Bio 32 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
earliest ornithischians
Hydroxyl,(-oh), polar,hydrphillic
separation of parts
a diversity of species
initial response of fever
reservoir for carbon
ocean, atmosphere
proportion of all possible predator-prey relationships that actually exist
prezygotic barries
block fertalization from occurring
Playhelminthes: Trematoda
-Liver fluke
-multiple hosts
-fasten itself to liver and takes what it needs
Removal of the characteristically male endocrine organ can be reversed by an extract of the testes, containing _____.
trait rare
assume unrelated individuals homozygous or hemizygous for normal allele
Passive immunity
Temporary immunity obtained by acquiring ready-made antibodies or immune cells; lasts only a few weeks or months because the immune system has not been stimulated by antigens
contains the cell's genetic material: DNAcontains the nucleolus:specific genetic material RNA for ribosome synthesiscontrols most cellular activities
extensions that may bulge from almost anywhere on the cell surface
-a sporangium containing only large spores
Inference 2
varying orgs. show differential survival & reproduction favoring advantageous traits (= natural selection)
How many amino acids are there
any agents that increase the likelihood of developing cancer. 80% of cancers are due to the exposure of these.
The dominant herbivores in savannas are
internal cytoplasmic plaques, firmly attached to the cytoskeleton within each cell, are joined by intercellular filaments
adhesion junctions
immune adherence
s, the collective action of antibodies, complement, and phagocytes. Microbes coated with antibodies and complement proteins adhere to blood vessel walls, making the pathogens easier prey for phagocytic cells circulating in the blood
atom which has lost or gained electrons through ionic bonding
Gastric Pouches:
contain bacteria which aid in digestion
a substance that lowers the activation energy of a reaction and increases the rate of the reaction - not consumed in the chemical reaction even though it participates
inner wall created in bad conditions- outside cell dies
Permian extinction
Defines boundary between Paleozoic and Mesozoic eras
It is thought that it was caused by a huge volcano in Serbia
All infect via replicative growth or in dorm form called latency (animal) or lysogeny (baceteriophage)
allergies is a ____________ to antigens
over rxn
gibbs free energy
energy available to do work
the second phase of mitosis, during which all the chromosomes move to the cell’s equator
As life forms become more advanced, new properties occur. These are referred to as...
a sudden departure from the parent type an heritable characteristic caused by a change in a gene or a chromosome
Part of earth in which life exists including land, water, and air or atmosphere
The theory that life arose on Earth from organic building blocks that were present in the water on Earth’s surface is known as the __________ hypothesis
Highest energy shell
Energy shell farthest from the nucleus.
This is primary productivity
-gross (total energy converted)-net (total energy minus energy used for respiration)
-aging- late life decline in repro and probability of survival
If it were not for the _______, osteocytes in the outer lamallae of an osteon would not be able to transport their wastes to the blood stream for removal.
males defend valuable territories and resources the females need for nutrition
resource defense polgyny
168. Assume that a woman could be an "on-demand" ovulator like a rabbit, in which copulation stimulates the hypothalamic-AP axis and causes LH release and an oocyte was ovulated and fertilized on day 26 of her 28-day cycle. Why would a successful pregnanc
Amoutn of energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 kilogram of water 1 degree celsius
an organelle in the cytoplasm of cells that functions in energy production.
incomplete dominance
cases in which one allele is not completely dominant over another (RR x WW = RW) red x white = pink
What are centrioles?
centrioles are found inside of the centrosome.  Before a cell divides the centrioles replicate.
Eucoelomate is?
A true body cavity that the ectoderm is on the outside, everything else inside the mesoderm and then the endoderm in the inside. they also have mistenery which surround all the organs-gut. 
Describe the two types of Glcocalyx.
 Capsule• Protects bacteria from Phagocytosis• Streptococcus pnuemoniae• Thick- protection against Phagocytosis. Often associated with virulence. Griffin’s experiments. Slime layer• Enable attachment and aggregation of bacterial cells• Most often associated with the biofilm mode of growth• Loose surface attachment not very thick. Virulence factor of biofilms.
whats the difference between carrier and channel proteins?
carrier:temporarily attatch to molecules, change shape to transport themchannel: allow small, water soluable (ions) to pass through memebrane
What was Darwin's job on board the Beagle?
ship's naturalist
the act of magnifying or the state of being magnified.
What groups of animals are included in the group ecdysozoa?
Nematoda and Arthropoda.
Direct benefits theory
ie hanging flies. female is given a gift of a fly to eat while the male mates with her. This gives her nutrients to lay eggs and means that she doesn't have to hunt
What are some antioxidants?
vitamins A, C, Beta carotene, and E
recognition protein
ability of a protein to bind to a specific molecule or molecular structure
Whats special about chemical reactions?
Reuire energy to startenzymes speed up reaction rate in one directiongo faster with ezymes
How does DNA replicate?
it "unzips" and an enzyme comes along and matches each C w/ a G and each G with a C and A with T etc.etc.
metaphase plate of the cell
where the chromosomes line up in the center of the cell
Flowers that are pollinated by beetles often have...
Many flesh parts in the perianth
For life to have arisen from inanimate chemicals, it is believed that these conditions are necessary.
NO free oxygen, chemical building blocks,time, energy.
what's protein synthesis + when does it occur?
process by which protein is made; occurs all the time-- every time a protein is coded for
edward jenner found a preventative treatment for small pox whihc entailed
rubbing pus infected with cow pox of a healthy person
during blank homologous chromosomes are sepeated. each sex cell also called blank gets blankof each homologous chrkomosome
meiosos gametes 1
cytoplasm's fluid
single-celled organism, prokaryotic
pH between 6-8
largest Trex ever found
resident microorganisms prevent harmful microorganisms from colonizing
The production of offspring.
leaves attached singly to stem
A single large mitochondrion containing a mass of DNA
-Characteristic of the group kinetoplastids which include free-living heterotrophs and parasites
genetic bottleneck
reduction in population size
energy containing molecule, energy currently of a cell, produced in the mitochondria
Type of innate immunity
nose hair
ear wax
cilia in air passage ways
(n) surgical removal of the tonsils
Robert Koch
Found a particular bacteria responsible for a disease (cows/anthrax)
Koch's Postulates still used today to ascertain particular bacteria causing disease)


