Biology Final Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Gene Flow?
double-ring nitrogenous base
exoskeleton (external skelton)constructed from layers of protein and chitin.
clinical neurological syndrome characterized by muscular twitching and cramps and (when severe) seizures
-denatures proteis, dissolve lipids
group of similar families
Soil Conservation
Sustainable agriculture practice helps.
connective tissue
structure; stuff between stuff
Info processing
Learning-process of acquiring knowledge or skills as a result of experienceMemory-process by which info is encoded, stored, and retrieved
the study of developing organisms(birth to adult)
TSG; cell proliferation unregulated; Cdi inhibitor
diaphram and chest muscles relax
Which of the following environmental features might influence microclimates?
A) a discarded soft-drink can
B) a tree
C) a fallen log
D) a stone
E) all of the above
When speaking about homeostatic control information travels from the control center to the effector by means of the.
Efferent pathway
Double helix, contains genetic info, makes up chromosones
offspring of crosses between parents with different traits
solutions in which the concentration of a solute are equal
simple gills that increase surface area
-projections outside of body (evagination)
-covered by epidermis
-oxygen and carbon dioxide diffuse across
Approximately how many people died before the age of 10 with infectious disease?
example of 2nd messenger; causes muscle cells to relax
Process where particles move from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration.
Photosynthetic tissue in the interior of a leaf; sometimes differentiated into palisade mesophyll and spongy mesophyll.
absorbs most wavelengths of sunlight except green
alleles found in a particular individual
An immune response in which the binding of antibodies to the surface of a microbe facilitates phagocytosis of the the microbe by a macrophage
all adrenal cortex hormones are classes as ________ and are syntesized from ________.
steroids, cholesterol
green leaves that enclose the flower before it opens
for aeolid nudibranches __ on backs store __ from cnidarian prey
Activation Energy
the extra energy required to destabilize existing chemical bonds and so initiate a chemical reaction.
Types of Plasmids
Fertility factors (F factor)Are conjugative plasmidsContain genetic information for formation of sex piliAre episomes - can integrate into chromosome
Amino Acids
Contains: amino group, carboxyl group, R group
Name the term: conducting or passing from the cerebellum to the pons varolii.
Have skeletons of four fused carbon rings.
Cholesterol, testosterone, estrogen. (Lipids) Component of plasma membrane. Used in medicines.
how many sex chromosones do human somatic cells have
Barbara McClintock worked on a phenomenon called ______.
jumping genes
where are protons and neutrons
inside the nuclues
disulfide bonds
The quaternary structure of a protein
any of various proteins, as pepsin, originating from living cells and capable of producing certain chemical changes in organic substances by catalytic action, as in digestion.
energy pyramid
diagram that depicts each trophic level in an ecosystem and how much energy is stored in each level; energy lost each level b/c of loss of heat
Dermal tissue system
The outer protective covering of plants.
Causes to spontaneous Mutations
1.)  errors during DNA replication
2.) movement of transposon
3.) chemical changes
A three chambered heart is seen in the
How are lipids digested?
bile emulsifies fats, pancreatic lipase digests fatty acids
Name the term: The surgical repair of a blood vessel.
realized niche, why?
shrunken version of fundamental niche, this is because other organisms may be living there also and so their niche requirements may be overlapping
Unicellular and multicellular.
Organism consisting of one cell; consisting of many cells.
Ionic bonds
a chemical bond resulting from the attraction between oppositely charged ions
a dimer (molecule made up of 2 subunits [alpha and beta _____])
What synapomorphy is shared by all fish, amphibians, mammals and birds?
All vertebrates
Selectively permeable membrane
membrane that allows some substances to pass more easily than others and blocks the passage of some substances altogether
Gel Electrophoresis
Useful for Comparing 2 different DNA molecules, even as specific as 2 allele variations
e.g.sickle-cell disease is mutation of 1 single nucleotide that is located within the beta-globin gene
ionic bond
form from the attraction between ions with opposite charges (complete transfer of electron(s)
serving or able to adapt; showing or contributing to adaptation:
protein kinase
The general name for an enzyme that transfers phosphate group from ATP to protein
negative feedback inhibition
a regulatory mechnisim in which an increase in the stimulus causes a decrease of response and results in homeostasis
Adenosine Diphosphate
A molecule that remains after ATP has been used to drive an endergonic reaction.
membranous organelles
those surrounded by one or two layers of unit membrane
Examples: nucleus, mitochondria, lysosome, peroxisome, endoplasmic reticulum, and Golgi complex

Which process is the total of all the chemical reactions in an organism?
Haploid cell
A cell containing only one set of chromosomes (n).
A star explosion, know as a ____________ __________, occurs when ________ cannot be fused further.
Super nova, iron
organ system
a group of organs specialized for a function
nucleic acid
any of a group of long, linear macromolecules, either DNA or various types of RNA, that carry genetic information directing all cellular functions: composed of linked nucleotides.
