Bio 36 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
omni-
all
brachi
arm
-rrhea
flow, discharge
light microscope
microscope
Steroids=
many stop signs
cephalopods
squids, octopus
-type of mollusca
Systematics:
taxonomy plus evolutionary relationships and history of organisms
self-fertilization
an example of inbreeding.
ret-
net; made like a net
poisonous mushrooms
highly variable in coloration
 
difficult to identify
 
poisonous effects delayed so treatment is impossible
 
people have diff sensitivities to the toxis produced
Pepsin  
Digestive enzyme that degrades protiens into peptides. Activated by high levels of HydroChloric Acid.
hypertonic
solution with higher osmotic concentration relative to another solution
flattened membranous sacs called cisternae and small membrane enclosed vesicles. Receives proteins from ER, sorts them, sends them to cellular/extra cellular places.
Nucleus
faculatative mutualism
animal detritavores that ingest microbes with detritus
What scientist discovered that the ratio between A and T and C and G were the same?
Chargoff
Week One
 
Which organelle is involved in protein assembly and packaging?
 
 
Rough ER
Conidia
-asexual, non-motile spores of a fungus
 
-are named after the greek word for dust, konia
 
-also called mitospores due to the way they are generated through mitosis
 
compound
a substance of different elements bonded together in a certain ratio.
Phospholipid
two sheet like layersheads- polar- hydrophobictails- nonpolar- hydrophobic
Adaptive Radiation
Diversification of ancestral species into many new species.
cell walls in fungi
composed of chitin
Polar Covalent Bond
Atoms share electrons unequally
Photosynthesis
The conversion of light energy to chemical energy that is stored in sugars or other organic compounds; occurs in plants, algae, and certain prokaryotes.
receptor-mediated endocytosis
The movement of specific molecules into a cell by the inward budding of membranous vesicles containing proteins with receptor sites specific to the molecules being taken in; enables a cell to acquire bulk quantities of specific substances.
Plates
solid slabs of rock containing all land on Earth
Hydrolysis
breaks polymers apart by adding a water molecule
Tundra
treeless plain, growing season of only 2-3 months, Arctic tundra has permafrost
direct vs in-direct development
direct: choanoflagellates, no metamorphosis, loose intermediate stage (collar cells on outside)
in-direct: metamorphosis (sponges)
The number and arrangement of electrons in an atoms outer energy level (shell) determines its
chemical properties
The ________ is composed of proteins, carbs, and lipids which are food sources for other organisms (eg. bacteria, nematodes, protists, and flukes)
body
Morphological species concept
Based on anatomical differences between species. Often used to identify fossil species. Similar to the phylogenetic species concept.
eventually forms lining of digestive tract; archenteron step
Spiral Cleavage
a similarity that exists in species descended form a common ancestor
- Homology
prokaryote
any cellular organism that has no nuclear membrane, no organelles in the cytoplasm except ribosomes, and has its genetic material in the form of single continuous strands forming coils or loops, characteristic of all organisms in the kingdom Monera, as th
facultative anaerobes
can live with or without oxygen, cellular respir / fermentation
root system and the shoot system: two basic plantsystems for acquiring and transporting ??????
Nutrients
DNA and RNA
Includes triple bonded C and G.
Temperature grasslands
Biome dominated by grasses and other nonwoody plants; common in interiors of continents with warm summers, cool winters, recurring fires, and 25–100 centimeters of rain.
Not to hot; Not to cold. Grows where winters are cold, summers are warm, and rainfall is moderate

Sergei Winogradsky



- Did work similar to Beijernick but isolated Soil nitrogen-fixing bacterium

(

 


