Bio 81 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
protien synthesis
lying face down
Innate Immunity
Non-Specific response
populations of undifferentiatedcells that retain the ability to undergo mitosisand produce new cells
genes from two donors
3. Lipid-linked proteins
Transmembrane proteins
Posterior pituitary
Extension of the hypothalamus
Nodes of Ranvier
Gaps in Myelin
Membrane Permeability
•Diffusion through lipid bilayer–Nonpolar, hydrophobic, lipid-soluble substances diffuse through lipid layer•Diffusion through channel proteins–water and charged, hydrophilic solutes diffuse through channel proteins in membrane•Cells control permeability by regulating number of channel proteins or by opening and closing gates
kingdom protista phylumEx: golden agae
“other feeders” organisms that acquire building-block compounds form other organisms
- Heterotrophs
Do bony fishes have swim bladders?
interactions in which two organisms use the same resorses and those resoreses are not enough to supply their combined needs
(-/- interaction )
smooth muscle
composed of spindle-shaped cells lacking striations
found in walls of digestive trat, arteries, and other internal organs
involuntary control
Define organelles
Small subcellular particles found within the cell
adhesive glycoproteins
bind components of tissues together
Antidiuretic hormone is produced in the
94. The most important hormone that regulates calcium ions in the body is ________
a specialized, usually spherical mass of protoplasm encased in a double membrane, and found in most living eukaryotic cells, directing their growth, metabolism, and reproduction, and functioning in the transmission of genic characters.
a representation of a theory or process
abnormal alignment of one or both eyes
Define Systematics
A discipline focused on classifying organisms and determining their evolutionary relationships.
Large nonmotile egg and small motile sperm
Learning: Cognition
-recognition and manipulation of facts about the world-ability to form concepts and gain insights-observational learning: very high level of learning
broca's area
generates motor program for larynx, tongue, cheeks and lipsaffective language area lesions produce
social behavior
interaction between 2 or more animals
Human blood types are an example of___
A large assembly of small organic molecules which link up using covalent bonds.
organisms with out rigid cell walls living in hpertonic/hypotonic environment must be able to control water balance
what you're genes are... the recipe (AA, Aa, aa, ...)
variable that is not changed in an experiment
DNA polymerase
adds nucleotides to an existing strand (can only add to 3' end)
a gene at one locus alters the phenotypic expression of a gene at a second locus. (one gene controls multiple traits)
Transition state
combination of old and new bonds created by enzymes
The 17th century double bind that led to the Scientific Enlightenment comes from the assumptions(a) The world is knowable by humans and humans need true knowledge in order to know how to live(b) The world is ever changing and therefore one cannot represen
one of a group of yellow pigments isolated from plant/animal sources
Partial AIS
1 to 3 in 130,000 live births
cell surface protiens
protiens within the plasma membrane of a cell
Arctic Tundra
very low temp, high variation short growing seasonlow precip w/ low variation low diversity, biomass, productivity low lying plantspermafrosthigh insect abundance
canyons are the result of erosion and sedimentary rocks containing marine fossils are caused by erosion on the land carrying particles to the ocean which bury marine organisms
What keeps a plant's leaves stiff and rigid?
Osmotic pressure
Week One
Cell Wall (plant only)
provides support, limits water loss, protection
James Watson and Francis Crick
-combined Wilkin's and Franklin's information with their knowledge of how complex molecules bond together
-proposed a model for the structure of DNA
-DNA is in 2 strands
-phosphates of one bond to sugar of another
-2 strands are held together by hydrogen bonds
Hydrogen Bonds
forms when a hydrogen atom from on polar molecule becomes electrically attracted to an electronegative atom
doubling time
The time it takes (usually in years) for the quantity of something growing exponentially to double. It can be calculated by dividing the annual percentage growth rate into 70.
What is commensalism?
One organism benefits, but the other does not.
What is the first portion of the small intestine called?
the duodenum
What groups of animals are in the Class Oligochaeta?
earthworms and leeches
6 potential control points in eukaryotic cell
(1) chromatin remodeling (2) transcription initiation (3) RNA processing (4) mRNA stability (5) translation (6) post-translational modification of proteins
Van der Waals forces
a slight attraction when molecules are closely together
5 Characteristics of Science
1. Guided and explained by natural law 2. Testable against empirical world 3. Conclusions are tentative 4. Objective and rational 5. Self-correcting
Why shouldn't we release genetically modified food?
Most loci are pleitropic (Almost all are pleitropic): they effect more than one trait. Because many loci that code for one characteristic also code for another. The results can not be predicted.
-1st to create a comprehensive system of philosophy
-What are the 3 Divisions?
What is the pathway of electron flow in the ets?
NADH+H--> NADH Dehydrogenase --> Flavoprotein -->ironsulfurprotein --> coenzymeQ -->partially reducedstate --> Cytochromes bc1 to c --> Cyt a --> oxygen
importance of mutation to evolution
Over the long term, is a very important to evolution because it is the original source of genetic variation that serves as the raw material for natural
AMINO ACIDS: What is the character of a nonpolar side chain?
Hydrophobic side chains consist almost entirely of C and H atoms. Theses amino acids tend to form the inner core of soluble proteins, buried away from the aqueous medium. They play an important role in membranes by associating with the lipid bilayer.
What is the difference between white matter and gray matter?
White matter- areas of the brain or spinal cord that have lots of myelinated fibers (matter)Gray matter- areas of the brain or spinal cord that do not have fibers that are myelinated (no matter)contains mainly cell bodies and unmyelinated fiber.
The "great Beginning" of Hellenism of the second stage of the Greek enlightenment expressed by educated males in city-states of the Hellenic world:(a) Was the emergence of philosophies: Epicureanism, Stoicism, and neo-Platonism(b) Was the rebirth phase to
(e) All three: a, b, and c are true
reducing agent
koch's postulates
associationisolationtransmissionisolation from new victim









