Biology Plants and Animals Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Chemo
Chemical
anterior
head
cnidocytes
stinging cells
Agnathans
jawless vertebrates(hagfish, lampreys), primitive, lack vertebrate, lack paired appendages: cartiilaginous skeleton; notochord throughout life, bottom-dwelling scavengers/blood-sucker parasites
photoperiod
length of sunlight
Pyrrophyta
dingoflagellates - bioluminescent
Nocturnal
Active at night.
Ectoderm
outside layer of gastula
Endogenous
Having an internal rhythm
lichens
represent symbiotic relationships between a fungus and a photosynthetic partner
sponge
multicellular heterotrophic animals with no cell walls and few specialized cells
Interspecific
Between two different species.
Echinodermata
are deuterostomes, radial cleavage, develope of the coelom from the archenteron, formation of the mouth at the end of the embryo opposite the blastopore
Angiosperm
Most diverse and geographically widespread of all plants, flowering plants, monocots: 1 embryonic seed leaf(lilies, palms, grasses, grain), dicots: 2 embryonic seed leaves(roses, peas, sunflowers), vascular tissue refinement: vessel elements/fiber cells
Marsupials
Mammals whose immature offspring complete their development in an external pouch.
ex: kangaroos, koalas, opossums
cnidarian
soft-bodied, carnivorous animals that have stinging tentacles arranged in circles around their mouths.
internode
regions in between the nodes
polyp
cylindrical body with armlike tentacles
gizzard
food ground into smaller pieces
apical meristem
Embryonic undifferentiated plant tissue in the tips of roots and in the buds of shoots that supplies cells for the plant to grow in length.
Basidiomycetes
club fungi-reproductive structure that resembles a club
Predation
An interspecific relationship where one individual is benefited and the other is harmed, eg a predator eats its prey, and a parasite is smaller and lives in or on its host.
Panarians
best know turbellarians, have eyespots and centralized nerve nets, regenerate, parasitic, fight to give sperm to another of there species
Mollusea
Mollusks have muscular foot for motion, mantle, include slugs, oysters and clams and octopuses and quids. most mollusks are marine, protosome, coelomates, free living
Mimicry
Deception by close resemblance to other organisms
Agonistic
Includes all aspects of conflict between members of the same species.
euglenophytes
plantlike protists that have two flagella but no cell wall
epidermal cell
outer covering of a plant
archegonia
Location of egg production in bryophytes.
antheridia
male gametangia. produce and release sperm into the environment.
cephalization
concentration of sense organs and nerve cells at the front of an animal's body
pupa
stage of complete metamorphosis in which an insect changes from larva to adult
plant
- multicellular eukayotes that have cell walls made up of cellulose. - develop from multicellular embryos and carry out photosynthesis using the green pigments chlorophyll a and b
Zygomycetes
common moulds, life cycle that includes a zygospore
plasmodia
Structure formed from acellular slime molds that fuse together to produce one big unit
oomycetes
Funguslike protists that thrive on decaying organic matter in water and some plant parasites on land
Auxin
A plant hormone that lengthens cells.
Gnathostomata, V
class of Aves, flight adaptations, feathers, toothless; one ovary, evolved from reptiles(amniote egg and leg scales); endothermic( 4-chambered heart), Archaeopteryx(stemmed from an ancestor that gave rise to birds
Leeches
Member of clas Hirudinea and phylum Annelida, blood sucking parasite
turbellarians
are nearly all free-living and mostly marine
Advent of seed
multicellular sporophytes embryo with food supply and protective coat;heterosporous(two types of spores): megaspores--> female gametophyte->egg; microspores--->male gamertophyte --> sperm
Nastic Responses
Reversible growth or turgor movement in response to a non directional stimulus
Effector
A structure which carries out a response to stimulus
Entrainment
Resetting an internal clock by a rhythmic environmental cue.
stomata
the small openings on the undersides of most leaves through which oxygen and carbon dioxide can move
stolons
Stemlike hyphae that runs along the surface of the food source
annuals
A flowering plant that completes its entire life cycle in a single year or growing season.
parenchyma
the primary tissue of higher plants composed of thin-walled cells that remain capable of cell division even when mature
root hairs
tiny hair like extensions that increase the surface area of the root
Darwin
theory of evolution - variation in population, environmentally selected. survival of the fittest.
petiole
the slender stem that supports the blade of a leaf
endoderm
innermost layer of the three primary germ layers
Dormancy
When seeds will not germinate unless certain conditions (such as cutting of the coat or a long period of cold) happen.
Habitat
The place or environment in which specific organisms live.
Arachnids
have six pair of appendages, the most anterior of which are the chelicerae, have abdomen and a cephalothorax
Bryophytes
Life cycle of moses and other, are dominated by the gametophytes stage, are represented today by three phyla of small herbaceous (nonwoody) plants, 1st to exhibit the embryonic condition, flagellated(water) sperm, no vascular tissue(imbibe water), no lignin(short stature), haploid gametophytes is the dominant generation
Ex: liverworts, phylum Hepatophyta, Hornworts, phylum Anthocerophyta, mosses, phylum Bryophyta
Triploblastic animals
have three germ layers, and body cavity may be absence or present
Neutral crest
group of embryonic cells near dorsal margins of closing neural tubes
monocots & dicots?
m)1 seed leaf,groups of 3,parallel veins,scattered bundles DI)2 seed leaf,groups of 4/5,branded veins,organized,tap root
Herbivory
When an organism relies on plants for food.
Sexual dimorphism
This is the difference in external form between male and females
protist
eukaryotes that are non members of the plantae, animalia or fungi kingdoms
rhyzoids
Parts of the hyphae that anchor a fungus to its source of nutrients
transpiration
the emission of water vapor from the leaves of plants
eyespot
Group of cells that can detect changes in the amount of light in the environment
endodermis
The innermost layer of the cortex in plant roots; a cylinder one cell thick that forms the boundary between the cortex and the vascular cylinder.
companion cells
phloem cells that are surrounded by sieve tube elements
chelipeds
first pair of legs bear chelipeds that are large claws modified to catch, pick up, crush and cut food
centipedes
segemented bodies, 1 pair of legs per segment, predators with a pair of venomous claws
mesoderm
the middle primary germ layer in an animal embryo, develops int o the notochord
Long-day plant
A plant that flowers with increasing day length, usually over 12 hours.
Zeitgeber
Time signal for a biological clock. Eg sunrise and sunset, temperature, tidal movement, day length.
squids
have siphon that causes a jet of water and allows them to swim quickly
Long day plant
A plant that flowers when photoperiod exceeds a critical value.
blastula
early stage of an embryo - hollow ball of cells
primary growth
type of plant growth that occurs at the tips of roots and shoots
body plan
in animals, a set of morphological and developmental traits that are integrated into a functional whole - the living animal
Territory
An area used by an animal for feeding or breeding, that the animal will defend.
cylindrical bodies of nematodes
cover by a tough coat called cuticle
What is phloem consisted of?
sieve tube elements and companion cells
Apical dominance
A tree where there is one main trunk and much smaller side branches. A bush is where all stems are equal.
Bilateral symmetry
has a left and right side and only one imaginary line can divide the animal into mirror-image halves
xylem & phloem tissue do what in plants?
1)carry water upward to plant 2)transport nutrients&carbohydrates from photosynthesis
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