 
Clostridium pasteurianum) and established the concept of bacterial N2 fixation
.
Barr body
the inactive X condenses. If the female is heterozygous for a particular gene located on the X chromosome, she will be a mosaic for that character.
do the phospholipids or the protein keep the molecules in or out?
the phospholipids
First line of defense:
Body barriers-common defense includes skin, digestive tract, eyes. Body secretions. body flushes. friendly microbes prevent foreign bacteria from taking hold
Lysosomes
help break down food that is ingested, a sca full of digestive enzymes
biology
the science of life or living matter in all its forms and phenomena, esp. with reference to origin, growth, reproduction, structure, and behavior.
nodule
a swelling on the root of a legume. nodules are composed of plant cells that contain nitrogen-fixing bacteria of the genus Rhizobium
What is starch?
Starch is a polymer of glucose monomers inside plastids which include chloroplasts.  Hydrolysis breaks the polymer and allows the plant to acces the glucose.
Dikaryotic
Haploid nuclei pair off two to a cell, one from each parent.
“Good” and “Bad” Cholesterol
actually refers to droplets of lipoprotein in the blood
The specific pattern of bands that indicate a person's restriction fragment markers is called:
a DNA fingerprint
chromosome # = 2n
How many chromosomes do gametes contain?
negative feedback
the process of returning part of the output of a circuit, system, or device to the input, either to oppose the input
What contributes to increased GHGs?
Natural and anthropogenic. Fossil fuel use and deforestation, landfills



what did lynn Lynn Margulis propose

 


 



Mitochondria and chloroplasts are ancestors of specific lineages

of

 


 
Bacteria
(endosymbiosis, symbiogenesis
Which of the following observations and ideas are incorporated into Darwin's concept of natural selection?
Through natural selection, a population may adapt to the environment over many generations.
human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
retrovirus that is the causative agent of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)
What kind of feedback do hormone cascade pathways involve?
They involve negative feedback. Hypothalamus --> anterior pituitary ---> endocrine tissue
What is the CORK CAMBIUM?
-AKA PHELLOGEN-forms in a layer of cells just below the epidermis-starts dividing to form new cells-the largest part of the periderm consists of an outer region of cells called cork cells (PHELLEN). Compact and tight fighting. Dead at maturity after depositing SUBERIN-cork cambium is bifacial, continually dividing and pushing new cells to outside (cork cells) and cut some cells off inward (PHELLODERM)
How do auditory abilities (one of animal's senses) affect communication?
Effective over short AND long distances, penguins find their young to feed them this way because they know their sound
What is a circadian rhythym?
about a day (25 hrs.), fluctuation of different body components
Porifera " to bear pores"
level of org:
habitats:
Number of species:
lifestyle:
size:
symmetry:
Porifera " to bear pores"
level of org: cell
habitats: aquatic
Number of species: 10 000
lifestyle: sessile
size: few mm to >1m
symmetry: asymmetrical or radial
2. skeletal muscle, smooth muscle and nonmuscle
3. crucial for the movement of opposite oriented f actin: generates tension in stress fibers, contractile ring, adhesion belts, and muscle contraction.
2. the longer the chain the less fluid
Degree of saturation of fatty acid tails
How does aerobic respiration layout in connection with glucose?
C6H12O6 + 6 O2 => 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + (ATP + Heat)
poly
many
Diploid-
Ex:
sex cell
gamete
Thoracic cage
Ribs, Sternum
Discovery of organelles
1950
What is DLCO
diffusion capacity
atactilia
loss of tactile sense
--SDS-polyacrylamidegel electrophoresis: (SDS-PAGE;one dimension) i. Proteins usually have a net positive or negative charge ii. If an electric field is applied to a protein solution the will migrateat a rate that depends on the net charge, shape, andsi
Two-dimensional polyacrylamidegel electrophoresis (2D PAGE) is a technique for separating complex mixtures of proteins.
DNA
deoxyribonucleic acid. basis of growth, survival and reproduction in organisms
radiolarians
slender pseudopodia help organisms phagocytize microscopic food. primarily marine and have delicate silica shells
Lipid function
concentrated energy source,structural components of cell membranes--> phospholipids and cholestrol, carotenoids capture light energy for photosynthesis,communication-steriod hormones, metabolism-fat soluble vitamins, insulation, protection from water.
spore-bearing structure found in various fungi
sporangium
regular, annual fluctuations in temperature, precipitation or both
seasons
flaccid
limp, lacking in stiffness or firmness, as in a plant cell in surroundings where there is no tendency for water to enter the cell
parasitism
one organism benefits while harming the other organism
Conformational Homeostasis
Homeostasis that occurs by conformation to the external environment.
dinosaurs are most closely related to
birds
pinocytosis
“cell drinking” taking in droplets of ECF containing molecules useful in the cell
Medicine
the science of preserving and restoring health.
Diffuse competition
indirect competition A-B-C not A-B
multi-chambered stomach is where bacteria help digest food; very efficient system
Hindgut Fermentation
species
the basic category of biological classification, composed of individuals that resemble one another are able to breed with one another
Limiting factor
biotic factor that restricts the number, distribution, or reproduction of a population within a community
Embryotic connective tissue
-Are not found in adults
Exocytosis
process by which cell releases large amounts of material
Polar molecules
Have an unequal distribution of electrons and thus have a slight charge
Swine Flu
-now H1N1 virus *h=hemagluttinin & n=neurom...-different surface proteins *diff. proteins give diff. qualities-high rate of mutation *no proofreading system *could become resistant & no immunity-kills those who usually survive normal flu & is highly transmissable
Observation #2
natural resources are limited (T. Malthus)
mouth
 