 chains of sugars connected by a glycosidic bond
Bacteria Chromosome
free floating
Vesiciles form what
Golgi Body
XXY chromosomal abnormality
Klinefelter's syndrome
Statistics that describe population size, age structure, density, distribution, and other factors.
Subatomic particle with negative charge. Found outside the nucleus.

Robert Hooke


the first person to     

- observed the
(reproductive structures) of molds in his


” in 1665.
fruiting bodies describe microorganisms
 first discovered microorganisms and described them in a book called Micrographia
Nephrons are always close to....
Biogeography; Wallace's Line in Pacific --> shifting continents
The spatial arrangement of individuals within a population.
Reticullar Fibers
-Metwork of interwoven fibers (stoma)
Chitin, cellulose and cartilage are examples of what kind of carbohydrate?
major regional ecological community of plants and animals; usually corresponds to plant ecologists and European ecologists classifications of plant formations and life zones
transmits impulses from their tips towards the rest of the neuron
roundworms: aquatic, soil, moist plant tissues, inside animals: cylindrical bodies with cuticles: herb/predators/parasites, free-living eg. c.elegans, pinworms, hookworms, ascarids, enoplida -very bad diseases
what kind of saccharide is lactose?
Which of the following provides evidence that vertebrates evolved from a common ancestor? A. homologous structures B. the common development of pharyngeal pouches in an embryonic stage C. the presence of similar genes D. similarities in prote
The process of releasing chemical energy.
A genetically identical copy of an individual.
how many chromosomes does each sperm in a pea plant contain
Exposure to body fluids
sexually transmitted diseases, mono, hepatitis B and C, common cold, influenza
What are deep-sea tubeworm (Riftia)
–Adults gutless–Sulfur-oxidizing bacteria synthesize organic compounds used by worm–Found near hydrothermal vents
organisms that swim strongly enough to move against the current.
   an organism that uses an inorganic substrate (usually of mineral origin) to obtain reducing equivalents for use in biosynthesis ...
Created by Carl Linnaues, gave us order and common language to study diversity of species.
Explain the function of pubic hair.
traps pheremones
Golden Algae, Brown Algae,
yellow and brown cartinoid/photosynthetic. brown cartinoid, compelx multicellular
study of patterns of distributions of pops, species + communities
lower, average rate of extinction, representing the normal loss of some species that always occurs
background extinctions
a mature sexual reproductive cell, as a sperm or egg, that unites with another cell to form a new organism.
fatty acid
type of lipid; a long, straight hydrocarbon chain with a carboxyl group attached at one end
"In the standard chest x-ray exam, what is included to allow viewing of the lung tissue behind the heart"
lateral view
Cadaver dissection
Cutting and separation of tissues to reveal their relationships
True or false: covalent bonds can only occur within a molecules, not between molecules
a permanent alteration of a DNA base sequenc
Slime Molds
Slime molds- they are decomposers, 2 types; Plasmodial and Cellular.
Seeds of some plants do not germinate when planted in moist soil because that have a heard, thick seed coat that prevents water and oxygen from entering the seed. The general name for failure of mature seeds to germinate is
Observation 2
Populations tend to remain stable in size
advantage of higher SA:VOl?
more efficientmore exchangemore area exposed to environ
Alternate forms of the same gene (eg CTA vs CGA). Each person has one gene for each trait from each parent
Type III
High death rate early on. (What types of animals?)
there are more species of (blank) than any other type of animal
a. flatworms
b. arthopods
c. annelids
d. chordates
b. arthopods
delta H is what/
enthalpy is represented by what symbol?
? = 2 parts: Mitosis (nuclear division) and cytokinesis (division of the cytoplasm)
Hans Adolf Krebs
Nobel prize in physiology and medicine for (1953) for the discovery of the citric acid cycle
the amount of living matter in a given habitat, expressed either as the weight of organisms per unit area or as the volume of organisms per unit volume of habitat.
What kinds of plants form relationships with nitrogen fixing bacteria that live in the soil?
Many species of plants- ex:roses
water ingested
2 - 2.5 L of water (food & drink)ingested. secretions of tract contribute 6–7 L more only about 150 mL leaves in fecal waste
Chapter 1 CellCV
A cell is a collection of living matter enclosed by a barrier that seperates it from its surroundings.
What are energy pyramids?
Energy pyramids are diagrams that show how much energy flows through each trophic level in a community.
1.What are the products of cellular respiration?
Co2 and H20 and ATP
Lecture Date: MON, 7.24.06: Subject: MITOSIS List the 6 processes that occur during the PROPHASE stage
