Biology Final Genetics Flashcards

Terms Definitions
purebred
homozygous.
plasmids
autonomously replicatenonessentialprokaryotic
Trisomy
One extra chromosome
alcohol dehydrogenase
ummm idk
differentiation
Cell specialization, reflecting differential gene expression.
chiasmata
Points of cross over
monoploid
haploid when shouldnt be
replication
primase is active during
genetics
The study of inherited variation.
Polysaccharides?
structural/storage materials such as starch, cellulose, peptidoglycan, glycogen, chitin
F'Plasmids
created by breakage/reunion between homologous sections of and F donor chromosome=Fragment of chromosome DNA = recipient cells are diploid
karyotype
the size-order display of chromosomes
HIV/AIDS
-first recognized in 1982-Robert Gallo: proposed AIDS is caused by retrovirus-AIDS caused by 2 immunodeficiency viruses: HIV-1 & HIV-2-attacks and destroys helper T cells-people die from secondary infections-9749 nucleotides long-vaccine is hard to develop bc reverse transcriptase causes so many mutations that quick evolution occurs
cystic fibrosis
body suffocates from mucas
what was consistent in F1?
all heterozygous
Sickle Cell Disease
single based substitution mutation
cells clump and obstruct blood vessels
loss of function
inherited
Oogonia
Mitotically active cells that produce primary oocytes.
F2 Generation
Offspring involving the F1 generation.
Crossing over
process in which homologous chromosomes exchange portions of their chromatids during meiosis
Deletion
Removal of a chromosome 
 
if it involves a centromere, then chromosome is usually lost
 
can cause pseudodominance- has hetero genotype, but loses the dominant trait in del so recessive shows up
can cause haploinsufficiency-2 copies of the wild type gene to express trait.
mesoderm
forms in between ectoderm and endoderm
 
all three layers created gastrula
deoxynucleotide
chain termination sequencing relies on a special nucleotide that is what
chromatin remodeling
changes in winding of chromatin/nuclesome around DNA due to gene activity or with developmental stage; DNA molecule can be moved to free the promoter and regulatory sequences or conversely if it needs to be turned off, it can be rewound so that repressors can reach it
hemophilia
Bleeder's disease; a genetic disorder in which a blood chemical for blood clotting is not produced.
heterochromatin?
Euchromatin?
darkly stained, highly compacted, near centromere = Y chromosome
lightly stained regions, contains most genes
what is the function of HU?
wrapping
nondisjunction
failure of chromosomes to seperate properly
Heterozygous
- when an organism contains two different alleles
Dominance
An inherited trait expressed when the controlling gene is either homozygenous (BB or bb) or heterozygenous (Bb)
Ligase
enzyme that can rejoin a broken phosphodiester bond in nucleic acid
DNA polymerase III
extends DNA from RNA primer
 