digestive enzyme
to break down STARCH (contains salivary amylase)
neogene period
modern humans appear and herbaceous plants spread and diversify.
The eukaryotic organelle that is directly involved in the transport of proteins synthesized on the surface of the rough ER is called
golgi complex
Competitive inhibition
an impersonator molecule blocks the active site and competes with the substrate
What are detritivores?
Detritivores ingest dead organic matter.
Science
process used to learn about the natural world involving observations, proposing ideas, testing the ideas, and discarding/modifying ideas in response to testing
carrying capacity
amount of organisms an ecosystem can support and maintain
Biosphere
All part of the Earth's waters, crust, and atmosphere in which organisms live.
Bacteria can metabolize environmental toxins such as dioxin
Incineration releases dioxin
A: Control dilution nutrient salt
B: Bacteria (mixture) and
C. bacteria (mixture) and nutrient
What do you call something that relies on something else for food? like an amimal for instance...
heterotroph
collagen molecules*
in extracellular matrix, made up of three chains that wind around eachother, helical fiber helps so cells can stick together*
binomial nomenclature
genus and species (Homo Sapiens with underlining)
Cell Membrane
outer boundry of the cell, encloses the cell and regulates what enters and leaves the cell
the process of divergence sped up artificially
artificial selection
test cross'
a genetic test for heterozygosity in which an organism of dominant phenotype, but unknown genotype, is crossed to an organism recessive for all markers in question.
Structural formula
shows the arrangement of atoms in a compound
Semi fluid
Property of a membrane in which lipids can rotate freely around their long axes and move laterally within the membrane leaflet.
fish is swimming upstream in darkness, what would be most likely to help the fish sense aquatic predators that approach it from behind?
lateral line system
Citric Acid Cycle
A chemical cycle involving eight steps that completes the metabolic breakdown of glucose molecules begun in glycolysis by oxidizing pyruvate to carbon dioxide; occurs within the mitochondrion in eukaryotic cells and in the cytosol of prokaryotes; the second major stage in cellular respiration.
The shape of a molecule...
1) Determines it biological funtion.2) Is determined by orbital positions of its atoms.3) Determines how molecules recognize and respond to each other.4) May aid in the formation of bonds.
Clonal population
when a B cell encounters an antigen, it immediatley makes copies of itself in order to fight the infection
chemical energy
a term used by biologists to refer to potential energy available for release in a chemical reaction
How are biomes named?
based on the types of plant life
in eukaryotes, transcription and translation occur ____
at different times in different places
What is the name of the bond between animo acids?
Peptide bond
kangaroo rats and water
live in deserts, never drink water or eat moist plants, only eat seeds that contain water
-produce water from respiratory metabolism
-must conserve
-i.e. no sweating/activity during the day, dry feces
-very concentrated urine, long loop of Henle