Describe hypertonic solutions, isotonic solutions, and hypotonic solutions.
hypertonic- H2O moves into cell and cell expands
hypotonic- H2O moves out of cell and cell shrinks
isotonic- H2O moves into and out of cell and stays normal
what kind of medium would you use to grow anaerobic organisms
reducing medium
list reasons why overall similarities may not predict evolutionary relationships
similarities may not accurately predict evolutionary relationships becuase the rate of evolution varies, evolution is not unidirectional and evoluion is not always divergent
For which of these populations would you expect to find the rates of immigration and emigration to be nearly zero?
Fish in a pond
What are the levels of organization in the ecosystem? (Name in order)
Biosphere, biome, ecosystem, community, populations, and spieces.
When do all organs form?
in the 1st trimester of gestation period.
The “fundamental niche” of an organism is defined as:
the range of environmental conditions under which the organism can survive and reproduce.
What are intellectual property rights for indigenous people?
Contracts with indigenous people that ensure that they will be fairly compensated for their contributions if the TBK they provide is used to create a pharmaceutical product.
What is an anticodon?
It is the three bases on tRNA that match up with its complementary codon on mRNA
Chemical Elements and Compound: What are the life requirements?
C, H, O, N, P, and S
How do plants know when to flower?
Plants sense daylength. Some only flower when days are short and others when days are long.
if I have 5 many electrons will I have in an atom?
5...atoms are neutral, so the number of positive and negative thingies are the same
Where would you most likely find lichens
Arid desert, regions and in the artic they are on bare soil, tree trunks, and sunbake rocks.
global processes
Eat other consumers
study of insects
renin-angiotensin cascade
angiotensinogen →(renin)→ angiotensin I →(ACE in lungs)→ angiotensin II:
- systemic vasoconstriction
↑blood osmolarity
↑ADH release
↑water retention
↑ blood volume
scientist that studies fossils
PDGF receptor
activates MAPK pathway
Clearing forests, causes more extinction and loss of biodiveristy than any other human activity.
the contractile unit of muscle
long-term functional changes at synapses
Characteristics of Bacteria
peptidoglycan cell walls
Binary fission
Use organic or inorganic chem. for energy (photosynthesis)
FAS receptor
activates pC8 --> C8
Cellular Respiration
C6H12O6+6O2 -> 6CO2+6H2OAnerobic produces 2ATPAerobic produces 36ATP
Which of the following statements about light in aquatic environments is correct?
A) Water selectively reflects and absorbs certain wavelengths of light.
B) Photosynthetic organisms that live in deep water probably use red light.
C) Longer wavelengths pen
(system) Eliminates nitrogenous wastes from the body. Regulates water, electrolytes and acid-base balance of the blood.
Urinary system
Element with different number of neutrons

region outside the thylakoid membranes in chloroplasts
generally shorter and more numerous than flagella.
singular is trachea
-narrow tubes that branch out from spiracles into the rest of the body
-part of tracheal system (arthropods)
Mitochondria is found in eukaryotes, prokaryotes or netiher?
example of cell to cell ligand
Where concentration is the same throughout.
Carbohydratesprimary functions,monomer, and identify examples of each
dietary energy; storage; plant structure; hydrophilic

monomer- monosaccharide (simple sugar); glucose, fructose; sports drinks and honey

examples: monosaccharide: glucose, fructose
Dissaccharides: lactose, sucrose (table sugar)

Polysaccharides: starch, cellulose (complex carbohydrates), glycogen (store sugar), cellulose (most abundant organic compound on Earth, wood fiber)
Wild type
individuals with most common phenotype
T-dependent atigens
Antigens that can stimulate antibody production only with help from T helper cells. Most protein antigens are T-dependent
between the cornea & lens, which performs most of the refraction?
Cnidaria (3 characteristics)
Animals that are
-Diploblastic (two tissue layers)
-Have a gastrovascular cavity
-Have a single opening (anus and mouth)
1 branch limn of an insect __
proteins that are the catalysts used by cells to touch off particular chemical reactions.
DNA Replication in Bacteria

 bidirection replication
Bidirectional Replication Two replication forks move around the DNA forming intermediates
Endomembrane system
largest organelle is usually the nucleus. Separated by from the cytoplasm by the nuclear envelope
Name the term: pertaining to the thalamus.
Three fatty acids attached to each glycerol molecule. Consists of long hydrocarbon chain, with a carboxy group (-COOH)
how many chromosones do human gametes have
any change in the frequency of alleles in a gene pool from one generation to the next
lipids (funtion, example)
energy and cell membranes; steroids
The intermolecular bonds in water are
hydrogen bonds
a hollow cylindrical structure in the cytoplasm of most cells, involved in intracellular shape and transport.
organism that obtains its energy by eating dead stuff
Paliside Mesophyll
One or more layers of elongated photosynthetic cells on the upper part of a leaf.
Suppression Mutation
2nd site mutationA mutation at a different site from that of the original mutation.
Malphigian tubules are found in insects and are used in
excretion of wastes
Functions of epithelial tissue?
