Bio 40 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
micro-
small
erythro
red
cheir-, chir-
hand
zygote
diploid cell
cells
FibroblastsMacrophagesMast cellsWhite blood cellsSpecialized cells
metapopulations
Separated populations interconnected by movement of individuals (between one habitat patch to the next)
Ecosystem Services
Services to humans:
mitochondria
converts sugar to ATP
adhesion
Attraction between molecules of different substances; in plants, attraction between unlike molecules
Four main molecules of life
Carbohydrates
Proteins
Lipids
Nucleic acids
Parenchyma:
-Metabolic Functions
-Contain a large central vacuole
- Have the ability to differentiate into other cell types (mostly to repair or replace organs) 
____________maintains internal and relative constancy around cells
homeostatic mechanism
Arrythmia
Arrhythmia (disrhythmia) is an irregularity in heart rhythm resulting from a defect in the conduction system of the heart
b/comp
numbers are limited by resources (bottom up control)
________ telescopes were the first type of telescopes employed to look for the signals of communication from distant civilizations.
radio
Digestive enzymes are stored inside organelles called
___________.
lysosomes
In the light-dependent reactions, the gas (blank) is produced
oxygen
pons
bulge in brainstemrostral to the medullaascending SENSORY tractsdescending MOTOR tractspathways in and out of cerebellum
nuclear transport
• nucleoplasmin experiment and the identification of a nuclear organization signal (NLS) on proteins that need to get into the nucleus• importin and Ran help move nuclear proteins through nuclear pores
Anaphase 2
sister chromatids sperate, breakdown of protein that held them together
Ex. of Phylum Rhizopoda
-Amoeba proteus-Entamoeba histolytica,which causes amoebic dysentery in humans
qualitative
pertaining to or concerned with quality or qualities.
eutrophic
type of lake, usually shallow and nutrient-rich (bc nutrients in photic zone), often dominated by sunfishes (bluegills, basses)
mycoplasma
smallest cells known, a type of bacteria
Genetic Structure
the frequencies of different alleles at each locus and the frequencies of different genotypes in a Mendelian population
What level of compaction? forms radial loops that are stacked on top of each other ... prepares the cell for division
chromosomes
Ecosystem Ecology
 concerned with energy flow through orgs
Balancing polymorphism
 
Maintains less fit alleles in population

Two types:
Heterozygote advantage: sometimes heterzygotes have higher fitness than homozygote (homo-recessives get Sickle cell anemia, heterozygotes have resistance to malaria)
Negative frequency selection: Rare individuals have higher fitness.  Becomes not rare.

 
Alfred Sturtevant
- Constructed a genetic Map
- Sturtevant predicted that the farther apart twogenes are, the higher the probability that acrossover will occur between them andtherefore the higher the recombinationfrequency
If two plants that are both heterozygous for a trait (i.e., Aa) are crossed, what percentage of their offspring will also be heterozygous for that trait?
50%
vessel elements
secondary cell walls, lignified, dead at maturity, used for water and mineral transport,
found through mesohyltake up food from H2O + digest b4 carrying to other cells
spicules
when populations or species live in the same geographic area, or at least close enough to one another to make interbreeding possible
- Sympatry
pleiotropic
the phenomenon of one gene being responsible for or affecting more than one phenotypic characteristic.
emergent properties
new properties that emerge with each step upward in the hierarchy of biology, owing to the arrangement and interactions of parts as complexity increases.
cell wall ???????? the cell and defines its ???????
Supports, shape
evolution of reptiles
tetrapods evolved from freshwater bony fishes and are highly aquatic
 
reptiles evolved from Anthracosaurs (divergent group of tetrapods)
 