The Importance of Microorganisms in human life

- Microorganisms can be both beneficial and harmful to humans.
- Emphasis typically on harmful microorganisms (infectious disease agents,
or pathogens).
- But many more microorganisms in nature are beneficial than are harmful.
- Microbes affect many aspects of our lives,
1. as Disease Agents
2. as Geochemical Agents (Agriculture)
3. in Food Industry
4. in Energy and Environmental Industry
5. in Biotechnology (as genetic resources)
dinoflagellates can cause problems for humans because
they produce neurotoxins that can affect humans
Crossing over (recombination) can lead to
new combination of alleles in the offspring that were not present in the parents
Describe small changes in agricultural practives that can have a big effect on the climate
growing plants can remove huge amounts of carbon from the atmosphere
In the development of a seedling, which of the following will be the last to occur? (A) Initiation of the breakdown of the food reserve (B) Initiation of cell division in the root meristem (C) Emergence of the root (D) Expansion and greening of the first
Expansion and greening of the first true foliage leaves
Name 2 essential roles enzymes play in cells.
Speed up chemical reactons in cells, lower activation energy
What is the differnce btwn Type I and Type III surviorship?.....Need to know Chart that goes with it too...
Type I- equalibrium strategyType III- opporunstic strategy
-pne-
breathe
plan-
roaming
wandering
Hypothalamus
Human Thermostat
ascocarp
"fruiting body"; macroscopic
endoskeleton
internal skeleton (humans)
temperate woodland and shrubland
Eukaryotic
-Protists, Fungi, Animals, Plants-extensive internal membranes-membrane-bound nucleus
Severe protein starvationstomach muscles consumed & weakenedretain water, appear bloated
Vitamins
TEM
Transmission Electron Microscope - transmits electrons through a thin slice of specimen
Metamorphosis
A developmental transformation that turns the animal into a juvenile, which resembles an adult but is not yet sexually mature
Apicomplexans
Apicomplexans- large group of protists, most of which possess a unique organelle called apicoplast and an apical complex structure involved in penetrating a host's cell. They are unicellular, spore-forming, and exclusively parasites of animals.
Acids
proton donors
pH less than 7
ribosome
a tiny, somewhat mitten-shaped organelle occurring in great numbers in the cell cytoplasm either freely, in small clusters, or attached to the outer surfaces of endoplasmic reticula, and functioning as the site of protein manufacture.
syngamy
the union of gametes in fertilization
Which step(s) of Cellular Respiration Makes No ATP?
Fermentation
Virus Structure: Viral Envelope
copy hosts gycoprotein
CRP
an activator of transcription because its binding results in more efficient binding of RNA polymerase to the promoter, and yields increased transcription of the structural genes. when glucose is abundant CRP does not bind to promoter and reduces efficiency of transcription in the lac operon
shoot system fucntions
photosynthesis, transport (b/t leaves, flowers, fruits, roots), reproduction, hormone synthesis
Nucleic Acids
The genetic information(DNA/RNA) of organisms. The monomers of nucleic acids are nucleotides
basophils
cell that secretes the anticlotting factor heparin at the site of an infection, which helps the circulation flush out the infected site; also secrete histamine, which attracts infection-fighting cells and proteins
ethylene
the only gaseous plant hormone. Among its many effects are responses to mechanical stress, programmed cell death, leaf abscission, and fruit ripening
Flowers house both _______________ and ________________ reproductive organs.
Male, female
Punnett Square
shows four possible combinations of gametes
Permineralized fossil
decays very slowly allowing dissolved minerals to infiltrate the cells and harden them into stone
site of chemiosmosis ATP synthesis
inner mitochondrial membrane 
Psudostratified Columnar
Function- Help movement and secrete mucusLocation- upper respiratory tract, male reproduction
Taq DNA polymerase
Heat-stable protein, derived from hotspring bacterium
 