runs the length of the anterior-posterior axis
functions as a simple internal skeleton
is transient in species with spines 
nitrogen fixation is carried out primarily by
polyunsaturated fatty acid
contains many C=C bonds
Rough ER is made up of
Net primary productivity
amount of organic available
Endurance training
light weights, many repititions. Increases the number of mitochonddria and capillaries serving the muscle
the appearance of an organism resulting from the interaction of the genotype and the environment.
apical ectodermal ridge
a limb-bud organizing region consisting of a thickened area of ectoderm at the tip of the limb bud
Synaptic activity
Action potentials that are transmitted from presynaptic neuron to postsynaptic cells across a synapse
term used to describe organisms that produce offspring identical to themselves if allowed to self-pollinate
A proposed explanation for a very general class of phenomena or observations
bevonian - 48 mil yr duration paleozoic era
organism that contains foreign DNA or a genome that has been affected by a human
simple diffusion
process whereby a substance passes through a membrane without the aid of an intermediary such as a integral membrane protein.
endergonic reaction
pertaining to a chemical reaction thta requires an input of energy to proceed; an "uphill" reaction
The process by which a population changes over time.
Primary tissue. Living composed of only one cell layer with thick cell walls and large central vacuoles.
an elastic muscular tube w/c recieves sperm during intercourse
Active transport
an energy-requiring process that moves material across a cell membrane and up the concentration gradient. The cell uses active transport in three situations: when a particle is going from low to high concentration, when particles need help entering the me
slow life history
long life, late maturity, low reproductive output, high parental care
Generative cell
anthridia are reduced to these within the pollen grain, it divides and gives rise to two sperm nuclei
Name flying mammals?
Bats–Only mammals capable of powered flight–Wing is a leathery membrane of skin and muscle stretched over 4 finger bones–Navigate in the dark by echolocation
Primary endosymbiosis
the engulfment of a bacterium by another
free living organism
how is fibrin made?
"clotting factors convert prothrombin into active thrombin, which then coverts fibrinogen to fibrin"
Genetic engineering
a process for modifying an organisms genes
Where are most of the enzymes located to do oxidative phosphorylation?
process in which muscle cells supply needed energy
lactic acid
cause by brain ischemia - lack of oxygen brain cells die
a globulin that is present in muscle plasma and that in connection with myosin plays an important role in muscle contraction.
Genetic map
an ordered list of genetic loci (genes or other genetic markers) along a chromosome
Structural isomers
Glucose and galactose are what kind of isomers?
As the initial cleavage divisions proceed in a frog embryo, which of the following results? (A) The embryo increases in size. (B) The cytoplasmic content of the individual cells increases. (C) The yolk mass increases in size. (D) Individual cells become s
Individual cells become smaller.
Erwin Chargaff 1950
- Reported that DNA composition varies from one species to the next
- Chargaff's rule state that in any species there is an equal number of A and T bases, and an equal number of G and C bases
A group of cells is assayed for DNA content immediately following mitosis and is found to have an average of 8 picograms of DNA per nucleus. Those cells would have ____ picograms at the end of the S phase and ____ picograms at the end of G2.
What tyep of water holds the most dissolved oxygen?
cold, fresh
Four factors that determine the number of individuals in a current population
Death, Birth, Immigration, Emigration
transfer RNA
has an anticodon on one end and an animo acid binding site on the other 
binds to mRNA during translation 
bivalent (book uses tetrad)
group of four chromatids produced when homologs synapse• consists of two homologous chromosomes, with each homolog consisting of two sister chromatids
What is Abiotic (non-living) components?
soil, rocks, air, water, pH, temperature, etc
How is DNA transferred in conjugation?
direct transfer btw two bacteria cells.
Third level of structure in protein
Tertiary Structure: these motifs may persist through a set of larger-scale turns that make up the tertiary strucutre of the molecule
Water is extremely important in living things for all of the following reasons except
it is an excellent buffer
What groups of animals are in the Class Bivalvia?
Bivalves, Includes clams, scallops, mussels, oysters and others
The phylum annelida is divided into three classes. What are these?