-protection - protects from pathogens-secretion - mucus from digestive tract-absorption - small intestine absorbs food-filtration - tissue of kidneys forms urine-excretion - " "
Name the term: Dilation of a blood vessel.
Shannon Index
measures the uncertainty of a category in a certain setit is a measure of evennessH = -? (p i * loge pi ) H can range from 0 to 1 Low diversity areas will have an H value closer to 0 Higher diversity (and more “even”) areas will have a value closer to 1
Autotroph and Heterotroph
Autotrophs make their own food; Heterotroph consume other organisms for food.
the number of grams of a substance that equals its molecular weight in daltons and contains Avogadro’s number of molecules
in an enzyme with 2 more subunits, this mechanism amplifies the enzyme's response to its substrate
The kingdom that includes all animals, from corals to tapeworms to frogs to humans
Kingdom Animalia
region of a cell between the nucleus and the plasma membrane
Expression Vector
a cloning vector that contains a highly active prokaryotic promoter just upstream of a restriction site where eukaryotic cell was inserted in the correct reading frame.
Bacteria will recognize the promoter and proceed to express foreign gene
Used When
a chemical subunit that serves as a building block for a polymer
having the same or a similar relation; corresponding, as in relative position or structure.
= -log[H+] change is by 10 for every one unit; [OH][H] = 10(-14)
Telophase II
4 haploid (n) form from the division of 2 meosis I cells; the nuclear membranes and nuclei reform; spindle fibers fragment; the chromosomes unwind and change from chromosomes to chromatin; these cells become the sex cells (egg or sperm)
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
Primary molecule used by cells to capture energy and later release it during chemical reactions. 
organelles not surrounded by membranes
ribosome, centrosome, centriole, basal bodies
blood electrolytes
ions formed by inorganic salts in the plasma..include sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chloride, and bicarbonate. Function to maintain osmotic balance, pH buffering, and regulation of membrane permeability.
Meiosis II
The second division of a two stage process of cell division in sexually reproducing organisms that results in cells with half the chromosome number of the original cell.
If you eat an extra 40-50 calories a day, you would be estimated to gain _____ pound(s) every year
scientific method
a standard series of steps used in gaining new knowledge that is widely accepted among scientists. [observation, hypothesis, experiment/observations, conclusion, scientific theory]
cell wall
the definite boundary or wall that is part of the outer structure of certain cells, as a plant cell.
what are two types of transport?  What is the difference between the two?
Active transport-uses energy
passive transport-no energy
defined mediums are
one in which the exact chemical makeup is known
character states of the out group are considered to be ... and the other character states aer considered...
ancestral ... derived
How do atoms of carbon and oxygen differ?
All of these
What is geographic distribution?
The area inhabited by a population and the size.
Schizoceolous method of coelom formation
Masses of mesorderm tissure split to form the coelomic cavities.
Wind circulation patterns are driven by:
the uneven heating of earth's surface.
What should one consider when collecting medicinal plants?
Obtain permission from government and locals; minimize harm to protected or endangered species; collect voucher specimens that are representative of the species and healthy; record notable features of the area in which plants grow
How is transcription similar to replication?
They both: occur in nucleus, are catalyzed by large and complex enzymes, involve unwinding of the DNA, are highly regulated by cell, and involve complementary base pairing
What are the five characteristics of Life?
1. Organization2. Energy use and metabolism3. Homeostasis4. Irrability and Adaptation5. Reproduction, growth, and development
What is the difference between a mobile and a immobile nutrient
Mobile nutrients can be easily moved around the plant, depending on need, while immobile nutrients generally stay where they are first distributed
Explain how buffers stabilize the pH of acidic and basic solutions.
buffers resist pH changes by accepting H+ ions when they are in excess and donating H+ ions when they are depleted
B) Each name applies only to one species.
C) Each species has only 1 name.
negative ion
Insects minus collembola
Phylum Nermertea
ribbon worms.
where are microvilli found?
sites of cellular respiration
group of similar orders
Clumped Distribution
Bunched together in clusters
translates to "cartilage fish"; examples include sharks and rays
Ion channels close-membrane becomes hyperpolarized
diatoms (Bacillariophyta) [47]
Unicellular, photosynthetic stramenopiles [6] with glassy cell walls in two parts.
PDGF mutation
proto-oncogene; cell proliferation unregulated (always ON)
Plant and Animal Feeder, Prey
the atmospheric layer above the troposphere
The act or process of adapting
seperation of alleles during gamete formation
eukaryotic cell
nucleus surrounding it's own membrane and internal organelles surrounding it's membrane.
nasal cavity
filters, warms, humidifies, and samples odors of incoming air
What percentage of microbes are pathogens?
example of cell to cell receptor
What are the atoms of life?
antenna complex
The arrangement of chlorophyll, accessory pigments, and pigment-binding proteins into light-gathering units in the thylakoid membranes of photoautotropic eukaryotes.
