Bio 84 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
fermentation
...
enthno-
race
people
antibody generating?
antigen
nuclues
inside a cell
Schleiden and Schwann
1839
an observable heritable feature
diencephalon- the forebrain
thalamus (4/5ths)hypothalamusepithalamus
Sperm develop in the
testes
Functions of Nervous tissues
-Sensory input
community
interacting populations in a particular area
muscles
changes result in contraction, shortening of the cell
Tonoplast.
Found in plant cells only.
MPF
maturation promoting factor, can trigger G2 to transition to Mphase, located in the cytoplasm
frog oocyte experiment
exploitation competition
competitors interact indirectly by mutually reducing resource levels. superior competitor will either deplete resource level faster or will be able to sustain a positive growth at lower resource levels.
Phosphate group examples
Glycerol phosphate
ATP: adenosine triphosphate
Tight Junctions
Cell-cell attachments composed of specialized proteins in the plasma membranes of adjacent cells. The proteins line up and bind to each other like the stitching of a quilt.
Common name for Lipids
fats and oils
soma
–the control center of the neuron–also called neurosoma, cell body, or perikaryon
If the inflammatory response is damaged or has an entry of microbes, what releases from the mast cells and basophils?
histamine
chloroquine is a synthetic analog of
quinine
self-incompatibility
the most common anti-selfing mechanism in flowering plants--the ability of a plant to reject its own pollen and sometimes the pollen of closely related individuals.
codon
sequence od 3 nucleotides for particular amino acid
mutations
changes in the nucleotide sequence of DNA
VC
Vital capacity - maximal amount the patient can exhale after taking deepest breath possible
Contrast
The ability to visualize a cellular structure based on how different it looks than adjacent structures.
Protists
Eukaryotes that are not fungi, plants, or animals
- Primarily unicellular organisms but include a few multicellular species
metabolism
the sum total of all chemical reactions in cells
Glucagon hormone
Causes break down of stored carbohydrates and triglycerides
GENOTYPE
an organisms gentic makeup, or the alleles for a specific locus (the genetic component- i.e. BB, Bb, bb)
the process in which the cytoplasm splits after a clevage furrow and two daughter cells form
Cytokenisis
Solvent
the substance in which the solute dissolves in
heat/thermal energy
kinetic energy associated with random movement of atoms and molecules
glycolysis
the metabolic breakdown of glucose to pyruvate
DENATURATION OF PROTEINS
disrupts hydrogen bonds, changes the shape of proteins and makes them nonfunctional.
landscape ecology
deals with arrays of ecosystems and how they are arranged in a geographic region
batesian mimicry
a palatable speices may mimic an unpaltable or noxious one
 
 
at the ___ checkpoint, the cell makes a commitment to mitosis by checking to make sure it has all the proteins necessary to make it through mitosis.
G2/M
oligodendrocytes and schwann cells
produce myelin shesths on axon
simple fruit
develops from a single carpel (or several fused carpels) of one flowerex: pea, lemon, peanut
cap added to 5' after transcription
• specialized nucleotide, 7-methylguanylate = modified GTP• protects RNA from degradation by hydrolytic enzymes• provides recognition site for ribosomal binding
What is Parasitism?
benefits one species, harms the other. Parasite and host...ex. flea and dog, lice and chimps, bacteria and people, tapeworms and people, ...coevolution involved. Over time, becomes less harmful.
sexual reproduction
elements separate and only one is passed down to the offspring
Accessory Nerve
Looks like a ladder, provides motor intervention to sternocleidomastoid and trapezius
dominant
the one of a pair of alternative alleles that masks the effect of the other when both are present in the same cell or organism.
Dominant Lethal Alleles
possible, but rare because all usually die before reproducing ex: Huntington's disease - doesn't cause death until later in life. S&S: progressive, uncontrolled twitching and movements, irritability or depression.
