Bio Test 11 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
pom-
fruit
Zymogen
*proenzyme
carbohydrates
Polysachride: monosacride
lactic acid fermentation
...
satelite cells
uncertain function
Non-vascular Plants
Liverworts, mosses, hornworts
Precambrian
Made of 3 eons:
 
Hadean
Archaen
Proterozoic.
 
 
Major events:
 
Origin and Radiation of of Eukaryotes
First simple multicellular organisms
Origin and Radiation of Prokaryotes (photosynthesis --> O2 in atmosphere)
 
Erythema
redness of the skin
Peroxisome
Breakdown of fatty acids, detoxification of alcohol
Cytoplasm
A gelatinous, semi-transparent fluid that fills most cells.
phylogeny
evolutionary history of relationships among organisms
Studies animals and their habitats
Ecology
ferns, whisk ferns, horsetails
pterophyta, 13,000
electron shell
the average location of electrons
Describe Annelida!
aka segmented worms• segmentaion• closed circulatoryDigestive tract-PharynxDecomposers (earthworms)Polychaetes- Leeches
Artery
Takes blood away from the heart
cell wall
supports and protects the cell
Suspension
–defined by the following physical properties•particles exceed 100nm•too large to penetrate selectively permeable membranes•cloudy or opaque in appearance•separates on standing
Allosteric Regulation
protein w/ Fe core
carries/transports CO2 & O2 from one place to another. has 2 epitopes for O2 and 1 epitope for CO2
hemiparasites
photosynthesize but still need water from host
Bronchi
What do the bronchi branch into?
oxidation
process of oxidizing; the chemical combination of a substance with oxygen
Subphylum Vertebrata
All other animals with a backbone
dino characteristics
3 fingers, perforate acetabulae, 3+ sacral vertebrate
genetic drift
random change in allele frequencies over time, brought about by chance alon
Directional, Stabilizing, Disruptive
3 Modes of Natural Selection
signals
behavior that causes a change in another animals behavior
steroid competition examples
RU486( progesterone receptor) and tamoxifen (estrogen receptor)
Enthalpy
Total energy (usable energy + unusable energy)
cells
*the basic unit of organic (carbon based) life-many types but basic style is same (modification according to function)-single cell can perform all life functions: capable of independent existence and reproduction-cellular level consists of surrounding fluid (extracellular fluid)-many organisms are sigle celled called "microorganisms"
39. The factor favoring filtrate formation at the glomerulus is:
glomeral hydrostatic pressure
A substance resists change in temperature.
Thermal Stability
Unity within diversity
DNA is common information molecule
eukaryotes all share common cellular architecture
labia minora
smaller, inner folds of the reproductive tract
directional selection
natural selection that acts in favor of the individuals at one end of a phenotypic range
shifts the overall makeup of the population by favoring variants at one extreme
Oogenesis after fertilization
Meiosis II resumes and completes forming a fertilized egg.
Name the two evolutionary developmental hypothesis?
1.The multinucleate hypothesis2.The colonial flagellate hypothesis1.The multinucleate hypothesis2.The colonial flagellate hypothesisMolecular systematicsusing rRNAsequences settles this argument in favor of the colonial flagellate hypothesis
fragmentation (fission)
asexual, organism splits into 2, each half becoming a complete individual 
ex: amoebas, flatworms, sea stars: tore apart great barrier reef people cut them up ... bad
what hypothesis explains cold lability
polymerization(sub units) and depolymerization(polymer)
FSH (Follicle Stimulating Hormone)
pituitary gland secretes hormone (FSH) -causes follicle that begins to produce an egg -mature egg=follicle, starts to produce hormone ESTROGEN
centriole
one of two tiny structures located in the cytoplasm of animals cells near the nuclear envelope. organizes cell division.
passing on of traits from parent to offspring:
heredity
Right side of Brain
artistic ability, creativity, music, left side of body
sarcomere
any of the segments of myofibril in striated muscle fibers.
plant growth regulator (plant hormone)
organic compounds (natural or synthetic) that modify or control one or more specific physiological processes within a plant
Buffers
Release H+ or OH into the body to regulate pH.
Polar Cells
The cyclical cell at the poles of earth between the poles and Ferrel cells
Heparin is a substance secreted by_____ cell and and serves to ____?
Mast; inhibit blood clotting
Keystone Species
Exert strong control on a community by their ecological roles, or nichesThey have disproportionate impact on a community relative to their biomass
Potassium (K+) channel
a protein channel in nerve cell membrane that controls flow of potassium out of cell
Trophic level
Each step in the food chain or food web
cyclins control ___, which control ___, which control ___.
kinases (cdk's), which control proteins, which control mitosis
peripheral nervous system (PNS)
–all the nervous system except the brain and spinal cord–composed of nerves and ganglia
57. List three substances that are abnormal urinary constituents and provide the proper clinical term for such abnormalities.
Abnormal urinary constituents include the following (the clinical term for each is listed in parentheses): glucose (glycosuria), proteins (proteinuria or albuminuria), ketone bodies (ketonuria), hemoglobin (hemoglobinuria), bile pigments (bilirubinuria),
What does hypernatremia often reflect
inadequate water intake and causes dry mouth and thirst
Calvin-Benson cycle (aka The C3 cycle)
cycle of reactions in photosynthesis in which atmospheric carbon CO2 is fixed (carbon fixation) using ATP and NADPH Occurs in the chloroplast stroma-No direct light energy required-NADPH and ATP provide the chemical energy
advocates of human cloning suggest it can be used for
legitimate treatement for infertility, the benefit to mankind by exploding the knowledge of medicine and biology, turn the age of the 65 back to 25, replace a loved one who has died, E ALL OF THE ABOVE!
The cells that do not divide are stuck in
G1 phase of interphase
What is the goal of technology?
to apply scientific knowledge for a specific purpose
Hormone production in females sperm does find egg (zygote)
+ zygote makes it to endometrium wall and is embedded 
+ HCG levels rise
+ Placenta
+lots of hormones are being produced at this time
+ once pregnant no more follicles are produced
What do we mean by "synaptic plasticity"
Plasticity - ability of neural tissue to alter functional properties in response to experience.

