Biology Plants Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Anthophyta
angiosperms
Science
-Falsifiable
-Repeatable
-Predicts the outcome processes of life are not explainable by laws of physics and chemistry
blue-green algae
cyanobacteria
Longitudinal section
cutting vertically
sporophyte
spore producing plant
plasmogamy
fusion of plasmas
Sessile
Leaf without a petiole
Plants evolved from ______
cholorphyta
Stem or stalkof leaf
Petiole
Number of edible plants
300,000
allowing the spread of offspring
dispersal
amount of cotyledon in monocots
1
secondary growth
growth in plant width
Wood produced in early year
springwood
Petal
Colorful leaves that attract pollenators
Bioremediation
detoxify metal-contaminated soil by means of biological activity
perennials
plants that live for many years
attaches the anther to the stem
filament
subsidiary cells
Assist pore opening and closing
pollen grains
sperm of more advanced plants
embryo sac
eight nuclei surrounding the membrane
Chloroplast
organelle fpund in autotrophs carries out photosynthesis
Control the oppening of stomata.
Guard cells
endosperm  
food storing tissue which develops from the triploid nucleus
Cuticle
the covering of the outside leaf
monoCOTs and diCOTs are classified according to the number of ______
cotolyedons
roots
Absorb water and minerals from the ground. Anchor the plant in ground.
root system
anchors plant, absorbs water, stores food
seed coat
structure that serrounds the embryo keeping it from drying out
allelopathy
The production of chemicals by plants that inhibit the growth of neighbouring plants
second year biennial
taller stem, leaves, flowers, seeds
tracheids
hollow tube-like cells with thick cell walls
transpiration
evaporation of water from leaf when stomata open
xylem
made of lignin; transports water and dissolved nutrients unidirectionally
phototropism
when a plant moves toward the light
Which of the following is cultivated exclusively for human consumption?
Rice
phloem
the tissue that conducts food (sugars, amino acids, and mineral nutrients) in vascular plants
what is the dominant generation in vascular plants?
sporophyte
abscisic acid
hormone that promotes bud and seed dormancy and inhibits leaf abscission
Guard Cell
Pairs of cells that surround stomata and control their opening and closing.
the part on the plant between the nodes
internode
Courtship
type of behavior in which an animal sends out stimuli—such as sounds, visual displays, or chemicals—in order to attract a member of the opposite sex
type of vascular bundles in dicots
in a ring
bryophytes
need water to reproduce (not found in desert)
Style
The stalk where the diameter of the carpel narrows into
The first structure to emerge from the seed is the _________, which continues to grow and produces the primary root.
radicle
Dicot Stems
Vscular bundles arranged in a ring (outer perimeter)
Stigma
The sticky part of a flower's carpel that traps pollen.
What is the Microsporangium?
Diploid tissure where haploid microspores are formed through meiosis
macromolecule
a very large molecule, as a colloidal particle, protein, or esp. a polymer, composed of hundreds or thousands of atoms.
seed plants
rely on wind or animals to disperse offspring in form of a seed
12. Identify plant phylums by pictures and common characteristics
a. Review pictures
wind pollination
pollen is blwon and fertilizes an egg on another plant
Which of the following have flowers and fruits?
cacti and monocots
Shoots
Part of a vascular plant that is above ground
What can end dormancy?
- breaking seed coat- microorganisms in soil softening seed coat- fire releasing mechanical restraint- leaching away of chemical inhibitors
simple tissue
Tissue made up of only one type of cell
List characteristics of Eukaryotes.
have a true nucleus with multiple chromosomes,several specialized organelles,differentially permeable cell membrane,ex.organisms composed of euk cells: protozoa, fungi, algae, plants, animals. as
When do plants flower?
during a specific time of yearorwhen they reach a certain size or age
How can pollen be transferred to the stigma?
Birds, Insects, the wind.
What do some plants require to flower?
photoperiodic signals(certain day or night length)
Zone of cell Division
The Place In The Roots Of A Plant Where Cell Division And Multiplication Takes Place
What are 3 differences between monocots and dicots?
1. # of petals2. # of stamen3. arrangement of veins
How does the # of stamen on a monocot flower differ from the # on a dicot flower?