Prokaryotic cells
tiny, lack internal membranes, simple

no nucleus or other membrane-enclosed structures called organelles
-bacteria are prokaryotes
M phase
"mitotic phase" - dividing phase
Active Immunity
Immunity conferred by recovering from an infectios disease
return tissue fluid to the blood, carry certain absorbed food molecules, and defend the body against infection. Major Organs: lymphatic vessels, thymus, lymph nodes
atomic #
# of proteins in an atom
Rods of silica or calcium carbonate that are used for support in sponges 
__ 10,000 species mostly marine, but includes terrestrial pill bugs
is a nonprotein organic molecule that acts as a cofactor
Microbial Recombination
Recombination:Process in which one or more nucleic acid molecules are rearranged and combined to produce a new nucleic sequence (typically genetic material from two parents is combined)Recombination in bacteria:  occurs following horizontal gene transfer is one-directional Donor  Recipient
Lipids whose main function is energy storage
Punnett Square
diagram showing the gene combinations that might result from a genetic cross
Consist of an acid and its corresponding base.  Minimize pH changes by either absorbing or releasing H+ as necessary.  Are important in living things because most cells and extracellular fluids must be maintained withing a specific pH range.
when dynamic equlibrium is reached __ stops
Barbara McClintock won the Nobel Prize for her work on
jumping genes
An atom with a high electronegativity is more likely to become which type of ion?
an ester or salt of pyruvic acid.
organism that must obtain energy to build its molecule by consuming other organisms; heterotroph
Vascular bundle
A strand of vascular tissues (both xylem and phloem) in a plant stem.
2 Types of Suppressor mutations
bacterial cells are different from other cells in that they are enclosed within a
peptidoglycan cell wall
What does your ECG hopefully look like after you are under a defibrillator?
Name the term: an extra heart sound, heard between normal beats and caused by a valvular defect or conidition that disrupts the smooth flow of blood through the heart.
the place or physical setting in which an organism lives
5 Main Evidences for evolution.
Biochemical, fossils, comparative anatomy, biogeography, observable events.
Chemical reaction
the making and breaking of chemical bonds, leading to changes in the composition of matter
this with proteins make up ribosomes
ribsomal RNA (rRNA)
Looks at changes in organisms over time
Evolutionary Biology
All arteries in the body contain oxygen rich blood, with the exception of the _____
pulmonary arteries
What is a nephron?
microscopic tubules in the kidneys
Differences between mitosis and meiosis (Prophase I)
During Prophase I:
-homologous chromosomes pair
-crossing over between homologues occur
any of a large group of chemical substances, as penicillin or streptomycin, produced by various microorganisms and fungi, having the capacity in dilute solutions to inhibit the growth of or to destroy bacteria and other microorganisms, used chiefly in the
Polygenic Inheritance
An additive effect of two or more genes on a single phenotypic character.
which vitamins are toxic
K, A and D and B6
If the positive hydrogen end of one water molecule is attracted to the negative end of another water molecule, this would be an example of a/an:
Hydrogen Bond
active transport mechanisms
- consumes ATP
- active transport and vesicular transport
Respiratory medium
the source of oxygen; is air for terrestrial animals and water for most aquatic animals.
A display of the chromosome pairs of a cell arranged by size and shape.
Once all elements in the center of a star have been utilized for energy, the star reaches the ______ barrier.
all the members of a species within a particular area
natural selection
the process by which forms of life having traits that better enable them to adapt to specific environmental pressures, as predators, changes in climate, or competition for food or mates, will tend to survive and reproduce in greater numbers than others of
What are the four bases in DNA?  How do they pair
adenine- thymine
For pasteurization, High temperature and short time is
72 degrees celcius for 15 sec
found at or near tips of roots and stems
apical meristem
- selectively isolates the cell's contents from the external environment- regulates the exchange of essential substances between the cell's contents and the external environment- communicates with other cells
functions of the plasma membrane
explain recycling in the biosphere
matter is recycled within and between ecosystems(unlike energy transfer)
Each glucose molecule produces net yield of two ________ molecules and two _______ molecules
NADH (electron donor)ATP (form of energy triphosphate)
Research on barnacle distribution in the intertidal zone reveals that species A would readily colonize the lower intertidal areas if species B was absent. This indicates that:
species B can outcompete species A.
What is the purpose of fruit?
To protect and disperse the seeds
Currently scientists are identifying proteins that use ATP as an energy source by
determining if the protein has a known ATP-binding site.
Where do plants get the carbon to grow branches?
CO2 from the air.
How often do men and women think about sex?
Men-every 54 secondsWomen-once a day
Explain the relationship between [H+], [OH-], and pH and be able to determine if a solution is neutral, basic or acidic given the relative concentrations of H+ and OH- or the pH.
in any aqueous solution, some of the water molecules break apart into hydrogen ions (H+) and hydroxide ions (OH-)
H2O → H+ + OH-
the relative concentrations of H+ and OH- in a solution determines its pH
more basic when less H+ is present (scale of 1 to 14)
more acidic when more hydrogen is present
oven cleaner is close to 14 while Coke is a 3; lemon juice is a 2
why is control by nerves is usually extremely rapid and short in duration?
because of the directness of the pathway and the speed of conduction
cut; slice
striated muscle
skeletal muscle
provides quick energy
Positive stain
stains the bacteria.
longitudinal/circular muscles
muscles in worms
nutrient-storing tissue that nourishes developing nucleus
contains linear chromosomes (DNA, proteins) Has two membranes.