first amniotes are reptiles - amniotic egg and horny scaled skin
 
transition from shallow water/water side species to abundant and diverse terrestrial species occured during Carboniferous period
Discovery tools humans use
faith, art, science, force, consenus
prokaryotes
Organisms whose cells do not have a nucleus in which DNA is housed and which lack many of the organelles found in more advanced cells
chloroplasts contain ____ and the ____
thylakoids and stroma
characteristics of phylum chordata
fibrous notochord, pharyngeal gill slits, dorsal hollow nerve cord, and postanal tail present at some stage in their development
Fat
Lipid that is solid or semisolid at room temperature (Saturated fatty acid, e.g. butter or lard)
Infectious
When a pathogen finds a tissue inside the body that will support growth
anterior
situated before or at the front of; fore (
lateral root
a root that arises from the pericycle of an established root
The occurrence of a species in just a single location
Endemism
spiral cleavage
cell division lines don't line up w/ each other- cell fate determined quickly
Hypothesis (this is a Bio21 definition)
-Two measurable variables-Precise relationship between them (relationship=prediction)
body plan
the general form of an organism's ody structure, including its pattern of symmetry, germ layers, and body cavities
Coral Snake Experiment(Scientific Method)
- cryptic + aposematic coloring changes which snakes are eaten by birds
hinge joint
a joint in which movement is limited to one plane.
Mendel's law of independent assortment
each pair of alleles segregates independently of the other pairs of alleles during gamete formation
Name 3 synergistic elements present in a polychaete that allow free-living forms to become successful hunters
cephalization, mouth, bilaterality, segmentation, nervous system, circular system, eyes, brain, parapodia, coelom, etc.
The order of cellular respiration processes.
1. Glycolysis
2. Kreb\'s cycle
3. electron transport chain
van der waals forces
a slight attarction that develops b/t the opposityly charged regions of hereby molecules
Survivorship types (I, II, III)
Type I: High survivorship in young, stable mid, low survivorship in oldex. HumansType II: Linearly decreasingex. BirdsType III: Low survivorship in young, stabilizes in the middle, then survivorship is high in old age
What are the 2 SUBTYPES of SCLERENCHYMA?
1)Fibres-long but narrow-have thick, uniformly thickened secondary walls with lignin-pits connect adjacent fibres-staggered alignment increases rigidity2)Sclereids-shorter, fatter-rectangular or spherical-have thick, uniformaly thickened secondary walls with lignin-pits connect adjacent sclereids
what is the cause of the seventh mass extinction?
the evolution of man
In what form energy stored in plants and animals?
plants- startchanimals- form of glycogen
What is the difference between a diploid and a haploid chromosome?
A diploid chromosome is 2 chromosome sets joined together by a centromere (2n). DNA replication has occured. 
 
A haploid chromosome is only one chromosome set (1n).
Carrier proteins 2 (charged solutes; ions)
1. Most cell membranes have a voltage across them, the difference is the electrical potential, cytosolic side is usually negative
Why? -- evolutinary significance of behavior
Ex: Why NS favors one behavior and not the other?

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 


Spinal cord

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 




· 
– extends from the base of the brain to the
level of the second lumbar vertebra – reveals 
a small central canal surrounded by an area by gray matter shaped like
an H 