Monocot: Multiple of 3Dicot: Multiple of 4 or 5
Ginkgophyta
gymnosperms
Coconut-
liquid endosperm
•Integuments
cover the seed
pollen
sperm without flagellum
brassinosteroids
similar to auxin
Stamen
The pollen-producing reproductive organ of a flower, consisting of an anther and a filament.
what makes pollen?
the anther
epidermis
"skin" of the plant
mycorrhizae
symbiotic relationships between fungal hyphae and plant roots
has all 4 whorls
complete flower
amount of cotyledon in dicots
2
primary growth
growth in plant length
function of xylem
carries water up.
Stomata
Pores - co2 flows through
apoplast
cell walls and intercellular spaceswater and minerals can flow w/o crossing membranesallows ungregulated movement
•Embryotic sac
7 cells and 8 nuclei
source of energy for new embryo
nourishment
protoderm
Primary meristematic tissue that that gives rise to the epidermis
carpels
produce and shelter the female gametophytes
Companion
main type of cells for phloem
Plants with internal transport systems
vascular plants
sepal
enclose and protect unopened flower buds
Pistol
female reproductive system for a flower
seed coat
protects seed from drying out
rhizobium
a genus of bacteria that fixes nitrogen from the atmosphere.
eudicot seedlings
emerge from the soil hooked downward
palisade mesophyll
consists of densely packed cylindrical cells with many chloroplasts, only in dicots
protonema
mass of tangles green filaments in mosses
Abscission
the dropping of flowers, fruits, and leaves in response to environmental signals - in winter to decrease transpiration
pollen grain
two-celled structure that contains a cell that will divide to form sperm
double fertilization
two distinct fertilizations inside the embryo sac
chemo-autotroph
an autotroph that makes energy by oxidizing inorganic compounds
gravitropism
where plants sense gravity and send stems and leaves up and roots down.
Pollinisation
chez une fleur, le processus par lequel les graines de pollen de l’anthère atteignent le stigmate du pistil d’une plante différente.
deciduous
describes trees that lose their leaves at the end of the growing season
Lateral Meristems
allows the plants to grow wider
male parts of flower(stamen)
anther , filament pollen
hypocotyl
the part of a plant embryo directly below the cotyledons, forming a connection with the radicle.
Ovule
a small body that contains the female germ cell of a plant
separates the xylem and the phloem and produces all new cells
cambium
Dormancy
period of time during which a plant embryo is alive but not growing
type of plant that is vascular, no seeds (use spores)
pteriodphytes
Companion Cell
Phloem cells that surround sieve tube elements
The process of making a DNA molecule from a DNA template is called
replication.
tube cell
cell that develops into pollen tube; conveys male gametophytes to ovule
Receptacle
Part of the branch where the flower forms.
What are zoospores?
Flagellated spores found only in chytids
pericycle
the outermost cell layer of the stele in a plant, frequently becoming a multilayered zone.
seedless vascular plants
ferns & mosses; have flagellated sperm that swim to egg--requires water
11. Identify monocot and dicot stem cross sections (pictures)
a. Review pictures
two ways for gamete dispersal
wind pollination and animal pollination
Which of the following is the source of pasta?
Durum wheat
photorespiration
rubisco adds O2 instead of CO2 in the Calvin Cycle
How does P availability affect plants?
major constraint on growth
Phase Shift
To change the start times of a rhythm, but not its period.(Entrainment)
Oxygen is a byproduct of photosynthesis. When did it first begin to accumulate?
2.7 bya (billion years ago)
Where do carniverous plants live?
acidic, N poor placesaminals supply N
Diploids are which type of cell? (n or 2n)
2n (Body Cells)
What adaptive advantages are conferred by seed dormancy?
- survive dry/ cold better than plants- access to areas cleared by fire- not germinating in light ensure seed is in soil- wait until envrironmental conditions favorable
What are the four elements needed for photosynthesis?
Chlorophyll, Carbon dioxide, Water, Light
How do veins in a monocot leaf differ from those in a dicot leaf?
Monocot: Parallel VeinsDicot: Network of Veins
What is an example of a circadian rythm.
Flowers open in day and close at night. Amplitude affected by temp. Occurs even in all light or all dark.Turgor pressure causes beans to raise (day) or lower leaves (night). Cycle continues in all dark or all light.