3. Chromatid
Each half of the chromosome
(nu´-kle-o-tid´) The building block of a nucleic acid, consisting of a five-carbon sugar covalently bonded to a nitrogenous base and a phosphate group.
Evolutionary process where nervous tissue becomes concentrated on one end of an organism.
relatively constant internal physical & chemical conditions
largest member of the weasel family
human breathing
nasal cavity--> pharynx--> larynx--> trachea--> branch--> bronchiole--> alveoli.Inhaling contracts muscles to increase volume of thoracic cavity, diaphragm moves down, muscles expand rib cage. air moves from high pressure outside to low pressure inside.
molecules consisting of only hydrogen and carbon - molecules of life
• proposed that species can change (evolve) over time via natural selection• 1859: published On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection• A.R. Wallace also developed a theory of natural selection at the same time, collaborated with C.S.• Struggle for existence:o most species produce more offspring than can be supported by the environmento environmental resources are limitedo high birth rates + shortage of life’s basic needs  competition for resources
Reaction in which rubisco attaches oxygen instead of carbon dioxide to ribulose bisphosphate; occurs in C4 plants when stomata close and oxygen levels rise. Produces no ATP
an explanation for some phenomenon that is based on observation, experimentation, and reasoning; that is supported by a large quantity of evidence; and that does not conflict with any existing experimental results or observations
Organisms that have identical alleles for a particular gene TT or tt. 
flat worms
bilateral symmetry- simply flattened worms
mitochondria and chloroplasts grow and reproduce as...
semiautonomous organelles
Human red blood cells
have no nucleus
a subatomic particle that has no charge and that is found in the nucleus of an atom
Secondary Compounds
Chemicals produced by plants that don't aid in maintaining or growth of the plant. Used to protect from predators; poisons, medications.
large intestine
concentrate and store waste. bacteria in large intestine have symbiotic relationship. they provide vitamins, we give them food and shelter. Peristalsis speed controls normal poop, diarrhea if too fast, or constipation if too slow.
which type of chemical reaction is photosynthesis?
a collection of specialized cells and cell products that performs a specific function.
organisms that are capable of both photosynthesis and heterotrophic nutrition.
Mitochondrial Matrix
the compartment of the mitochondrion enclosed by the inner membrane and containing enxymes and substrates for the Krebs cycle
Potential Energy
The energy that matter possesses because of its location or structure.
fossil record
the grouping of fossilized remains according to relative and absolute age
Give the term for the following meaning: bluish discoloration of the skin owing to deficient oxygen in the blood.
midbrain reflex centers
cranial nerves 3 and 4.
catabolic pathway
a metabolic pathway that releases energy by breaking down complex molecules to simpler compounds.
exponential growth
growth pattern in which the individuals in a population reproduce at a constant rate
Which molecular example was presented first to the judge as evidence of Intelligent Design?
Bacterial flagella
Treeless plain that is located in Arctic or Antarctic
Low temperatures
any of numerous, highly varied organic molecules constituting a large portion of the mass of every life form and necessary in the diet of all animals and other nonphotosynthesizing organisms, composed of 20 or more amino acids linked in a genetically cont
substance made of only one type of atom. the Periodic Table of Elements is handy to use for information about elements and their properties and how they will react.
dermal tissue
outer covering or "skin" of a plant
3 common features of neurons
cell body, dendrites, axon
What causes the cohesiveness of water molecules?-Hydrophobic interactions-Ionic Bonds-Hydrogen bonds
Hydrogen bonds
Carrying capacity
The number of organisms that can be supported in an population
- the amount of heat energy required to raise the temperature of 1g of water by 1 degree C; also the amount of heat energy that 1 g of water releases when it cools by 1 degree C.
IgA resolves cholera; how long does this protection last
6 Months
remnant of an organism from a post geologic age, embedded and preserved in the earth's crust
Methyl group
A chemical group consisting of a carbon bonded to three hydrogen atoms. The methyl group may be attached to a carbon or to a different atom.
