Biology Lab Lecture test Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Diatom
Euglenida
Cladophora
Forminifera
Ciliophora
Whiskers
Vibrissae
Phylum Bacillariophyta
diatoms
body cavity
coelom
upper jaw
maxilla
Kinetoplastea
flagellates. Parasitic. Tripanisomes
Anterior
Towards the head
Phylum Kinetoplastea consists of
Flagellates
Pigment in brown algae
Fucozanthin
retractors
move an appendage backward
collects and stores sperm
epididymis
Spirogyra is
unbranched filamentous, spiral chloroplasts
membranous tissue covering the abdominal cavity and viscera
peritoneum
Ventral
Towards the lower surface (belly)
caudal artery
blood to the tail
Foraminifera
shelled amoebas. Secrets cells, made of calcium carbonate. LOOKS LIKE SHELLS
Different phylums of fungi
Chytridiomycota, Zygomycota, Ascomycota, and basidiomycota
iliolumbar arteries
dorsal muscles of the back
extensors
increase the angle of a joint
Medial
towards the midline of the body
Jejunum
central portion of the small intestines
mesenteries
think membranes continuous between the parietal and viscera peritoneums. attach the internal organs to the dorsal body wall
white gland below the bladder
prostate gland
outer margin of curved stomach
greater curvature
simplex uterus
single chamber for an embryo
Amoebas move through
pseudopods (fake feet extensions). They do not swim, they crawl
Phylum Apicomplexa consist of
Genus plasmodium, caused malaria
Diatoms are
pretty glass strucutres made with silicon dioxide
celiac artery
first arterial branch from the abdominal aorta below the diaphragm
abductors
move an appendage away from the midline of the body
Spinotrapezius
lays across the dorsal thoracic region of the ratOrigin: thoracic vertebraeInsertion: spine of scapulaAction: moves scapula upward and backward
adductors
move an appendage towards the midline of the body
attached to the greater curvature of the stomach. Circulatory system and functions in storage, formation and destruction of blood cells
spleen
four tissue types
epithelial, connective, muscular and nervous
Three types of muscle
skeletal, smooth and cardiac
Kingdom Protista consists of
Protozoa (heterotrophic) and slime molds (one phylum one genus) and algae (photosynthetic autotrophic)
Plasmodium
effects the blood int he red blood cells. Malaria.
Phylum Ascomycota life cycle
after plasmogamy occurs, the dikaryotic hyphae grow into an asocarp or cup
where the somach attaches to the intestine
pyloric sphincter
surround blood vessels and nerve cells throughout bone and communicate with bone cells through canaliculi
haversian canals
External oblique
covers sides of the abdominal cavity from the hip to the rib cage. Fingers are arranged at right angels o the fibers of the latissimus dorsiOrigin: lumbodorsal fascia and posterior ribsInsertion: linea alba and pelvisAcion: compresses and retains the viscera and acts with the rectus abdominis to form a flexible ventral and lateral body wall
hepatic portal system
carries blood from capillaries into the mesenteries small intestine spleen and stomach pancreas and liver
muscles on the dorsal side shaped like a trapezoid
spinotrapezuis
Chytridiomycota reproductive featrues
motile spores with flagella and motile gametes
Phylum Foraminifera consists of
forearms (kinda looks like a snail)
transverse fission
cell pinches itself and it becomes two celles. Asexual reproduction
used to accommodate a litter or more than one offspring
duplex uterus
squamous epithelial cells
irregular and flat, one layer, line the lungs and kidneys
Biceps Branchii
located on the anterior surface of the humerusorigin: scapulainsertion: radiusaction: flexes lower arm
Pelage
the hairy coat that covers most of the rats body
Sagittal Plane
Divides the body into left and right halves; two dimensional plane parallel to the anterior posterior axis and parallel to the dorsal ventral axis
How do fungus reproduce?
gametes are produced by mitosis and cell differentiation. Meiosis produces spore producing structures. When opposing strands come together on a fungus, the cytoplasms fuse to make a dikaryotic stage. Then you have karyogamy.
What makes up a protist?