Adding new base pairs onto primer, makes actual copies, polymerase can handle higher temps 
What three things are produced in glycolysis?
-NADH
-pyruvate
-ATP
sebaceous glands are what type of glands
holocrine
Sarcoma
connective tissue or muscle cells form tumor
solute
the substance dissolved in a given solution.
redundancy hypothesis
A hypothesis that assumes an upper limit on the positive effect of species richness on community function because once species richness reaches some threshold, the functions of species in the community will overlap.
chimeras
cells with the combined genomes of at least three different prokayroyes.
Taxon
any group of organisms that is treated as a unit in a biological classification system
Basolateral Side
The side of the epithelial tissues that faces the animal's interior and is connected to other tissues.
Simple Learning: conditioning
training an unconditioned response to an natural stimulus, to become a conditioned responseex.metronome and salivation
Vascular Plants
plants that have a vascular tissue system.
functions of circulatory system
–transport •O2, CO2, nutrients, wastes, hormones, and stem cells –protection •inflammation, limit spread of infection, destroy microorganisms and cancer cells, neutralize toxins, and initiates clotting –regulation •fluid balance, stabilizes pH of ECF, and temperature control
The tertiary structure of a protein is the...
Three-dimensional shape.
control region
how much RNA gets madewhere which tissueswhen in the cell cycle, or life cycle
encompasses any action by a parent that improves the ability of its offspring to survive
parental care
pioneer species
first species to populate an area during primary succession
What is extreme drops in the strength of the pulse with inspiration
pulsus paradoxus
principle of independent assortment
genes are transmitted independently of one another ... any 2 chromosomes can pair up in a single gamete
. Revolution in cloning:
Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)--1986 a. Reverse transcriptase (RT) RNA---DNA b. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) (PCR cycle). 1. DNA amplified by heating to break hydrogen bonds, yielding single stranded DNA 2. Short nucleotide sequences act as primers for DNA replication added 3. Enzyme, DNA polymerase, begins at primers and synthesizes a DNA strand complementary to the region between the primers, a process called "primer extension" 4. Example: 10 cycles = 1,024 copies, 30 cycles = 1,073,741,820 copies
Genital Herpes Symptoms
Some show no symptoms, small blisters, cervical infections and inlammation of the urethra, fever, headache, weakness, fatigue, 3-4 weeks after infecttion herpes moves into latent stage of varying duration, symptoms return periodically, usually 4-5 times a year
These species are the most abundant or have the highest biomass.
Dominant species
females tend to choose the males they mate with based on certain traits
sexual selection
Endomembrane system
carries out a variety of tasks in the cell: synthesis of proteins, transport into or out of membranes, metabolism and movement of lipids, and detoxification of poisons
What are the 4 levels of Ecology
Organismal- evolutionary adaptations of speciesPopulation- all same species Community-Differnt speciesEcosystem- community + abiotic variables
Diaphragms and Cervical Caps (female)
Prevent sperm from entering the cervix
digests its way through sporophyte tissue to female gametophyte
Diploid Zygote(reprod in seeded plants)
What are the Laws of Thermodynamics?
Conservation of energy, Law of entropy
four primary differences in gene expression in bacteria vs. eukaryotes
(1) packaging (2) alternative splicing (3) complexity (4) coordinated expression
Compare the light reactions of photosynthesis and the electron transport chain of Aerobic respiration.
Similar: both involve a bacterial endosymbiont. many of the same molecules (ATP synthase, cytochrome) H+ gradient used to make ATP
Amino acids is composed of 5 things:
An alpha carbonA hydrogenAn amino groupA carboxyl groupA R group
when traits in different clades evolve similar characteristics
4 Major Threats to Biological Diversity
How is MAP (mean arterial pressure) monitored?
What is this monitoring process called? 
It is monitored by the nervous system.
 
This process is called the Barorecepor reflex. 
what is meant by the statement "Mendel used a quantitative approach to genetics"?
when he did crosses, he manually counted the number of offspring for each trait
What are the two ways to Form or dissasemble polymers?
Dehydration- loss of water and then it joinsHydrolysis-addition of water and ten they break apart
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