Anthocerophyta
Non-vascular
cotyledons
seed leaves
Plantae
multicellular, eukaryotic, photosynthetic, cells walls made of cellulose, apical meristems, alternation of generations, pores, gametangia, dependent embryos, 290,000 species
karyogamy
fusion of nuclei
dermal tissue
outer protective covering
Ovary
where ovules are stored
diploid
two sets of chromosomes
bryophyte
Nonvascular plants. Includes mosses, liverworts, and hornworts
bark, carries manufactured foods down
phloem
sexual reproduction in flowers
angiosperm reproduction
carpel/ovary
encloses ovules, matures into fruit/trees
Part that produces the pollen.
anther
phytoextraction
removal of toxins from soil
what animals do
Feed, flee, flight, reproduce
procambium
A primary meristematic tissue that gives rise to primary vascular tissues
mosses
seedless nonvacular, belong to phyla Brypphyta
tracheophytes
contain vascular tissue. all except bryophytes and charophytes
Vascular
plants that have conducting vessels for transport systems
biennials
develop during their first growing season, die back, and come back strong a second season to produce flowers and seeds.
gravitoprism
roots exhibit positive, stems exhibit negative
Collenchyma
Have Larger Cell Walls, Plant Cells
Cycadophyta
really really old, resemble palm trees but actually bear cones, mostly from dino days
prop roots
Thick adventitious roots that grow from the lower part of the stem and brace the plant.
dermal tissue system
upper and lower epidermis, cuticle
dispersal
movement of organisms from one place to another, diffusion
gametophyte
haploid or gamete producing phase of an organism
Territories
An area that an individual or individuals defend and from which other members of the same species are usually excluded
angiosperm
seed plant whose seeds are in fruit
anthers
structures in which pollen grains are produced
sorus
cluster of sporangia on the underside of a fern frond
sepals
modified leaves that protect the bud; make up the calyx
Guard cells
control the size of the stomata.
vascular tissue
the specialized conducting tissue that is found in higher plants and that is made up mostly of xylem and phloem
Dicots
2 seeded leaves or more, net-veined leaves, root system primary and adventitious, about 50% of species are woody
approxamatly 90% of all living plants are _______.
angiosperms
transpiration pull
when water evaporates from the leaves of a plant, water is pulled up to replace what was lost.
apical meristems
regions of active cell division that are found at the tips of shoots and roots
these are the food factories of the plant that produce food used by the plant or stored for later use
leaves
Exogenous Rhythm
A rhythm that occurs only when external cues are present
the creation of a zygote and endosperm
double fertilization
What term is used to describe a population of genetically identical plants produced by asexual reproduction ?
Clones.
Vessel Element
In angiosperms, xylem cell that forms part of a continuous tube through which water can move
Which of the following produces seeds?
dicots and pines
root hairs
A thin hairlike outgrowth of an epidermal cell of a plant root that absorbs water and minerals from the soil
All seeds need water in order to ________.
sprout
metaphase
the stage in mitosis or meiosis in which the duplicated chromosomes line up along the equatorial plate of the spindle.
nucleus
a part of the cell containing DNA and RNA and responsible for growth and reproduction
photosynthesis
H2O + CO2 + sunlight = C6H12O6 + O2
5 types of seed dispersal
1. Wind
2. Animals
3. Insects
4. Water
5. Humans
Which of the following is part of the paleolithic diet?
Nuts
TROPISM
The growth of a plant in a specific direction in response to a stimulus
Water potential:
tendency for a solution to take up pure water from across a membrane
42. What is the outer covering of plants?
a. Dermal tissue
Which of the following has a dominant gametophyte in the life cycle?
mosses and liverworts
What provides the energy for pulling water up the plant?
the sun drives it
explain the steps of fertilization (5)
-pollination
-pollen grain will make a tube that will travel to the ovary
-pollen grain divide into 2 (mitosis) one grain fertilizes the egg the other fertilizes with the polar nuclei (2n diploid) thus making an endosperm (3N) food supply
-double fertilization
-ovule forms a tough seed coat
What are the effects of ethylene?
- promotes leaf abscission- ripens fruit- maintains apical hook of eudicot
6 molecules of NADPH are oxidized. They reduce the carbon compound creating 6 3GP molecules. 1 G3P molecule leaves, the other 5 G3Ps are reshuffled to regenerate original RuBP
final product of calvin's cycle (sugar)
What do gibberelins secreted by the embryo do?
trigger changes in aleurone layer in seed coat
What causes the tension in this model of water transport?
the diffusion of water vapor via the stomata
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