Bio 1C: Botany Flashcards

Terms Definitions
archegonium, antheridium
Seedless Vascular plants
Angiosperm Reproduction
1. Microsporogenesis2. Microgametogenesis3. Megasporogenesis4. Megagametogenesis5. Fertilization
Phloem Flow
-Translocated: organic nutrients/sugars dispersal through the phloem-The specialized cells involved in this process are either Sieve Tube Members(In angiosperms; with companion cells) or Sieve Cells(In Gymnosperms; with albuminous cells)-Phloem loading requires active transport(need proton pump)
non-vascular plants, photosynthetic, small, can form dense mats, waxy cuticles, spores, absorb water thru body (no roots), specialized cells for water transport --> horworts, liverworts, mosses
"bloom" in summer, bioluminescence, biflagellated
A structure(container) in which gametes are produced
A structure(container) in which gametes are produced
Megasporangium inside the ovule; Megasporocyte(2N)to meiosis to 4 megaspore(3 disintegrate); the one left becomes the megagametophyteMegasporogenesis starts with the enlargement of one cell within a diploid ovule. The term Nucellus is used to identify the diploid tissue within which the Megasporocyte develops. This term means the cell which forms a megagametophyte.
Fleshy attactments which attract ants
Cortical Cell
-Extensive surface area-Membrances enhance uptake of water and selected minerals
1. Guard Cells2. Trichomes: appendages; facilitate absorption or reduce solar radiation; some secrete salts in halophytes3. Cuticle: cutin and wax; minimize water loss
Calvin Cycle
-Rubisco+3 CO2+RuB)-6 3-carbon compounds-Energy rearranged into higher energy G3P-G3P used to build glucose-One of six used to build and the rest used to regenerate RuBP
component of nucleic acids, phospholipids, ATP, several coenzymes
component of chlorophyll, activates enzymes
origin of land plants
~473 mya
disiduous (drops needles), fleshy conifers, tallest/oldest/most massive, redwoods(dawn, coast, giant sequoia)
mycelium forms dense sheath/mantle over root, forms network in apoplast to facilitate nutrient exchange
asexual, non-motile spores of a fungus; they are also called mitospores due to the way they are generated through the cellular process of mitosis. They are haploid cells genetically identical to the haploid parent, can develop into a new organism if conditions are favorable, and serve in biological dispersal.
Fusion(marriage) of cytoplasm of two different cells
Incomplete Flower
Lacks Petals; Example: Grasses(wind pollinated)
Within the anther; microspore divides mitotically and become the immature male gametophyte (multinucleate pollen grain); One cell becomes tube cell/vegetative cell and the other becomes the generative cell/spermThe formation of male gametes (sperm) through mitosis.
Enclose the flower; Protects flower before it opens; all sepals together = calyx
Wind pollination
-Advantageous where few animal pollinators or newly-colonized habitat-Common at higher latitudes, higher elevations, open habitats, low humidity and low rainfall-Flowers have feathery stigmas and long stamens-Flowers lack nectar, fragrance, and petals-Usually unisexual flowers-Grasses and trees mostly
30-40 species; moist tropics; Wide leaves; Netted venation in leaves; climbing vines, one tree, lianas; possible double fertilizaiton; unique female gametophyte development; embryo nourishing provision is post-fertilization
First appeared in the Carboniferous (360mya). Archaeopteris is one.
A Pteridophyte; in the Phylum Pterophyta; Horse Tail; In the same Phylum as Psilotum(whisk fern) and Lycopodium(club moss) Often have separate vegetative and fertile stems; "jointed plants" with rings of small leaves or branches at each joint; Bulk of photosynthesis in stem; Homosporous; May be the oldest surviving genus of plants on Earth
A secondary compound produced by plants, which is useful to humans in preventing malaria
Cork Cambium
-The exterior lateral meristem; produces cork cells to the exterior-Forms from cortex to fill in gaps as epidermis is tretched and broken by lateral expansion of stem-Rays maintain connectivity betwen secondary xylem and secondary phloem, allow exchange of nutrients nadwater, store starch and organic nutrients
-everything exterior of the vascular cambium, including the secondary phloem and the periderm(cork cambium and cork)-Living phloem and Periderm-Heartwood: dead inner woord-Sapwood: alive outer wood
Plant Defenses
1. Allelopathy (biotic)2. Physical Structures (biotic)3. Secondary Compounds(biotic)4. Direct competition with neighbors
strobili = clusters of sporophylls; club mosses
opening of sporangium where spores disperse
flagellum with rod, eyespot, light detector; mixotrophy
seed plants share
reduced gametophytes, heterospory, ovules, pollen
Auxin (IAA)
STEM ELONGATION --> stimulates growth of apical bud, inhibits growth of axillary buds --> APICAL DOMINANCE
- can also induce fruit growth w/out pollination
Enzymes that are secreted; breaks down larger compounds into smaller more usable nutrients
Fusion of two cells in sexual reproduction(fertilization)
Perfect Flower
Bisexual flowers; Have both stamens and carpals; Example: Lily
Vessel Elements
Specialized for water transport; Xylem tissue
What most conifers are; Retain leaves throughout the year; this is thought to be an adaptation to a short growing session at higher latitudes, in winter they can photosynthesize during the few sunny days. In spring they don't need to grow new leaves and therefore have functioning leaves as soon as the first sunny days arrive
Guard Cells
Regulates water loss through opening and closing of stomata
Lycophyta; Many grow on tropical trees as epiphytes; Others grow on temperate forest floors; Tiny gametophytes, sometimes underground; Upright stems with many small leaves(microphylls)
Where do the lateral roots arise from?