Anything that doesn't fit somewhere elsemicroscopic, unicellular, eukaryotic
Triceps Branchii
located on the sides and back of the upper armOrigin: Humerus and scapulaInsertion: elbow (olecranon)Action: extends the lower arm
small yellow glands in fat on top of the kidneys
adrenal glands
The sections of the vertebral column
cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral and caudal vertebrae
Ciliates are known for
having up to a dozen nuclei, but they are usually divided into one big one or a macronucleus and then they have a micronucleus
the appendicular skeleton is composed of
the pectoral girdle and the pelvic girdle
Dinoflagellates
Volvox
Chlamydomonas
asci
Lichen
Zygosporangium
Vorticella
Cholorphyta
Nares
Nostrails
internal organs
viscera
lower jaw
mandible
Phylum Pheophyta
brown algae
Phylum Rhodophyta
Red Algae
Posterior
towards the tail
Cranial
towards the head
Phylum Rhizopoda consists of
Ameobas
Phylum Ciliphora consists of
ciliates
protractors
move an appendage forwards
Digitigrade
walks on tip toes
examples of dinoflagellates
ceratium and peridinium
touch yet flexible connective tissue
fascia
inner margin of stomach
lesser curvature
Types of Red algae
sea weed. Kerigean
epithelial tissue
protects underlying tissues from dehydration and damage provides a selectively permeable barrier provides sensory surfaces and secretes fluids
Plantigrade
walks on all of their feet
iliac arteries
pelvic area and hind extremities
Acromiotrapezius
central muscle of the trapezius groupOrigin: cervical vertebraeInsertion: ScapulaAction: moves scapula dorsally
omentia
thin membranes extending from the visceral peritoneums and connect organ to organ
Slime Molds
pulsate slowly, the structure is called the plasmodium NOT THE GENUS. Eat through phagocytosis
zygomycota reproductive features
resistant zygosporangium as sexual stage
Tripanisomes
exist outside of the blood cells, undulating membrane. at least one flagella. African sleeping sickness and chagas disease
membraneous curtain of tissue that hangs from the stomach and contains lymph nodes, blood vessels and fat
greater omentum
pronators
rotate palm or bottom of foot downwards
first visible artery branching from the aorta
brachiocephalic artery
guards the entrace to the stomach
cardiac sphincter
bones form in thin concentrated layers called
lamellae
Distal
towards the end of an appendage farthest away from the body
axial skeleton
the skull and the vertebral column
Phylum Euglenida
Cell wall made of proteins, flexible. Can switch between autotrophic and heterotrophic
type of brown algea
Fucus (not microscopic or unicellular). Many are large organisms
Flagellates are
Parasitic, The most common genus is trypanosoma, they are disease causers, undulating membrane. Looks like a dorsal fin on fish
delivers blood to the small intestines and intestinal mesenteries
renal arteries
Typical Stratified layers
upper squamous, middle cuboidal and bottom columnar
Frontal Plane
divides the body into dorsal and ventral halves: two dimensional plane parallel to the anterior posterior axis and perpendicular to the dorsal ventral axis
carries blood through the lungs for oxygenation and back to the heart
pulmonary circulation
muscles are arranged on the skeleton
antagonistic pairs (opposing)
carries urine from the bladder to the urethral orifice
urethra
Latissiumus Dorsi
posterior to and partially covered by the spinotrapeziusOrigin: thoracic and lumbar vertebraeInsertion: medial side of the humerusAction: moves humerus dorsocaudad
Basidiomycota reproductive features
sexual spores borne externally on club shaped structures called basidia
Phylum Zygomycota life cycle
traditional fungi life cycle. After fertilization forms zygospores/zygosporangium (the wings thing)
ascomycota reproductive systems
sexual spores borne internally in sacs called asci. Looks like hairy tubular things
systemic circulation
moves blood through the body after it has left the heart
cuboidal or columnar
fuller than squamous and shaped as their names imply. THey line the respiratory and intestinal tracts
brown glands located to the right and helf of the urinary bladder
seminal vesicles
the bones of the posterior appendages (hind legs) attach to
the pelvic girdle
supinators
rotate the palm or bottom of a foot upward
Gastrocnemius
forms the bulk of the calf muscle in the lower legorigin: distal end of femurinsertion: hell (calcaneus) by means of the tendon of achillesaction: extends foot
Bicep femoris
two bundles; located on the side of the thighOrigin: ischiumInsertion: distal portion of femur and proximal portion of tibiaActions: abducts the thigh and flexes the shank
Ciliates reproduce by
they have a sexual process, but they do not reproduce through the sexual process (conjugation). Instead after conjugation, they go through an asexual process and reproduce (binary fission)
Six anatomical regions of the rat
Cranial (head), Cervical (neck), Pectoral (where the forelegs attach), Thorax (chest), Abdomen (belly), and Pelvic (hide legs attach)
what makes green algea?
cholorphyll a and b, starch is the storage product, cell wall of cellulose
gastric splenic and mesenteric veins
drain the digestive system and unite to form the hepatic portal vein
the celiac artery turns into
the hepatic arter (liver) the gastric artery (stomach) and the splenic artery (spleen and pancreas)
Four parts to the liver
Median: cystic lobe on top of the organ, cleft in its central partLeft lateral lobe: large and covered by the stomachRight lateral lobe: partially divided into an anterior and posterior lobule, smaller than left lateral lobe, hidden by medium lobeCaudate lobe: small folds around the esophagus and stomach, appears to be in two small sections seen when liver is raised
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