synthesizes new strands of DNA on the leading and lagging strands
Allele
One of the possible alternative forms of a gene, usually distinguished from other alleles by its phenotypic effects.
Test cross
In Mendelian genetics, crossing an individual with a homozygous recessive individual
Mutations
Genes that are altered or copied incorrectly
O^c Mutation
Makes the operator incapable of binding to repressor, they damage the switch so the operon is always "on". These effects are restricted to structural genes on the SAME chromosome.
streptomyces
this organism has circular and linear DNA
semilethal 
only some individuals of a genotype die-- lethality can be conditional or affected by environment. An example is fruit fly alcohol dehydrogenase ADH. If flies lack ADH, they are viable, unless they encounter alcohol they die.
Compound chromosome
one chromosome fuses with its homologue, or two sister chromatids become attached to each other, forming a single genetic unit; can exist stably in a cell if it only has one functional centromere
Circumcision
The operation to remove the foreskin of the penis
gene interaction
interaction between genes at different loci that affect the same characteristic
T/F: BRCA 1 and BRCA2 are proto-oncogenes that are found only in breast cancer patients.
False
Deletions
Mutation in which one or more nucleotides are deleted from a DNA sequence
Centromere
The attachment point of two sister chromatids; also serves as point of attachment of spindle fibers during mitosis.
Variance
Average or expected value of the squared deviations of x from the mean.
Which disorder causes the death of nerve cells in the brain?
Huntington's disease
Describe the effects of large doses of radiation on cells, tissue, and the whole person.
.
speciation occurs when..
there are changes to reproductive barriers
hemimethlated
the result of a bacterial genome (that is methylated) being replicated--the replication process results in two hemi-methylated strands
Barr body
Inactivated, shut down X chromosome in all females.
Hemizygosity would most likely be associated with which of the following?
sex linked inheritance
RNA synthesis (eukaryotes)RNA pol 3
synthesizes tRNA and 5SrRNA
Positive Regulation
presence of the bound protein is required for transcription.
Mendelian trait
a trait completely determined by a single gene
Base Excision Repair
Certain mutations are recognized by DNA Glycosylase and it breaks down the bond between a damaged base and a sugar. Leaves an AP site where is breaks called Apurine or Apyrimidine.AP endonuclease removes AP sugar phosphate.
Gain-of-function allele
dominant mutations; a mutation that endows a gene product with a new function
primer
a strand of nucleic acid that serves as a starting point for DNA replication
Polyploidy
-a chromosome that is a multiple of normal haploid set (three of each...3n rather than 2n)
T/F: Cancer is an example of a multifactorial trait.
True
genetic map
map of the relative distances between genetic loci, markers, or other chromosome regions determined by rates of recombination.
moderately repettitive DNA
present in few to 10^5 copies
Alleles
Alternative forms of a gene, like tall and short in Mendel's pea plants.
homozygous
having 2 identical alleles for a given gene.
Multiple Alleles
Having more than 2 alleles for a specific trait.
Lyon Hypothesis
One X chromosome in each cell is randomly inactivated.
Compensate for gene dosage between males and females.
Inactivation is permanent. Happens at Implantation
In females, sometimes show as mosaics.
XIST silences chromosome
what does crossing over do for possible outcomes of children?
it doubles it
Density centrifugation
Method used to separate strands out in determining the accepted model of DNA replication.
Much is known about early Greek thinking regarding heredity and variation. What two notable Greeks provided early speculations on the nature of human genetics?
Hippocrates and Aristotle
Selection Coefficient
A measure of the relative fitness of a phenotype.
What does gamma polymerase do?
-replication and repair of mitochondrial DNA
N-end rule
the specific amino acid present at the N-(amino) terminal signals the lifespan to the proteases
Pseudoautosomoal region
small region of the X and Y chromosomes that contains homologous gene sequence
Locus
Position of a gene along the length of a chromosome.
What are the 3 methods for mapping genes?
-interrupted conjugation-transformation-transduction
What does a non-shaded square mean?
A non-shaded circle?
Regular Male.
Regular Female.
Each nucleotide has three things
- Phosphate
- Sugar
- Nitrogen base (Guanine, cytosine, adenine, thymine)
what are all the different types of vectors?
plasmidslambda phagecosmidsBacterial Artificial chromosome
Addition Rule
The probability of any one of two or mutually exclusive events is calculated by addin the probability of these events.
 
Keywords = either, or
Enhancers or Upstream Activation Sequences (UASs)
Cis-acting regulatory sequences in DNA that the second ground of protein components that consists of specific transcription factors bind too.
Who revealed the molecular structure of eukaryotic RNA polymerase II and its function? What year did this person receive the Nobel Prize?
-Roger Kornberg-received Nobel in chemistry in 2006
single-strand-binding (SSB) protein
a protein that binds to DNA single strands and prevents the duplex from re-forming before replication
how are deletions and duplications caused?
unequal crossover or transposable elements insertion
- much less common
What is a genotype?
The letter combination of a trait (ex: Aa, aa, AA, etc.)
how do we use lambda phage
-restriction endonuclease makes 2 cuts (left arm, right arm, internal fragment)-foreign dna cut making fragments complimentary to the arms (frags go between arms)-these recombinant frags ligate into concatamer-add protein (coat)-introduce to bacteria-plaques form around a specific lambda phage
DNA pol alpha
 
DNA pol delta and epsilon
 
Nucleosomes on new strands or old?
primase activity, initiates DNA synthesis by making a primer RNA and short DNA segments. 
 
complete synthesis of DNA strands of lagging and leading respectively
 
old nucleosomes are found on both old and new strands of DNA, so are not conserved with only the old response
Cowper's glands
A pair of small lands at the base of the penis that secrete seminal fluid
closed circular bacterial and viral DNA?
DNA is typically underwound and negatively supercoiled
Mechanism for bacterial trans.
. staggered cut is made in target DNA 2. Tranposon is inserted 3. Gaps are present and must be filled in 4. Result is a duplication of the target site sequenc
DNA polIII vs DNA polI:
pol III does "main addition." pol I excises RNA primers and replaces with analogous DNA
What are the genetic consequences of meiosis?
-four cells from each original cell-chromosome number reduced by 1/2 (haploid)-new cells are genetically different from each other and parent
You isolate the tRNA for tryptophan (i.e. tRNAtrp) and link the amino acid histidine to the 3'-CAA sequence of that tRNA. AFter linkage you mix the resulitng tRNAtrp linked to histidine with the aminoacyl tRNA synthetase for tryptophan. Which of the follo
cleavage of the histidine from the tRNAtrp
attributes of human mitochondrial DNA? Yeast?
carries 37 genes, 16.5 kb in length, no introns
four times longer, 25% introns, spacers separate genes
What would be the effect of a mutation replacing 3 bases between the -10 and -35 sequence with 3 other bases in a bacterial promoter?
no effect in RNA polymerase binding
•       How do high levels of lactose affect the repressor?
The repressor can only be induced when lactose is present.
which of the base pairs of dna are purine, which are pyridine
CUT is pyrimindine, AG is purine
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