-The continuum of cell walls plus extracellular space-symplast+extracellular space
Ground Tissue
1. Parenchyma and transfer cells2. Collenchyma Cells3. Sclerenchyma, fibers and sclereids
Internal to Vascular; part of ground tissue
-Term for any chemical substance that promotes the elongation of coleoptiles-Have multiple functions in monocots and eudicots-Most common form is IAA(indoleacetic acid)
C4 Photosynthetic Pathway
-Increases CO2 concentration about rubisco, which eliminates photorespiration-Takes extra energy -Only beneficial at high temperatures(unlike the C3 mechanism which favors lower temperatures)
brown algae
largest/most complex algae, common in cool ocean waters, cell walls have gel-forming polysaccharides; kelp
stem of monocot
epidermis, vascular bundles, ground tissue
vegetative stem + strobilus on fertile stem; ferns and coarse plants, not easily edible
casparian strip
made of suberin (cutin), blocks solutions from xylem/phloem --> minerals must cross plasma membrane (selectively permeable)
primary plant growth
elongation at shoot apical meristems
growth types of lichen
crustose (encrusting), fructicose (shrublike), foliose (leaflike)
vessel (xylem)
short, broad, perforated plates allow water to travel b/w cells
Disc Flowers vs. Ray Flowers
Pyrethrum, composite flower(special kind of inflorescence)
If a pollen grain lands in the vicinity of an ovule, it will elongate a tube and release one or more sperm into the female gametophyte.
Peat Moss; Covers 1% of the Earth's land surfaces. Dead peat resists decomposition, so it is a carbon bank(400 billion tons worldwide). Structure is absorbant, so used as fuel and soil conditioner. Peat mining is bad.
Fertilization and Bryophytes
Water dependent because sperm are flagellated to swim from the antheridia to the archegonia
Sieve-tube members
-Alive at maturity, but lack nucleus, ribosomes, organelles-Served by nucleus of adjacent companion cells, which are connected via plasmodesmata
Leaf primordia
The small leaves covering the apical meristem
CAM Photosynthesis
-Different times of the day-Hot and Dry climates: succulents, pineapples and cacti
closest to lang plants, all extant are aquatic, sporopollenin protects the zygotes --> bridge for how algae got to land
derived traits of land plants
alternation of generations, multicellular sporangia that produce spores, milticellular gametongia, apical meristomatic tissue
secondary growth in monocots
nonexistent --> lack cambium tissue, only elongate
shoot system
axillary buds lead to mores branches, apical = elongation
Describe two extremely important ecological functions performed by fungi
1. Decomposers2. Important mutualisms with plants and algae
Ovary vs Ovule
-Ovule becomes the seed; inside the ovary-Ovary becomes the simple fruit; base of carpal; larger structure
Pinus strobus
White Pine, a gymnosperm; Has a winged seed
Cytoplasmic Continuum
-In most plant tissues the cell walls and cytosol are continuous from cell to cell-Called the Symplast-The continuum of cytosol connected by plasmodesmata
Acid Growth Hypothesis
1. Auxin stimulates proton pumps, acidifying cell walls2. Cell walls become more plastic and stretch more easily3. Water moves into cell, pushing out and expanding cell wall
Abscisic acid (ABA)
- high levels inhibit seed germination (seed dormancy)
- low levels stimulate early germination (red mangrove)
drought tolerance
causes guard cells to lose K+, affects stomtal closure
What is the most widespread plant?
Angiosperms; And the female gametophyte is reduce even further than in the gymnosperm
How is alternation of generation thought to have evolved?
By delayed meiosis; multicellular sporophyte creates more than 4 spores by meiosis
Bryophytes Traits
1. Lack true vascular tissues, which limits their thickness and height2. The gametophyte is larger and dominant and the sporophyte is smaller and dependent 3. Very desiccitant resistant
Proton Pumps and Plants
-Creates a hydrogen ion gradient that is a form of potential energy that can be harnessed to do work-Contributes to a voltage known as a membrance potential-Plants cells use energy stored in the proton gradient and membrane potential to drive the transport of many different solutes
ascomycota (sac fungi)
75% of all fungi, sexual spores borne in sacs (asci), produce asexual spores too
What are the four main phyla of fungi?
1. basidiomycota2. Ascomycota3. Zygomycota4. Chytridiomycota
The controversy with Gnetales
Have been assumed to be the closest living relatives to flowering plants becuase: 1. Double fertilizaiton 2. Reduced female gametophyte 3. Leaves with netted venation 5. cones superficially resemble flowers 6. xylem with vesselsHowever recent molecular phylogenetic analyses place Gnetales with other conifers.
How to compete with neighbors
1. Grow faster above ground and monopolize light resources2. Grow faster below ground and monopolize soil resources3. Poison: Allelopathy
cell senescence + leaf abscission
controlled by change in ration of ethylene to auxin
When did the first angiosperm appear? What co-evolved with them?
140 mya; Coevolution with animals, which helped pollination like herbivores, fruit eaters, and insects
Advantages of Pollen
1. Fertilization does not require water for sperm to swim through2. Pollen disperses well, allowing mating over long distances
Advantages of C4 at higher temperatures
1. More efficient use of light energy2. Higher Water Use efficiency3. Higher Nitrogen Use Efficiency(reduces leaf litter nitrogen quality)-C4 dominate in summer and hot grasslands-Advantages negated at high CO2 concentrations
Gnetales Leaf Structure
1. Ginkgo: parallel venation2. Gnetum leaf: reticulate venation
The three most important new adaptations to land found in the seed plants
1. Very small gametophytees that are nourished by and protected inside the parental sporophyte2. Pollen grains, which provide protection and dispersal for the male gameophyte3. The seed, which protects and disperses the new sporophyte embryo
How much mass of top soil is lost each year?
1700-5000 tons per square kilometer
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