melano-
black
odont-
tooth
saturated hydrocarbon
unkinked
muscle
group of fasicles
EnzymesTransportStructuralStorageHormonesReceptorsMotorImmunol
Stages of Transcription
Platelets
-membrane bound cell fragments.-release substances that initiate BLOOD CLOTTING.-last only about 8-10 days.
tips
extinct or extant species
Anaerobic respiration
Gycloyss to Fermentation.
Huntingtons and Achodroplasia are examples of autosomal -------- disorders
dominant
Asexual species
don't need to mate
protein -> activated protein
post-translational modifications
Independent Genetic Changes = Enzymes
SpeedAccuracyCompleteness
placental tissue
produces estrogen and progesterone
Adaptation
Trait that improves an organism's ability to survive and reproduce in a particular environment
Five Periods of the Paleozoic Era
OrdovicianSilurianDevonianCarboniferousPermian
Nucleus
Site of DNA and mRNA synthesis
Colon
longest portion of large intestine, series of muscular pouches where water is reabsorbed
ribosome
where translation takes place. Holds mRNA and tRNA in the right positions so the poly peptide chain can be assembled. Three sites: A (amino acid) P (polypeptide) and E (exit)
LIPIDS
MAINLY HYDROCARBON GENNERALLY DO NOT DISSOLVE IN WATER BUT DISSOLVEES IN NON POLAR SUBSTANCESSUCH AS OTHER LIPIDS
Reactions that do not proceed spontaneously because they require energy from an outside source are called
endergonic
Pancreas
Endocrine & Exocrine functions - produces digestive enzymes (Exo). hormones to regulate blood sugar (endo)
predation
interaction in which one organnism captures and feeds on another organism
gymnosperm
a vascular plant that bears naked seeds, seeds not composed in special chambers
What are gymnosperms (ex: pine tree)?
seeded plants
Rhododphyta
Red Algae; "rhodon"= red or rose; secrete calcium carbonate (limestone), reef building organisms, source of agar; 175 m deep
Endosymbiosis
When one organism takes up permanent residence within another, such that the two evolve to become a single functional organism. Mitochondria and chloroplasts are believed to have resulted from endosymbiosis in the evolution of eukaryotes.
anus develops before the mouth and pockets of mesoderm pinch off to form the coelom
deutersomes
Heterochrony
is defined as a developmental change in the timing of events, leading to changes in size and shape.
Dietary Restriction Categories (Females)
Involuntary: hunter gatherer populations with seasonal variation in food availability have seasonal births
benefit cost analysis
Estimates and comparison of short-term and long-term costs (losses) and benefits (gains) from an economic decision. If the estimated benefits exceed the estimated costs, the decision to buy an economic good or provide a public good is considered worthwhile.
spherical bodies which contain RNA and produce proteins for the cell
ribosomes
Macrophages
white blood cells that move through the lymphatic fluid, cleaning up dead and damaged cells
phylogeny
the development or evolution of a particular group of organisms.
nitrogen cycle
the transfer of nitrogen from the atmosphere to the soil, to living organisms, and back to the atmosphere
reflex
nerve response that goes to brain only after movement has occurred - simple, automatic, inborn response to a sensory stimulus, such as knee-jerk response
Batesian mimicry
a palatable species may mimic an upalatable or noxious one
 
eg butterflies mimic looks of unpalatable ones


meniscus
concave surface created by water in a glass.
Isolating Mechanisms (besides Geographical)Pre-mating mechanisms
    - Temporal/Seasonal isolation (e.g. rainbows, spring; brown, fall spawning)    - Ecological/Habitat isolation (e.g. blue jay, city; stellar jay, pine forest)-    Behavioral isolation (e.g. yellow-headed and red-winged blackbirds vs. mating rituals; also different species of ducks)-    Mechanical isolation (e.g. spider and stonefly genitalia match)
Assortative vs. Disassortative
Assortative: Mate with phenotypes like you - increases homozygotesDisassortative: Mate with phenotypes not like you - increases heterozygotes
red marrow
produces blood cells, found in axial skeleton and girdles
What is aging?
The decline of physiological function and cessation of reproductive capacity.
Passive (facilitated) transport
Driven by concentration gradient of solute and electrochemical gradient
Haploid
a cell containing a single set of chromosomes
genetic drift
random changes in the frequency of alleles in a gene pool
Mesenchymal Cell
Stem cells that respond to injury or infection. Differentiate into diffrent types of connective tissue cell
Ecological Roles of Fungi
Fungi and Plants probably colonized land together
Earliest terrestrial ecosystems were dependent on fungi as decomposers and symbionts
Some mutualistic: absorb nutrients from hosts but hosts benefit
Some parasitic: absorb nutrients from living hosts
what is an example of a Y-linked trait?
hairy ears
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
    Part of the endomembrane system where proteins are made, folded and glycosolated.
light reactions
provide NADPH and ATP for the calvin cycle, convert solar energy to chemical energy, splitting water and giving off oxygen.1. water is split2.transfers electrons to the cytochrome complex, 4 protons are moved across the membrane into the thylakoid space.3. a hydrogen ion is removed from stroma and taken up by NADP. the diffusion of hydrogen ions from the thylakoid space back to the stroma powers ATP synthase.
Autoimmune Disorders 3 examples
Crohn's Disease: immune system attacks intestine
Multiple Sclerosis: immune system attacks brain, spinal cord, myelin sheath
Type 1 Diabetes: immune system attacks insulin making cells
What kind of tissue is on the outside of a plant?
Dermal Tissue
signal transduction in hair cells
stretch activated cation channels open when cilia deflected towards kinocilium1. Ca2+ influz leads to membran depolarization2. voltage gated Ca2+ channels open3. neurotransmitter is released to vestibular ganglion cells
Mendel's principle of independent assortment states dat
each hereditary unit is inherited separately from odda hereditary units
When do Chemical Communication evolves?
- dense vegetation- animals dispersed- no mechanisms to make sounds
Energy is release from ATP when it
 