Allele Frequency
for any given gene, the relative proportion of each allele of that gene in a population.
abiotic factor 

an environmental factor that is not associated with the activities of living organisms
Lymphatic System
(a) Lymph vessels, lymph nodes, and two auxiliary lymph organs, the thymus and spleen. Lymph is returned to the circulatory system by way of the thoracic duct, which empties into the vena cava, a large vein. (b) A cross section of a lymph node. The node is filled with channels lined with white blood cells (lymphocytes) that attack foreign matter in the lymph.
homologous chromosome
chromosomes that are similar in shape, size, and the genes they carry
external auditory meatus
outer ear; transmit sound waves through the outer ear to tympanic membrane
PTH in regards to bone
- stimulates osteoclast activity
- ↑ reabsorption of Ca in kidneys & intestine
- net effect: ↑ [Ca] in blood
Down Syndrome
Down syndrome is caused by having an extra copy of chromosome 21
in phylum mollusca ___ lie in mantle cavity (fluid filled area between mantle + organs)
ctenidia (gills)
Nitrogen Fixation
Special bacteria in soil or on legume plant roots change nitrogen into ammonia
aspect of an object or event that can differ
fragile X syndrome
a disorder which results in an abnormal X chromosome connected by a thin strand of DNA to another chromosome; children with this condition are mentally retarded
the surviving spore from the meiosis of the ovule central cell undergoes mitosis to produce..
an embryo sac
Micro Habitat
A small, local area in which an organism lives that is ontained within a larger area.
multiple allells
3 or more allells of the same gene
What did Mendel use to experiment on?
an edible pea plant
The Stretch (Myotatic) Reflex
When a muscle is stretched, it contracts and maintains increased tonus helps maintain equilibrium and posture head starts to tip forward as you fall asleepmuscles contract to raise the headstabilize joints by balancing tension in extensors and flexors smoothing muscle actionsVery sudden muscle stretch causes tendon reflex knee-jerk (patellar) reflextesting somatic reflexes helps diagnose many diseasesReciprocal inhibition prevents muscles from working against each other
What is niche separation?
the process by which natural selection drives competing species into different patterns of resource use or different niches
Silent Mutation
a one letter change that results in no change
size- microscopic to a meter in length with bilateral symmetry-
Phylum Nematoda (unsegmented roundworms)
In Glucose metabolism how is glucose broken down, and broken down into what?
Via Oxidation, C02 and water.
What is an ionic bond?
A bond formed by electrical attraction between two oppositely chraged ions.
Next Slide has facts on fruits...
Simple fruits have walls that either dry or become fleshy as they mature.
This difference in fruit wall development is used in classifications of fruits.
what determines the specific function of a protein?
the sequence of amino acids dictate its function
what is the advantage of sickle cell?
prevents the victim from catching malaria
Changes in climate and topography are thought to have an effect upon the evolution of organisms because:
the changes allow the survival of organisms with genetic variation which is better adapted to the changes
What is skin cancer: BASAL CELL CARCINOMA
Slow growing and most common type of skin cancer
What are the two types of covalent bonds between two atoms?
What are the two types of covalent bonds between two atoms?
Non-Polar Covalent bond
Polar Covalent bond
parental generation
any living thing
multicellular haploid stage
All (omnipotent, omnivorous, omniscient)
tissue derived from mesoderm
Reproduction evolves through ____.
circular DNA found in prokaryotes
eggs develop and hatch internally
Muscle contractions _____ in strength
process of homologous chromosomes pairing in prophase I
-basic unit of ecology-types: temperature, rainfall, soil.
DNA sequence capable of transportation
symbiotic association between a fungus and a photosynthetic organism
a gene doesn't directly control protein synthesis; instead, it passes its genetic information onto RNA molecules, which are more directly involved in protein synthesis. 240
traits passed on to next generation
a genetically  determined variant of a characteristic, such as yellow flower color
Expand the abbreviation DSA
digital subraction angiography
The small, multicellular spheres by which liverworts reproduce asexually are
close interaction between 2 species in which both benefit
EXO=OUTCell releases materials to the outside by discharging them as vesicles passing through the cell membrane
a shifting lattice arrangement of structural and contractile components distributed throughout the cell cytoplasm, composed of microtubules, microfilaments, and larger filaments, functioning as a structural support and transport mechanism.
kind of bond forming between amino group of one amino acid and the carboxyl group of the next when making protein
rough ER
that portion of the endoplasmic reticulum studded with ribosomes
the only gaseous plant hormone, helps control the growth of most tissues, fruit ripening, and leaf dropping and other aging responses.
place organisms into groups based upon evolutionary relationships
What are the two types of energy?
Large macromolecules are made in a reaction called?
Endergonic Reaction
A nonspontaneous chemical reaction in which free energy is absorbed from the surroundings.
35 S, proteins
after centrifugation, _____ stayed with the phage
all the chemical reactions in an organism
Complete the following terms using the given definitions: condition of slow heartbeat: ________cardia
repetitive sequences at the end of eukaryotic chromosomes
Orientation of DNA
*sugar-phosphate backbone runs in opposite directions*5'-3'*antiparallel
areas on the folded protein that determine function. Includes more than one section of a single chain
oak woodlands
evergreen and desiduous, moterate to low productivity, foothill forest
This type of cytoskeletal element is largest in diameter,contain hollow tubes composed of the proteins alpha and beta tubulin bout to form dimers, and are polar (usually grow at their plus ends).
any process of formation or growth; development:
Chemical Compounds
A substance formed by the chemical combination of 2 or more elements in definite proportions.
a substance that causes or hastens a chemical reaction; any agent that causes change
What is the hierarchy of life?