Cytolysis
Is the bursting of a cell because the turgor(osmotic) pressure is too high. This results because water is moving into the cell 10% salt 60% salt90% water 40% waterHypo HyperWater moves inside cell! (BURST)
Short chain of 3 or so monomers. 3 chains for membrane function
Olgisaccharide
alleles r various 4ms of a [email protected] a given locus on sister chromatids
gene
Rough endoplasmic reticulum
rough has ribosomes attached and used to make proteins
realized niche
actual niche the organism is able to occupy in presence of competitors
Trophic Level
each step in a food chain or food web
Mendel's Conclusiong from Monohybrid crosses
 
Particulate theory of inheritance
inheritance is determined by discrete factors- now we call them genes
each individual has 2 alleles (alternate versions of a gene) for each character/trait
1 allele is inherited from each parent (alleles segregate into gametes) Law of segregation
How does ATP provide the chemical energy to drive many endergonic reactions?
loses a phosphate group
Select the correct definistion about tissue grafts
Isografts are between identical twins.
Genetically Modified Foods: They’re Here…
–In United States, 54% soybeans, 48% cotton, 25% of all corn are GM.–Most contain Bt gene, with no harm.Bacteria gene that produces a protein that kills bugs–Reduced chemical insecticide use on cotton in the Southeast by 72%.–Suggested use with buffer zone to prevent development of resistance.
da major "pay off" in aerobic respiration comes w/da completion of _____ which generates da greatest # of ATP compared 2 odda phases of cellular respiration
da e- transport phosphorylation
Three stages of cellular metabolism
1. breakdown of food molecules into smaller molecules (digestion, occurs mostly outside the cell)-proteins to amino acids-polysaccharides to sugars-lipids to fatty acids and glycerol
the primary difference between the small-population approach and the declining-population approach to biodiversity recovery is
S-PA is interested in bolstering the genetic diversity of a threatened population rather than the environmental factors that caused the population's decline
A sugar molecule takes the following path after it passes from the small intestine
hepatic portal vein, liver, vena cava
What are the major differences in the metaphase to anaphase transition in meiosis compared to mitosis?
In meiosis the chromosomes are originally connected at the chiasmata and there are 2 homologues. In mitosis the sister chromosomes remain separate. MTs attach only on one side in meiosis and on two sides in mitosis. Sister chromosomes stay together in meiosis, but homologues (bivalents) are pulled apart as chiasmata slide to ends. In mitosis the sister chromsomes are pulled apart.
"With the QRS axis, what is the normal mean axis "
somewhere between 0 and 90 degrees
Do NADH and FADH lose or gain energy in the electron transport chain?
They lose energy until the electrons are passed to oxygen, forming water.
phenomenon
natural event
mutagens
chemical/physical agent that interacts with DNA to cause a mutation, some interfere with DNA replication by inserting themselves
reproduce
make another organism like itself
biology
the scientific study of life
introns
noncoding, intervening sequence of nucleotides between coding regions
Histone
small protein that DNA wraps around
biodiversity
the total number and relative abundance of species, the variability of their genes and the different ecosystems in which they live
natural selection
process that made modification/ adaptation possible
genes
specific information for how the organism is to be ordered, made of DNA
transcription factors
regulatory protein molecule that binds to DNA and stimulates transcription of specific genes
missense
common type of mutation, base-pair substitution in which new codon makes sense in that it still codes for an amino acid
Promoter
Specific nucleotide sequence in DNA that binds RNA polymerase and indicates where to start transcribing RNA
transposons
genetic element that moves from one location to another in a genome
conclusion
scientists must analyze the data to see if hypothesis is supported or not
hypothesis
a possible explanation for a natural event, must be tested
Transcription
synthesis of RNA on a DNA template
Exons
coding region of eukaryotic gene, can only be expressed when introns are removed
base-pair substitution
type of point mutation; the replacement of one nucleotide and its partner in the complementary DNA strand by another pair of nucleotides
carrier
individual who has one copy of the allele for a recessive disorder and does not exhibit symptoms
inductive reasoning
occurs whenever a person uses creative thinking to combine isolated facts into a cohesive whole
mRNA
type of RNA synthesized from DNA that attaches to ribosomes in the cytoplasm and specifies the primary structure of protein
Alternative RNA splicing
type of regulation at the RNA-processing level in which different mRNA molecules are produced from the same primary transcript, depending on which RNA segments are treated as exons and which as introns
Transfer RNA
RNA molecule that functions as an interpreter between the protein and nucleic acid by taking an amino acid and recognizing the appropriate condons in the mRNA
RNA splicing
removal of noncoding introns of the RNA molecule after initial synthesis
biosphere
the zone of air, land, and water at the surface of the Earth where organisms exist
P site
one of a ribosome's 3 binding sites for tRNA, holds the tRNA carrying the growing polypeptide chain
tumor- suppressor genes
gene that codes for a protein that stops cell division in particular situations
Template strand
One of 2 DNA strands that serves as a template for ordering the sequence of nucleotides in an RNA transcript
omni
all
aster
star
high ph=alkaliphiles
>9
What is ADP?