a. Gains a phosphate group
b. Loses a phosphate group
c. is built
d. inceases in size
a. Gains a phosphate group
genetic map and unit of distance
• unit of distance along a chromosome should simply be the percentage of offspring that have recombinant phenotypes with respect to two genes
Name the structures of a fungus.
Hyphae, and mycelia (network of branched hyphae for absorption),
After the enzymes of the DNA REPAIR systerm excise mismatched and damage nucleotides, the replication accuracy becomes ...?
1 in 10^9 synthesized nucleotides
A biological species is defined as a
population or group of populations whose members have the potential to interbreed and produce fertile offspring.
What effect does cholesterol have on membrane fluidity?
At warm temperatures it restrains the movement of phospholipids. At cold temperatures, it maintains the fluidity by preventing packing.
How does increased combustion of fossil fuels affect the carbon cycle?
uptake and return of CO2 are not in balancecauses smog
How can we ensure that the transfer is equal for all genes? (in conjugation)
-when you see the results for frequency of inheritance, there will be one gene that occurs least often.
-we can therefore deduce that this gene is transferred last
-to ensure that the transfer is equal for all genes, we can select for the exconjugate that contains the last gene (furthest from the origin) that we are looking for.
-we do this by killing the others who do not have it.
 
 
Once we can ensure equal transfer of genes, we can select for exconjugates that contain this last gene transferred.
-the number of crossover events must be even (otherwise result would be a linear chromosome)
 
-if there are, say, 3 genes, like in a trihybrid we can determine what is the middle one by crossover frequency. (whichever one deviates from parental)
 
-then we just find map distance (% recombinants) between both ends and the middle, and add them for the total.
mast-
breast
homogametic
females
SINUS
MAXILLARY SINUS
living amphibians
200 mya
 
monophyletic
 
salamander, frog, caecilian
 
adult skin must be kept moist
Calvin Cycle
B phases
blastocoel
the fluid filled space
COLLOID
MILK IN A REFRIGERATOR
What is cryptic coloration?
Camouflage
symbioosis
all parties where each benifits.
DNA primase makes _____
RNA primers
endocrine glands
–no ducts–contain dense, fenestrated capillary networks which allows easy uptake of hormones into bloodstream–‘internal secretions’–intracellular effects such as altering target cell metabolism-organs that are traditional sources of hormones
chloroplast
the organelle that photosynthesis occurs in
arduous
requiring great exertion; laborious; difficult:
agonists
drugs which mimic activity of neurotransmitters
Protein-protein interactions
Create complex structures that organize the cell and carry out a variety of cellular processes.
Community
All organisms in the same area
Heterotrophs
Organisms that must consume other things to obtain their food
Phloem
Phloem- a food conducting tissue basically composed of sieve elements, various kinds of parenchyma cells, fibers, and sclereids in vascular plants.
Conidia
An asexually produced fungal spore, formed on a conidiophore
Cryptogonochorism
Extreme case of sexual dimorphism (crabs change sex)
what does reproductive isolation sometimes arise through?
disruptive selection
placenta
structure that transfers nutrients and gases to the fetus
stem
a vascular plant organ consisting of an alternating system of nodes and internodes that support the leaves and reproductive structures
Double Fertilization
• ALL angiosperms• one sperm nucleus (n) unites with the egg nucleus(n) to form the zygote (2n)• other sperm nucleus (n) moves through thefemale gametophyte and fuses with the polarnuclei (2n) in the central cell to form a singletriploid (3n) cell
Define biomass
Mass of the biologically important molecules (AKA no water).
synergids
help to move nutrients to female gametophyte
Two or more elements in intermingled or different proportions.
Mixture
telomerase
an enzyme that catalyzes the addition of telomeric sequences lost from from chromosomes during DNA replication (ex: cancers and aging)
Gene Cloning
Involves using bacteria to make multiple copies of a gene
 
