Bio 159 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
rib, lung
nucleusmitochondriongolgi apparatuscentriolesSmooth ER (endoplasmic reticulum) - lipidRough ER - proteins
large carbon-based molecule
Removal of electrons
working at family level
Infectious disease
caused by pathogens
develop within protective ovaries (fruit)
Commonly found where:
fruits and bread
Three Types of Capillaries
•continuous capillaries•fenestrated capillaries•sinusoids (discontinuous capillaries)
Directional Selection
Also called Purifying selection
scientific study of the interactions between organisms and the enviornment
raptors, packs. changed they way people saw dinos as slow moving
• Guanosine triphosphate (GTP)
– involved in energy transfer– donates phosphate group to other molecules
G-C have how many hydrogen bonds?
h zone
just thick filaments(bipolar myosin filaments)
WITHDRAWAL method. Oldest known method- very ineffective- up to 28% failure rate.
genetic drift
production of random evolutionary changes in small breeding populations. alleles may be eliminated by chance
apoptosis and necrotosis
a=cell suicide n=cell death
-division of the cytoplasm
-in animal cells, involves the formaion of a cleavage furrow, which pinches the cell in 2
-plant cells, cell plate forms
Why study landscapes?
Current environmental problems occur over large areas
Anthropogenic impacts evident at broad scales
Mgmt decisions often made at broad scales
Scientists are often asked to make predictions at this scale
Traditional (plot-level) ecology is:
in small homogeneous areas
for short periods of time
may not always answer broader-scale questions
helical viruses
viruses with a rod shaped capsid
Protein Kinases
enzymes that activate or inactivate proteins by phosphorylating
angiosperm characteristics
gametophytes are attached to parent plant
embryo protected by hard seed coat (integument) and ovary wall (carpel wall)
unflagellated male gametes
Diffusion is the movement of molecules from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration until equilibrium is achieved. This can occur with any type of molecule.
Osmosis is the diffusion of water accross a differentially(or selectively) permeable membrane. A differentially permeable membrane allows the passage of the solvent(liquid) but not the solute(solid).
Which phyloem is this?
dorsal mantle secretes shell or pen; mantle cavity houses gills or primitive lungs
use toothy radula to scrape up food; move by contraction of muscular foot or arms
Phylum Mollusca
made of chromatin that has several layers of organization - DNA wrapped around nucleosomes, nucleosomes packed into 30-nm fibers, 30-nm fibers folded into a structure still being studied
Allow water to rapidly diffuse across the membranes of certain cells
The link between genes and observed traits.
mitosis v meiosis
mit=asexual mei=sexual (sperm, egg, pollen)
spread of cancer cells beyond original site
having alveoli; deeply pitted, as a honeycomb.
a part of plant detritus that is easily broken down
an eye disease that damages the optic nerve and impairs vision (sometimes progressing to blindness); "contrary to popular belief, glaucoma is not always caused by elevated intraocular pressure"
monohybrid cross
parent plants differ in only one characteristics
Control Without Dual Innervation
Adrenal medulla, arrector pili muscles, sweatglands & many blood vessels receive onlysympathetic fibers• Sympathetic tone is a baseline firing frequency• provides partial constriction called vasomotor tone– increase in firing frequency = vasoconstrictiondecrease in firing frequency = vasodilation• Vasomotor tone can shift blood flow from oneorgan to another according to changing needs– sympathetic stimulation increases blood to skeletal &cardiac muscles -- reduced blood to skin
The capacity to do work or transfer heat
section of DNA that codes for the functional polypeptide or RNA molecule along with regulatory sequences required for expression
The first step in building a protein from the instructions in the genes is ________ of the DNA.
Growth which occurs in the first season
Primary 1'
when the cell takes in substances by vesicle formation, the process is known as...
resilient community
a community that return to a former state after a disturbance
What are the differences between controlled and comparative experiments?
controlled is with variable
Undefined medium (complex medium):
Contains atleast one ingredient that is chemically undefined.Such as beef extract or yeast extract or blood.
Use and Disuse
If used, organs become stronger; if not, they deteriorate and eventually disappear (due to “disuse”).Use/disuse is dictated by demands of the environment: individuals change in response to the environment.
meiosis 2
th2 2 cromatids in of each chromosome seperate into 2 haploid cells.
The particles travel through the gradient until they reach the point in the gradient at which their density matches that of the surrounding sucrose.
Protein separation by electrophoresis
the pigments found within most types of photosynthesizing cells are
chlorophylls and carotenoids
An atom of neon has 10 electrons, how many electrons are in its outer most shell?
a) 2
b) 8
c) 10
d) can't determine
b) 8
thymine dimer
two Ts next to each other, effected by UV rays
function of ribosnucleic acid
carry DNA's genetic code into cells cytoplasm and direct synthesis of proteins
What is the formation of the neural tube affected by?
microtubles and microfilaments
The single greatest contributor to tooth decay is?
the use of sucrose in foods
Which treatment(s) causes the free energy of water molecules to decrease?
freeze the water and add salt
What is the significance of IRV and IC
"inspiratory reserve volume and inspiratory capacity are measured by the routine spirogram, not used widely in evaluating pulmonary dysfunction because these measurements can be normal in restrictive and obstructive disease"
Is the position of genes, position of the origin, and direction of transfer constant in different Hfr strains?
Consider 5 different Hfr strains, all derived from the same F+ strain, and determine the sequence of gene transfer.
1)For each strain, th gene which enters first is different (integrated in different places)
2)the relative position of each gene is constant (gene order conserved)
ie. gene b always flanked by a and c
The difference between the Hfr strains is the position and orientation of the origin within the circular chromosome
What is RQ important for
a person who is being weaned from a ventilator
3H2 + N2 *double arrow* 2NH3Which of the following is TRUE for the above reaction?
Ammonia is being formed and decomposed.
Birds such as those featured in the movie "the Birds" may exhibit aggressive behavior when they ingest a neurotoxin produced by
algae whose cell walls are composed of silica
Why did people evolve to have light skin?
take in the sun and produce Vitamin D during winter months
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