Subatomic ParticleAtom MoleculeOrganelleCell TissueOrganOrgan systemMulticellular organismPopulationEcosystemCommunityEcosystemBiosphere
one of the alternative forms of a single gene. in pea plants, a single gene codes for seed color, and it comes in two allels-one codes for yellow seeds, the other for green seeds
term used to refer to chromosomes that each have a corresponding chromosome from the opposite-sex parent
roundworms have a digestive tract with ____ opening(s)
a. two
b. one
c. three
d. no
a, two
What is segregation?
Segregation is the separation of chromosomes during gamete formation.
predation by birds
25. The key selective force operating on the British peppered moth causing industrial melanism was
Populations of Larus gulls around the North Pole show an unusual pattern of reproductive isolation. Each population is able to interbreed with its neighboring populations, but populations separated by larger geographic distances are not able to interbreed
ring species.
complete dominance
- the phenotypes of the heterozygote and the dominant homozygote are identicalexample: purple flowers and yellow flowers
Life expectancy
How long the average person is expected to live.
oxidation and reduction are always
paired, hence redox reactions
What is the polarity of a hydrocarbon tale of a fatty acid or phosolipid?
not in accordance with what is morally right or good:
the passage of water through a plant from the roots through the vascular system to the atmosphere.
Forming Lifes Building Blocks
The first organic molecules are believed to have formed spontaneously from building blocks subjected to lightening and UV radiation. Miller and Urey reconstructed the oxygen- free early atmosphere, and conducted experiments that confirmed these beliefs. Recent findings of even older fossils, however have refuted the findings of their experiments. Currently, a bubble model for the formation of early organic molecules is being examined
In what class are males rare or absenct entirely; parthenogensis-development of unfertilized eggs (female cloning common)?
Phylum Rotifera
What is independent assortment?
when chromosomes have the possibility of switching places during meiosis.  a.k.a. genes from parents are assorted.

§Two distinct groups of cells exist

–Prokaryotic cells

–Simple and small
–Bacteria are prokaryotic
–Eukaryotic cells
–Possess organelles separated by membranes
–Plants, animals, and fungi are eukaryotic
binding of the ___- ____ complex to the CAP binding site is required for the induction of the lac operon.
CAP-cAMP complex
enzyme-substrate complex
binding of an enzyme with a substrate (reactant)
Intermediate filament
They are made of a variety of proteins, depending on the cell and are very tough.
Krebs cycle
in which , carbon dioxide, and NADH are produced
The slight negative charge at one end of one water molecule is attracted to the slight positive charge of another water molecule. What is this attraction called?-A covalent bond-A hydrogen bind-An ionic bond
A hydrogen bond
production of transgenic animals
animals that contain genes from other organisms
What causes microevolution?
Change in the # of homozygotes and hetrozygotes from generation to generation (a change in the overall population, doesn't produce a new species).
Phosphorylation is the process of?
Putting a bond back on ATP
Cause of pleural mesothelioma
most common of tumors that arise from parietal and visceral serous membranes of pleural, peritoneal, and pericardial cavities; Usually caused by occupational exposure to asbestos
Contraction (steps 12 and 13)
The interaction of cross-bridge causes?
the release of ADP and P
1950's experiment w/ viruses
*virus has protein coat on capsule & DNA, only DNA enters cell (in vitro)*1st experiment: made DNA radioactive -> radioactivity in bacterium*2nd experiment: made protein coat radioactive -> no radioactivity in bacterium
What is the difference between homologous and analogous traits?
- Homologous traits refer to traits in different species with a common ancestor, where the trait remains the same in the ancestor. - Analogous traits to those that converged separately.
Which category of your diet can be termed "essential?"
amino acids and fatty acids
What is sympatric speciation?
The formation of a new species as a result of a ch
What is true of facilitated transport by carrier proteins?
It is represented by the glucose carrier that can transport hundreds of molecules a second down a concentration gradient.
What is the advantage of swim bladder and operculum in fish?  What class of fish has these features?
Controls depth by regulating amt of gas and osteichthyes.
Archaea are closer to Eukarya than to Bacteria
8. When thinking about the domains of life:
hermaphrodidicsexual/asexual/regenerationproduce both egg and sperm
both sexes
Porifera:Body plan
polyp dominates
anenomes, corals
Phylum: Echinodermata
Class: Asteroidea
Structure: star shaped with spiny skin
Digestion: uses tube feet, pushes stomach out and pour enzymes, pulls into stomach
Excretion: released through anus
Nervous system: nerve ring, radial nerves, scattered sensory cells
Motion: tube feet
Reproduction: external reproduction
Pedicellaria: clean starfish's surface
Ampullae: controls water entering and exiting tube feet
flatworms (no cavity)
Phylum Nematoda
round worms
sexually and asexually
sexual/medusaasexual/medusa and polyp
sexually/asexuallysnails are hermaphrodidic
Phylum Platyhelminthes (examples)
Planarians, Flukes
diease producing protozoa
  1.Guardua lamblia
2nd opening is mouth
Phylum Cnidaria (Cnidocytes?)