Oligochaeta - Earthwoms and their reletives, Polychaeta, and Hirudinea - leeches
in the vertebrate group early transition from water to land which adaptation did not occur?
eggs were developed that could be laid away from water
What is osmosis? What determines the net (overall) direction of water movement across a semi-permeable membrane? What happens if a cell is placed in an isotonic fluid?
Osmosis is the diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane from a high concentration to a low concentration. The concentration of solutes determines the net movement of water. If the cell is placed in an isotonic environment, there is no n
Which of the following is not a difference between DNA and RNA?
A) DNA is double stranded; RNA is single stranded
B)They contain different sugers
C) DNA contains T; RNA contains U
D) DNA is read directly by the ribosomes to make proteins; RNA is n
D) DNA is read directly by the ribosome to make proteins; RNA is not.
Olfactory memory
Glycosidic Bonds
In Carbohydrates
tyrosine - neurotransmitters
What does virulent mean?
the first true cell
Nucleic Acids in RNA?
Outermost region, resist abrasion, reduces water loss. Composed of Keritanized stratisfied squamous epithelium consisting of four distinctive cell types and four or five layers. Cell types include: Keratinocytes, Melanocytes, Merkel cells and Langerhans' cells
Phototrophic anaerobes require what kind of photosynthesis?
Membranous sacs containing oxidases and catalases. Breaksdown fatty acids, amino acids and hydrogen peroxide. It also detoxifies harmfull substances and neutralizes dangerous free readicals
get energy from sun/heat etc.
C,H,O molecules but are NON-polar
one benefits, the other is harmed
internal sacs with a moist epithelium - Gases carried between lungs and body cells via circulatory system
A storage polysaccharide in animals that is made of many a-glucose monomers joined by glycosidic bonds
a white crystalline disaccharide sugar formed during the digestion of starches. C12H22O11
–a subjective awareness of the stimulus–most sensory signals delivered to the CNS produce no conscious sensation
the organism that causes potato blight is ____. it was originally classified as a ____ due to convergent evolution, which resulted in similar morphology and nutritional mode
Internal Skeleton
1. Better Support
2. Better locomotion (better movement)
3. Allows for the evolution of jaws
replacement of a single base nucleotide with another nucleotide
a shifting lattice arrangement of structural and contractile components distributed throughout the cell cytoplasm, composed of microtubules, microfilaments, and larger filaments, functioning as a structural support and transport mechanism.
the way in which populations of organisms change over the course of many generations to become more suited to their environment
What is another name for continuous ALS (adventitious lung sounds)
Indeterminate growth
Growth that continues throughout the lifetime of the organism; Most plant growth is indeterminate
the central cavity of sponges into which water is drawn through pores in the body wall
Restriction Enzyme
- Enzymes that recognize specific sequences of nucleotides in DNA, and cut them.
- This helps determine possible mutations, because the mutation sequence will not get cut, like the wild type will.
? = Growth and preparation for chromosomal segregation
1 piece spiral shell: snails, slugs etc. aquatic/terrestrial
3 types of postzygotic barriers
hybrid inviabilityhybrid sterilityhybrid breakdown
Only __ elements are found in living
organisms in substantial amounts.
organic compounds needed in small amounts for normal growth and metabolism
Fat-Soluble Vitamins
organelle that helps to recycle the cells organic material and is part of the endoplasmic membrane system
nitrogen fixation
the conversion of nitrogen gas into ammonia
inorganic chemistry
the chemistry of the nonliving world (have ionic bonds)
water: Moderation of Temperature
water absorbs heat from air
droplets of water that form on leaf margins in a humid environment as a result of water being pushed up the xylem by root pressure
Independent Assortment
when two or more characteristics are inherited, individual hereditary factors assort independently during gamete production, giving different traits an equal opportunity of occurring together
Cellular Respiration
Release of ATP molecules through a step-wise breakdown of organic compounds, especially glucose
Binds to repressor so it cannot bind to operator, thus switching the operon on
RNA polymerase
only functions in the 5-3 prime direction
Four most common elements
oxygen, carbon, nitrogen, and hydrogen
Kingdom Monera represents what? and what do they have?
Unicellular, prokaryotic

