Biology PLants test Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Anthophyta
Angiosperms
sepals
protect bud
Convergent Evolution
...
ferns
first vascular plants
Alkali Heath
Frankenia salina
Synapomorphy
shared derived characteristics.as
the female reproductive structure
pistil
pterophytes
require moisture to reproduce
heterospory
male and female spores
biennials
plants that live two years
flower
seed bearing structure in angiosperms
Gibberellins
plant hormone that stumulates growth
Angiosperms
Covered in seeds
Flowers
(seeds are inside)
Reproduce without water
Meiosis results in
four haploid cells.
MONOCOTS
1 cotyledon (seed leaf), parallel-veined leaves, primary vascular bundles scattered, pollen monosulcate, root system adventitious, floral parts in 3's
auxins
plant hormones that promote cell elongation
xylem
key cells; transport subsystem that carries water upward from the roots to every part of plant
stem
connects roots and leaves, carries water and nutrients
Monocot
Angiosperm whose seeds have one cotyledons
waxy layer that prevents water loss
cuticle
vascular tissue
transports water, mineral nutrients, and organic molecules between the roots and shoots
lichen
a symbiotic association between a fungus and an alga
Thylakoid.
flat, interconnected sacs found inside the chloroplast, where light energy is converted into chemical energy.as
What is the dominant recognizable stage in a bryophyte and that carries out most of the plant's photosynthesis?
Gametophyte.
Hydrotropism
Tropism that involves growing toward water
casparian strip
waxy, suberin containing structures that prevents movement around cells of the endodermis into the stele
stoma
lets plants exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide
Fiber
Long narrow cells made for structure and strength
cytoplasm
material between the cell membrane and the nucleus
herbaceous
a nonwoody plant composed of a relatively soft green tissue covered w/ a thin protective layer
Most plants get their energy through _____, but some are ________.
photosynthesis...parasites
usually brightly colored & fragrant to attract pollinators
petal
Megaphyll
Large leaves with branched veins (true leaves)
cuticle
one of the first adaptions of terrestrial plants; epidermis (skin) has waxes that act as waterproofing to prevent water loss
angiosperm
a flowering plant that produces seeds within a fruit
Guard Cells
cells surrounding the stomata that regulate the opening and closing of the pore.as
epicotyl
stem of seedling & first true leaves
(d) apical dominance
An evolutionary adaptation that increases exposure of a plant to light in a dense forest is A) lateral buds. B) intercalary meristems. C) absence of petioles. D) apical dominance. E) closing of the stomates.
Abscisic
Increases in concentration as the days become shorter in the fall, and temperature decreases.
tropism
any growth response that results in curvature of the whole plant towards or away from stimulus
.Lateral meristem
plant grows outward like a tree; secondary growth
seed
plant embryo and a food supply encased in a protective covering
shoot
part of a plant's body that grows mostly upward
What is the period of rest before germination occurs?
Dormancy
Tissue that produces new phloem, and xylem
Vascular tissue
Fruits that develop from a single flower with many separate carpels are called
aggregate fruits.
Incompatibility
In plants a situation in which a particular genetic combination is not viable.
Linear electron flow
the primary pathway, involves both photsystems and produces ATP and NADPH using light energy
shoot
the part of the plant that grows mostly upward
double fertilization
two sperm fusing with cells of the female gametophyte to make both a zygote and an endosperm
photoperiodism
a plant response that is linked to day and night length
Node
Point on a stem where a leaf is attached
Which of the following reduces fuel and soil erosion?
No till agriculture
Chloroplasts
The Organelle In The Leaf Of A Plant That Undergoes Photosynthesis To Give Food To The Plant
Describe soil horizon A
topsoilmost organic matter and living stuff heresand makes air spaceclay holds minerals and water
seeds offer a plant's offspring what four advantages?
protection, nourishment, plant dispersal, delayed growth
(e) central vacuole
What is the largest organelle in most mature living plant cells? A) dictyosome (Golgi apparatus) B) mitochondrion C) chloroplast D) nucleus E) central vacuole
What is gravitropism?
The process by which plants sense and respond to gravity. Orient stem, leaves to grow up and roots down even in darkness of soil.
Rice was cultivated in the _________ more than 10,000 years ago.
Yangtze and Yellow River Basins
52. What would stoma look like?
a. Opening between two bean shaped cells