Stinging cells
Phylum Platyhelminthes: Class Trematoda (Life Cycle?)
Phylum mollusca
shelled animals, octopus
muscular foot, siphons (propel)
Phylum Nematoda (characteristics)
Nonsegmented; pseudocoelomates; cuticle; aquatic; serpentine locomotion (use longitudinal muscles); dioecious
Carniverous, aquatic, 2 layers of true tissues
EX: Jellyfish, Coral Reef
polymerzation achived by
adsorbtion on clays
class of platyhelminthes containing parasites of vertebrates, often live in multiple hosts during their lifecycles
members of phyla ectoprocta, phoronida, and brachiopoda, all of which draw in food using ciliated tentacles.
bilateral symmetry
alimentary canal
true coelom
Phylum Platyhelminthesclasses (3)
Turbellaria (non-parasitic)Trematoda (hole)(parasitic)Cestoda (ribbon-like)(tapeworm)
Class Bivalvia
2 shellsfilter feeders (incurrent/excurrent siphons)adductor muscles (scallop)hemocyanin (blue blood)
Arthropoda:obtain food
spider webspierce, suck,sponging, chewing
Phylum Arthropoda (characteristics)
Segmented; eucoelomates; exoskeleton of chitin; jointed appendages; ecdysis
phylum echnodermata
Fliter feeders, Feathery arms, Anus on top
EX: Sealily, Feather Star
cell types of cnidaria
1.muscle cells
2.interestitial cells
3.cnidae (=cnidoblasts) that contain nematocysts 
4.muscus cells
5.nerve cells
name the organelles inside the cnidocytes
Phylum Proifera (Reproduction?)
Asexual and Sexual...Asexual: Fragmentation and Gemmules (packets of amebocites) Sexual: Monecious (hermaphroditic); sperm released, eff fertilized (x fertilization) Flagellated larvae disperse.
Phylum Mollusca: Class Bivalvia (Feeding?)
Filter Feeding
class of molluscs containing clams, mussels, scallops, and oysters.  flattened shell with two valves and reduced head, suspension feeders
class of cnidaria containing jellies and sea nettles
class of cnidarians including hydras, portugese man of war, etc.  Alternate between polyp and medusa.
Phylum Cnidariacnidocytesnematocyst
stinging cellsinside cells, injects protein toxin
Platyhelminthes:exchange o2 and co2
through cell membranes
Aquatic; two body sections (no head); biramous appendages; decapods; copepods; isopods
phylum echinodermata
No arms, bo-like covering, spines
EX: Sea urchin, Sand dollar
mantle rock meets ocean water form mineral serpentine, relases heat. those also produce H2 and Co2 and methane --(Ch4)
apicomplex belong to the
aueolates (sacs in outer membrane)
Name the 6 directional terms
dorsal-back sideventral-belly sideanterior- part goes firstposterior- part that followsmedial-toward midlinelateral- away from midline
Phylum Platyhelminthes (Common Name?)
Flatworms!...Dorsal to ventrally flattened.
cells that capture prey which contain cnidae; capsule-like organelles
secretes thick muscus that aids in cross fertilization
tiny suction cups on appendages (tube feet)
the primary subdivision of a taxonomic kingdom, grouping together all classes of organisms that have the same body plan.
Phylum Porifera (characteristics)
Sessile marine animals; Asymmetric or radial symmetry; lack true tissues and organs; suspension feeders
formation of protocells
hearing ,drying, wetting amino acid mixture, then plymerize into proteins
miller's experiments with reducing atmosphere 's products
HCN- hydrogen cyanide
HCOH- formaldehyde
those subsequently produce
amino acid
How is water kept circulating through sponges?
collar cells/choanocytes
Phylum Cnidaria (Dimorphism?)
Two body forms: Polyp and Medusa
head of a tapeworm that attaches to host
any protozoan of the phylum (or class) Mastigophora, having one or more flagella.
ciliates seual reproduction stage
macronucleus dissolves form 2 haploid nuclei , swap nuclei between individual
Name the 3 cuts to an organism (planes).
sagittal-right/leftfrontal- dorsal/ventraltransverse- 90 degrees
Phylum Mollusca: Class Cephalopoda (Types/Common Name?)
Squid, Octopus, Cuttle Fish, Nautalis
phylum arthropoda
subphylum uniramia
Body has 3 parts, 3 pars of legs, two wings
EX:Fly, Moth, Grasshopper
amoebocytes- definition and functions (3)
between collar cells and epidermal cellscirculate nutrients from cell to cellproduce spiculesproduce gametes
Phylum Platyhelminthes: Class Cestoida (Head?)
Scolex and is covered by hooks
4 nobel prize for malaria
1. treatment of syphylis by malarial fever induction
2. insecticidal properties of DDT
3.isolation of plasmodium
Phylum Mollusca: Class Gastropoda (Torsion?)
Anus is brought back towards shell overhead "poop on head"
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