Ribosomes, and circular strand of DNA
A stickleback fish will attack a fish model as long as the model has red coloring.
sign stimulus
What is toxoplasma gondii
Causes infections in humans with immunosuppressionCan cross placental barrier to harm fetus
What are the two types of autotrophs?
Photoautotrophs or chemoauthotrophs?
The tendency of an atom to draw the electrons in a bond toward itself.
Is the process of the using energy released from exergonic reactions to drive essential endergonic reactions
effects of deletion
frameshift mutation cause codon to be read wrong from the point of the mutation onward
bulk flow
the movement of a fluid due to a difference in pressure between two locations
what is desertification?
too much and too fast of nutrient extraction cause soil to soil in the desert. lost strucutre
Types of membranes- wet vs dry and open vs closed
Cutaneous-dry (epidermis)-openMucous- wet (digestive)-openSerous- wet (line cavities)- closedSynovial-wet (joint capsule)- closed
1st Law of Thermodynamics
Energy cannot be created or destroyed, but it can be converted from one form to another.
knowith thee shit on chaparral.
re temp, moist, presipiate and organismss
temp- range 7C, jan9, july 16, dec11
moist- winter mild and humid, summer mild and very dry
precipitation- annual total 42cm, no prepication jul-sep

dominant plants- low-growing shrubs and herbaceous plants

spiecies richness

plants- extreamly high in South Africa and Australis

animals- rich in rodents and repiles very rich in insects, espec bees

soil biota- moderatly rich
Post Absorptive State; regulated by live
glucose sparing, glucose reserved for nervous system
Angiosperms disperse their seeds by producing
All of the choices are correct.
the messoderm is the _____ layer?
and it is ?
3rd germ layer 
and between the echto/endo derms and its a form as pouchs off the gut which is like entercoelic pounching. 
Where are human sperm cells produced?
C) the seminiferous tubules of the testes
what is a reciprocal cross?
when a sex linked gene is crossed between a male with the trait and a female without the trait. In the f2 generation all possible combinations will be expressed
What is the purpose of the casparian strip?1. It keeps unwanted and harmful substances outside of the vascular system.2. It seals off the vascular tissue so pressure can force water up the stem.3. It prevents phloem sap from entering the root cortex.
1. It keeps unwanted and harmful substances outside of the vascular system.
Why do UV radiation or other mutagens (carcinogens) cause cancer?
a. they mutate the genes that are involved in cell cycle control
b. they mutate the proteins associated with cell cycle control
c. they mutate the mitochondrial matrix associated with ATP p
a. they mutate the genes that are involved in cell cycle control
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