Cloned genes are useful for making many copies of a particular gene and for producing a lot of their corresponding proteins 
 
 Gene --> plasmid --> bacterium
dinoflagellates
armor of cellulose plates, flagella in armor grooves.
organic compounds join together to create
cell organelles
trranscription
involves producing the copy of the required gene, RNA is formed
decomposer
an organism, usually a bacterium or fungus, that breaks down the cells of dead plants and animals into simpler substances
dispersion pattern
spacing of individuals within the area that they live
Haploid Cell
A cell containing one set of chromosomes
To form large biological molecules, (blank) are chemically bonded to each other to form (blank).
 
a) Polymers; monmers
b) Macromolecules; organic molecules
c) Monomers; macromolecules
d) Organic mlecules; monomers
c) Monomer; macromolecules
Metabolic Rate
The overall rate of energy consumption by an individual.
Competition: competitive exclusion
G.F. Gause-Two species cannot occupy an identical niche because evolution would have driven one species to extinction from competition-Cannot coexist
Apex
is a complex of organelles made for penetration.
quiescent period
all four chambers relaxed at same time
Organic chemistry is a science based on the study of...
Carbon compounds.
population - eco processes
pop dynamics, unit of evolution
the gradual colonization of a habitat of bare rock or gravel, usually after an environmental disturbance that removes all soil and previous organisms
primary succession
geologic record
the division of Earth's history ito time periods, grouped into three eras: Archaean, Proterozoic, and Phanerozoic, and further subdivided into eras and epochs
What is the major source of chronic disability in the US
heart failure
fertilization
fusion of sperm and egg to form a zygote
A cell contains 10% potassium, 2% sodium, and 5% chloride. The surrounding solution contain 2% potassium, 10% sodium, and 10% chloride. Potassium is continually being pumped into the cell and sodium out of the cell by what transport mechanism?
a. osmosis
d. active transport
Syphilis Prevalence
about 40,000 cases annually in US, New Primary and Secondary cases are most often in 20-24 yr old women & 35-39 yr old men
This allows the fish to control their buoyancy.
Swim bladder
Organic litter of loose leaves and debris that is not completely decomposed
Soil Horizon O
gene pool
all of the genes of all of the individuals in a population
ion
An atom that has gained or lost one or more electrons, thus acquiring a charge.
Twin Studies:
If one twin is Homosexual, what is the probability that the other will be? MZ Males=50% MZ Females=48% DZ Males=24% DZ Females=16% Adoptive Sib Males=19% Adoptive Sib Females=6%
An ecologist hypothesizes that predation by a particular owl species is the major factor controlling the population of a particular rabbit species. A good preliminary step in testing this hypothesis would be to determine
whether the owls eat the rabbits
What is oxidative phosphorylation?
A mode of ATP in which mitochondria capture energy released from the electron transport chain.
to transform bacteria with a plasmid, researchers _________
increase permeability of cell’s plasma membranes using a specific chemical treatment or electric shock
What is the allee effect?
When populations become too small to sustain themselves.
Global patterns of spp diversity: Area hypothesis*
-large area, can support more species-Tropics only area with adjacent N/S hemisphere regions-More area = more spp. because of more resources-supported by observational and experimental studies
What is an exotoxin?
A toxin left that will infect its host even without the organism being present.
da closed human circulatory system has
deO2 blood in da vena cavas"red" blood returning 2 da blood leaving da 2 loop system
What are the 2 features common to all Class Mammalia?
1. Grasping fingers and toes-First digit is opposable2. Binocular vision-Eyes are shifted toward the front of the face
Starting with a single DNA molecule, PCR can generate:
100 billion molecules of DNA in a few hours
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Term:
Definition:
Definition:

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