What is the optimal pH for most crops? Why is this important?
6.5, affects availability of nutrients
the mesophyll in the leaf is made up of what two layers?
palisade layer (upper, more closely packed layer) and the spongy layer (lower, more loosely packed layer)
collemchyma
...
sporagnium
spore capsule
NADP+
carrys hydrogen
response to light
phototropism
Hummingbird Sage
Salvia spathacea
DERMAL
outive protecting covering
What does phloem transport?
food
Silver Dune Lupine
Lupinus spp.
Style
Middle part of pistil.
Cortical cells
•Root hair->infection-> nodule
the leaves and outer layers of nonwoody stems contain chloroplasts, and are modified for food storage (usually in the form of starch) in roots and the inner layers of stems and seeds.
internode
the space between two nodes
chytridiomycota
ubiquitous fungi that parasitize amphibians
hypocotyl
part of axis below cotyledons
palisade mesophyll
contain chloroplast for photosynthesis
Phycobilin
A group of water-soluble accessory pigments, including phycocyanins and phycoerythrins, which occur in the red algaae and cyanobacteria
rhizome
creeping or underground stem in ferns
sieve tubes
the conducting strands in phloem
pistil
produces seeds and contains an ovary
rhizomes.
-underground stems that produce roots on the lower surface and extend leaves and flower shoots above the ground.
-examples: 1) iris 2) lily of the vally.
Vascular Cambium
Lateral meristematic tissue that produces vascular tissues and increases the thickness of the stem over time
Which of the following contain phytoestrogens?
Soybean
RUBISCO
enzyme used to catalyze carbon fixation (found in stroma of chloroplast where calvin's cycle takes place)
chromatid
one of two identical chromosomal strands into which a chromosome splits longitudinally preparatory to cell division.
Pith
The ground tissue occupying the center of the stem or root within the vascular cylinder
female
style, stigma, ovary belong to the ____ flower.
rhizoid
small, hairlike threads of cells that help hold nonvascular plants in place
companion cells
provide proteins and other resources to the sieve-tube members
Filament
male flower part that connects the anther to the flower
Transpiration
The loss of water through its leaves
The outermost layer of a complete flower consists of the
sepals.
abscisic acid
a hormone that slows down growth
Vascular Plants
Plants with conducting tissues and true roots, stems, and leaves
What phyla are palm-like leaves found in?
Cycadophyta
Mesophyll
Middle layer of a leaf, generally consisting of cells containing abundant chloroplast, where photosynthesis occurs
Eustele
A stele in which the primary vascular tissues are arranged in discrete strands around a pith; typical of gymnosperms and angiosperms
phototropism
plant growth in response to light from one direction
vascular plant
a plant that has xylem and phloem
tropism
growth response of a plant to an external stimulus
ovary
flower part that contains one or more ovules
cavitation
when air bubble forms in the xylem; "when roses cry"
Active Transport.
-pumping of a molecule across a membrane, against its gradient.-requires the expenditure of energyas
Which of the following comes from a corm?
Taro
sepal
one of the outermost rings of modified leaves that protect the flower bud
Collenchyma Cells
Thicker primary cell wals. Live at maturity. Role in suppor of herbaceous plants.
What form of S so plants uptake?
sulfate (oxidized)
region of elongation
Region in root where root becomes longer.
Which of the following is a result of protein deficiency?
Kwashiorkor
chemotropism
the tendency of an organism or a part of an organism to grow toward or away from a chemical stimulus
What do some plants form to make new plants?
Seeds
Zonal soil- made in place- has horizons
Top soil
Sub soil- transitional
Parton material- texture and color
What are the similarities between gymnosperms and angiosperms?
Sporophytes & reproduce without water
What is a megaspore?
Haploid cell that grows into the female gametophyte including the egg nucleus
20. What are the different types of vascular tissue?
a. Xylem and phloem
3 CO2 and 9 ATP and 6 NAPH
calvin's cycle u sage
Give 2 reasons why seed dispersal is important to the seed
1. Less competition
2. Increases range
Why is the seed coat important ?
It forms a tough, outer protective layer.
How does abscisic acid aid reduce water loss?
- causes release of Ca ions from vacoules in gaurd cells- K channels are opened- water leaves the cell- gaurd cells sag- stomata close
/ 119
Term:
Definition:
Definition:

Leave a Comment ({[ getComments().length ]})

Comments ({[ getComments().length ]})

{[comment.username]}

{[ comment.comment ]}

View All {[ getComments().length ]} Comments
Ask a homework question - tutors are online