerase
any of a class of enzymes involved in the synthesis of deoxyribonucleic acid from its deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate precursors.
rough endoplasmic rectulm then golgi apparatus then released from the cell
whitch sequence correcly traaces the path of proteins in the cell
If a pea flowers white, what is its genotype?
What is its phenotype?
Genotype: pp
Phenotype: White
Between 7.3 & 7.5; slightly basic
What are acids? Give an example
Describe two biological applications that use radioactive isotopes.
1. used in fossils to date those relics of past life.2. used as tracers to follow atoms through matabolism, the chemical process of an organism.
The male gives the female butterfly ____(species) a "chastity belt" so that she cannot mate with any other male. How does he do this?
Apollo; Male uses a Spike Plug.
the postzygotic barrier called hybrid inviability
two species of frogs from the same genus occasionally mate, but the offspring they produce fail to develop and hatch. what mechanism is keeping the two frog species separate?
What is another factor that could influence sensors and BCCs?
pH levels: directly influenced by CO2 levels - BCC triggers diaphragm to contract
Stages of Depolarization - Threshold
Threshold - A stimulus opens some Na+ channels. If the influx of Na+ achieves threshold, then more channels are opened, triggering an action potential.
Does an acid or a base have a higher pH level?
A base. Acids have a lower pH level
/ 243
Term:
Definition:
Definition:

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