Lecture Date: MON, 7.24.06: Subject: MITOSIS1) CHROMATIN (stretched DNA strands) condenses (collects together)2) Nucleoli disappear3) Nuclear envelope fragments4) Centrioles separate to polar opposites5) Duplicate CHROMATIDS (small sections of chromatin) become visible and create pairs around a central CENTROMERE6) SPINDLE FIBERS (microtubules) develop from the poles and grow towards each other
What kind of patients may not exhibit a fever in the presence of infection
patients with poor immune systems
during fertilization, which 2 items combine 2 4m a zygote
2 haploid cells from da previous generation
Why do Angiosperms often have colorfuland showy flowers?1. It makes us happy.2. It makes our mothers and girlfriendshappy.3. They need to attract insects and birds for pollination.
3. They need to attract insects and birds for pollination.
What is so special about the black locust tree?
What tree has nitrogen-fixing bacteria on its radial root system letting it grow in poor soil?
What is harmful mutation? What are examples?
it is detrimental or even lethal to the individual. Hemophelia.
27) How do the daughter cells at the end of mitosis and cytokinesis compare with their parent cell when it was in G1 of the cell cycle?
*D) The daughter cells have the same number of chromosomes and the same amount of DNA.
8 weeks- birth
non competitive inhibitors are _____________ inhibitors
long, fingerlike extensions from growth cones of axons and dendrites
What molecule transfers energy b/w catabolic and anabolic reactions
nerve growth factor
The first identified neurotrophin
The reaction center, light-harvesting complexes, and primary electron acceptors that cluster in the thylakoid membrane form what?
the photosystem
a cell with o single chromosome set
Hebb synapse
a synapse strengthened by simultaneous activity
delta waves
apparent in stages 3 and 4
A biochemist isolates and purifies molecules needed for DNA replication. When she adds some DNA, replication occurs, but each DNA molecule consists of a normal strand paired with numerous segments of DNA a few hundred nucleotides long. What has she probab
DNA ligase
Mass Number
sum of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom
Hydrogen Bond
forms when a hydrogen atom covalently bonded to one electronegative atom is also attracted to another electronegative atom
Describe prophase I of meiosis
Chromatin condenses. Chromosomes "cross over" and are rearranged. Spindle forms
retrograde degeneration
deterioration of the cell body and remaining axon stub produced by damage to an axon. Cell will atrophy and postsynaptic cell will atrophy.
EEG recordings
alternate between beta wave and alpha wave patterns of brain activity
A photon of which of these colors would carry the most energy?
Chemical Equilibrium
In a chemical reaction, the state in which the rate of the forward reaction equals the rate of the reverse reaction, so that the relative concentrations of the reactants and products do not change with time.
What is metabolism
the totality of an organisms chemical reactions
progenitor cells
stem cells in the ventric layer that give rise to either additional progenitor cells or migrating neural cells.
K- complex
brief burst of brain activity that is seen only in stage 2, also seen in response to unexpected stimuli
In mechanism, photophosphorylation is most similar to
oxidative phosphorylation in cellular respiration.
Define exergonic
A net release of energy. Change G is less than 0
Molecular oxygen is produced during _____.
the light reactions of photosynthesis
An organism called a plasmodial slime mold is one huge cytoplasmic mass with many nuclei. Explain how this "monster cell" could arise.
Mitosis occurs repeatedly without cytokinesis
Describe a specific spontaneous even in terms of the free energy of the initial and final states
In a spontanious reactions, freee energy is given up in the final state
Both mitochondria and chloroplasts _____.
use a hydrogen ion (proton) gradient to produce ATP
Describe Metaphase I of meiosis
tetrads aligned in the middle of the cell. spindle attaches to the centromeres
What is the first law of thermodynamics? Give an example in a living system
Energy can bo transferred and transformed but not created of destroyed.EX: a plant consume light energy and uses that energy to grow
Which description of DNA replication is correct?
Helicases separate the two strands of the double helix, and DNA polymerases then construct two new strands using each of the original strands as templates.
Higher levels of per and tim inhibit clock,
resulting in decreased production of per and tim
Wht is the activation energy and how does it affect the rate of a reaction
Ther energy for starting a reaction that is needed to break bonds in the reactant molecule. This speeds the rate of reaction.
The role of DNA polymerases in DNA replication is to _____.
attach free nucleotides to the new strand
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