Adenosine di-phosphate
first taxa on earth
bacteria
Vehicles
inanimate materials or objects involved in pathogen transmission. A single source containing pathogen can contaminate a common vehicle that causes multiple infections. Living transmitter of a pathogen. Most are arthropods or vertebrates.
plasmodial slime molds move by
pseudopodia
Singlet Oxygen
Highly reactive molecular oxygen
Chemoreceptors
attractants and repellants - special proteins that bind chemicals and transmit signals to the other components of the chemo-sensing system
an organism that utilizes the reactants (CO2+4H2S) converting them to sugar molecules has what type of respiratory?
aerobic
Lymphogranulomia Venereum (B)
caused by Chlamydia trachomatis
Antibiogram
Report of antibiotic susceptibility of a bacterium.
Sterilization
The removal of all microorganisms, including endospores.
Lypholization
Freezing a substance and sublimating the ice in a vacuum; also called freeze-drying.
What is produced in the dark reaction?
Glucose.
Incubatory carrier
individual who is incubating the pathogen in large numbers but is not yet ill
the packaging and distribution center of the cell
golgi apparatus
3 types of prokaryote recombination
transformation, transduction, conjugation
Biphenols
A derivitive of phenol that contain two phenolic groups connected by a bridge (bi)
Catalase
An enzyme that breaks down hydrogen peroxide
Recent discoveries of microscopic fossils have extended the known history of life to about
2 billion years ago
What is tumble?
random turning or tumbling movements made by bacteria when they stop moving in a straight line.
what metabolism does an animal who can utilize the reactants (CO2+4H2S) converting them to sugar molecules
chemosynthetic
Lag phase
The time interval in a bacterial growth curve during which there is no growth.
Facilitated Diffusion:Proteins form channels that allow specific substances to pass through the membrane. Does not require energy.
Gated Ion Channels:Protein channels that open or close in response to stimuli such as neurotransmitters.. When they are open, they act like Facilitated Diffusion.
what is a sporangium?
vegetative cell that holds an endospore
Plasmolysis
Loss of water from a cell in a hypertonic environment
What is Faciliated Diffusion?
Proteins form channels that allow specific substances to pass through the membrane which makes it easier for them to diffuse.
Calcitriol 1) stmulates bone deposition in body tissues 2)stimulates calcium absorption by the digestive tract 3)is secreted by the liver 4)All choices are correct
2) stimulates calcium absorption by the digestive tract
Decimal reduction time
The time (in minutes) required to kill 90% of a bacterial population at a given temperature; also called D value.
Darwin's book in which he described his views on evolution is
On the Origin of Species
What is a communicable disease?
An infectious disease that can be transmitted from person to person. The manifestations of an infetious or communicable disease can range from mild to severe to deadly on the agent and host.
Where does the light reaction occur?
The light reaction occurs on the membrane of the thylakoid disks.
Which of the following statements is not true about a hypothesis
it always withstands the test of experiments
"Prokaryote" cells have fewer ?? than "Eukaryotes"
?? cells have fewer "organelles" than ??
Where do the hydrogen atoms used in the dark reaction come from?
NADPH+ supplies the H+ needed for the dark reaction.
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