Bio 165 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
A named classification unit to which  individuals or sets of species are assigned 
plural = Taxa
is not science!
a strong belief in a supernatural power or powers  that control human destiny 
Ogranic Molecules
– Multiple independent origins. – The given set of taxa forms multiple independent  groups each of which is either monophyletic or  paraphyletic
Inductive Reasoning
Deriving general principles from particular facts or  instances
Subatomic particles
Proton (+)
Neutron (no charge) 
inflammatory chemical released from damaged cells that causes vasodilation of capillaries
Recieves the stimulus
NATURAL SELECTION (persistence of adaptive traits) + changing environments 
EVOLUTION (differences in species due to  adaptation)
  -          Hermaphrodites -          Mate by cross fertilization; cocoons -          Eat their way through soil: extract nutrients as soil passes along digestive tract -          Ecologically very important: aerates the soil -          Improve soil texture with castings (feces)
Types, Classes of Carbohydrates 
taxonomical grouping of similar species of organisms
a slightly curved rod-shaped prokaryotic cell
a localized productive reaction of tissue to irritation, injury, or infection, characterized by pain, redness, swelling and sometimes loss of function
pandemic disease
a world-wide epidemic
precursor molecule to Pepsim
-Negative charge
-Located orbiting the nucleus
-Wieghts 1/2000 AMU
Fungi -          Domain of eukarya -          Kingdom of fungi -          Found in the fossil record (460 million years ago) -          Thought to have evolved from a unicellular flagellated ancestor -          Originated 1.5 billion years ago -          Heterotrophic – but they do not ingest food -          The absorb nutrients from other organisms –
  -          Feathered reptiles with adaptations for flight -          Small two legged dinosaurs called theropods -          Had feathers -          Most primitive bird- archaeopteryx -          Feathered wings -          Features of a small bipedal dinosaur
Carbohydrate functions 
 A sugar or bigger molecule composed of sugar units.
sac in which haploid ascospores are formed and from which they are released in fungi of the division AScomycota
focal infection
a bacterial infection localized in a specific part of the body, may spread to another part of the body
in serology, blood fluid containing the antibodies which bind to the antigens that triggerend their production
first group of animals that developed a double circulatory system (pulmonary and systemic) 
crop (found in birds) is a modification of what organ 
Reciprocal Translocation
Non-homologous chromosomes exchange fragment
Serous membrane covering the lungs
Jawless fish
  -          Hagfish and lampreys -          Both have a notochord that persists in adults -          Body’s main support
Annelids have
  -          Bilateral summetry -          Trocophore larvae -          Segmented bodies -          Terrestrial – damp soil -          Marine: water and sediments -          Freshwater -          Closed circulatory system: blood remains enclosed in vessels (remember molluscs habe an open circulatory system)
  -          Fast agile predators -          Some have external shells: nautilus -          Others have a small internal shell: squid, cuttlefish and octopus Cephalopods are good swimmers and hunters

-          Use their mantle cavity as a hydrostatic skeletonephalopod nervous system -          Large brains -          Complex eyes -          Eye forms clear images -          Octopus how learning abilities   
Describe a plant-like protist
Marine phytoplankton
70% of worlds photosynthesis
lot of carbon fixation, oxygen production
important to food web 
Calsium Function
Bone and tooth hardness
Blood clotting (Hemostasis)
Muscle Movement (Constriction)
Hormone release
body of a fungus or alga
incidence of disease
fraction of populatinon contracting a disease during a particular period
lymphocyte that matures in the thymus and acts directly against endogenous antigens in cell-mediated immune responses
functions of the liver 
regulate meabolism
excrete and synthesize bile 
Pairing and physical connection of replicated homologous chromosomes during prophase I of meiosis
uptake of external DNA (garbage man)
Reconstruction Enzymes
cut DNA at specific sites
Disolve in nopolar solvents, contain carbon, hydrogen and oxigen
Eutherian Mammals
  -          Have fully developed live young -          The young fully complete development in the uterus attached to the placenta -          Protected in an amniotic sac in amniotic fluid
Individual cells, tissue
Growth, development 
Allliving things are able to reproduce
Tissue groth
Tissue repair
remember mitosis 
latent disease
any disease in which a pathogen remains inactive for a long period of time before becoming active
immunoglobulin D (IgD)
surface receptor for B lymphocytes
T helper
T lymphocytes that regulate B cells and antibody production
dermonecrotic toxin
a poison produced by a bacteria that can cause damage to the skin
role of purkinje fibers 
conduct impulse to ventricles 
description of ventilation in cray fish
fan water over gills 
Single-Strand Binding Protein

    Stabilizes the unpaired parental DNA strands
Gene Therapy
treatment of genetic diseases by delivering replacement genes to correct the genetic diversity
Extrinstic regulation
Responses controlled by the nervous and endocrine system
The capacity to do work
Can neither be created nor destroyed
Informative characters• Characters which allow us to distinguish among different trees
Uninformative charactersC N • Characters which do not distinguish trees Is character 1 informative or An informative site will provide  information on rejecting some trees in favor  of other trees.
Cells of fungi
  -          Wall are made of chitin (strong, but flexible) -          The chains of cells in some hyphae are separated by crosswalls -          The walls have pores that allow some things to pass
Describe bacterial reproduction
Bacteria have no real sexual reproduction  by “binary fission”  = no inter-breeding = no traditional “biological species concept”             - “conjugation” can result in mixing of genes (or: “sex in bacteria”)             - horizontal gene transfer can make taxonomy difficult
role of budle of hiss 
conducts impulse toward the apex 
Polygenic Inheritance

     Additive effect of two or more genes on single character
Creating r-DNA molecules
DNA is cut with restriction enzyme
add vector (plasmid)
gets shuttled to other compatible ends of DNA
ligase joins them together
Anything that has mass and takes up space
Five major groups o fungi
  -          Chytrids (ancestor group) -          Zygomycetes -          Glomeromycetes -          Ascomycetes -          Basidiomycetes
Lobe finned fishes
  Have muscular pelvic and pectoral fins -          Supported with a series of rod shaped bones -          During Devonian, may have “walked” underwater
What is a molecule?
2 or more atoms bonded together 
What are the organs of the urinary system?
Urinary bladder
Describe the two parts of Binomials:
Genus (capitalized)
and species (lower case)
Italicize them 
Compare and contrast Fetal Testing techniques of aminocentesis and Chorionic Villus Sampling (CVS)

     Amniocentesis-14th to 16th week of pregnancy; Amniotic fluid and cultured fetal cells tested ( karyotyping and Biochemical tests)
     Chorionic Villus Sampling (CVS)-8th to 10th week of pregnancy; Only fetal cells tested ( only kyrotyping )
What are the functions of the integumentary system?
-Protects against enviromental hazards
-Helps regulated body temperature      
-Provides sensory Information             
The node at the base of the tree. This represents the common ancestor of all the taxa
The success of insects is due to
  -          Body segmentation -          An exoskeleton -          Jointed appendages -          Flight -          A waterproof cuticle -          A complex life cycle with short generations and large numbers of offspring -          Insects mouthparts are adapted for various types of feeding -          Chewing (grasshoppers) -          Biting and tearing prey (mantids) -          Lapping up fluids (houseflies) -          Piercing and sucking fluids out of plants (aphids) and animals (mosquitoes)
During Which specific stage of Meiosis I do the processes of Synapsis and Crossing over occur, during which specific stage of Meiosis do the pairs of Homologs line up on the Metaphase plate, and during which specific stage of Meiosis I do the replicated C

1.     Synapsis and Crossing Over occur during Prophase I; Chromosomes line up at the metaphase plate during Metaphase I; Replicated chromosomes separate and move towards opposite poles during Anaphase I
Name and describe a bacteria durable in radioactivity
Deinoccus radiodurans – bacterium             -Durable in radioactivity             -Common name “Conan the Bacterium”             -Radiation (rads)                         -1000 rads humans would die, Conan is happy                         -10,000 rads humans ditto, Conan is happy                         -100,000 rads humans ditto, Conan is happy                         -500,000 rads humans ditto, Conan is happy                         -1,000,000 rads humans ditto, Conan is happy                         -1,750,000 rads humans ditto, Conan is still somewhat alive                         -3, 000, 000 rads humans ditto, Some Conan’s are still alive                         -More than 3 million rads humans ditto, Conan is DEAD
What are the functions of the Respiratory system?
-Delivers oxigen to the aveoli(where oxigen exchange occurs within the lungs)
-Provides oxigen to the bloodstream                        
-Removes corbon dioxide form the bloodstream         
-Produces sounds for communication                        

Most Species of Bees and Ants
there is no sex chromosomes in most species of bees and ants 
What are the functions of the Endocrine system?
-Directs long term changes in the activity of other organ systems
-Adjust metabolic activity and energy use by the body   
-Controls many structural and functional changes during development
Name four facts that serve as evidence for endosymbiosis:
- they have their own DNA, similar to bacterial DNA (i.e. occurs as small loops; DNA not   complexed with histone) - they divide independently of host cell, under their own genetic control (similar to binary   fission) - have small, unique ribosomes similar to bacteria - protein synthesis is inhibited by antibiotics specific for bacteria

     Redundancy vs. No Ambiguity

                                               i.     Redundancy-Multiple codons for same Amino Acid
                                             ii.     No Ambiguity-Each codon only for one Amino Acid, no others
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