synaptic plasticity - a change in strength of synapse.
whcih of the folloing does not occur after mRNA transcrition:
 
a) binding of RNA polymrase II to promoter
b) capping of 5' head
c) addition of A tail to 3' end
d) splicing out introns
3) transport to cytosol
a) binding of RNA polymerase II to promoter
antebrachial
forearm
nomy
rule
Apoptosis
Cell suicide
Protists are
paraphyletic
extremely diverse
eukaryotes
evolved from endosymbiosis of two or more types of prokaryotes
reproduce sexually or asexually
AUT-, AUTO-
SELF, OWN
Archaea
some photosynthetic; use bacteriorhoposin (not chlorophyll); cell walls don't have peptidoglycan; extremophiles
Geology
Study of earth processing
Trapezium
5th carpal bone
"little table"
NADPH
NADP+ + 2e- + H+
Land Plants
-derived from green algae
 
-specifically charophytes
light is a _____ energy
electromagnetic
glycogen
a white, tasteless polysaccharide, (C6H10O5)n, molecularly similar to starch, constituting the principal carbohydrate storage material in animals and occurring chiefly in the liver, in muscle, and in fungi and yeasts.
A ____ provideds support and protection to a plant.
Stem
How does starch differ from cellulose?
What are the digestive implications of these structural differences?
Summary of Natural Selection
Observations:
1. Individual Variation
2. Overproduction and competition
 
Inferences:
1. Unequal reproductive rates 
2. Evolutionary adaptation - increase in frequency of desirable traits
Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)
the primary information-bearing molecule of life, composed of two linked cahins of nucleotides
neurohypophysis (posterior pituitary)
down growth from brain
Simple Sequence Repeats
repeats of amino acids
Living things organize ___ at different levels
cells
Wernickes Area
responsible for the comprehensive understanding of language
Atomic mass
the sum of protons and neutrons
Fermentation
A catabolic process that makes a limited amount of ATP from glucose without an electron transport chain and produces a characteristic end product, such as ethyl alcohol or lactic acid.
exothermic
chemical reaction that yields a net release of energy in the form of heat
phenotype
physical & physiological trait of an organism that is determined by the genes (genotype)
Lyell
built of Hutton's thinking to promote uniformitarianism- te idea that the geological mechanisms that operated during the Earth's history continue to operate today and at the same rate
hexose
6 carbon sugar ex: glucose, fructose, mannose, galactose
Rhizobia
N-fixing bacteria that live in roots of peas
layers of the epidermis
1. stratum basale- deepest layer2. stratum spinousum- thickest layer, contains more living keratinocytes, alert the immue system to foreign invaders 3. stratum granulosum- 3-5 layers of granule and vesicle containing keratinocytes, cells are dying, release lipids from vesicles, forms a protein lipid epidermal water barrier4. stratum lucidum- think transclucent zone, no nuclei or organelles, cells are filled with eledin5. stratum corneum—up to 30 laters, dead scaly keratinized cells, resistant to abrasion, penetration, and water loss
Cytoskeleton
system of microscopic fibers in the cytoplasm of the cell.
gastric juice
secreted by the epithelium lining numerous deep pits in the stomach wall
facilitation
plants come and lower the soil pH
biography
a written account of another person's life:
Exotic species
A nonnative species that is introduced into a new area. Often competitors, pathogens, or predators of native species.
lysogenic cycle
a cycle which allows replication of the phage genome without killing the host cell
Light harvesting complex/antenna complex
 
Reaction Center
2 main components of PSII
partial pressure
pressure contributed by a sing;e gas in a mixture of gases
O2=21%=160mm
CO2=<1%=0.23mm
N2=80%=600mm
Cellular Respiration4 main steps
 
Total energy released per 1 ATP of glucose at end of Respiration is what?
Glycolysis- takes place in cytoplasmoxidizes glucose into 2 pyruvate (costs 1 ATP)Energy Payoff= 2 ATP+ 2 NADH net difference from the oxidizing of glucose.Krebs Cycle or Citric Acid Cycle-Glucose is further oxidized by changing the pyruvate to CO2.1. pyruvate enters mitchondrion where its further oxidized2. The mitochondrion creates Acetyl CoA (gives E-'s to NAD+ and FAD+) from pyruvate.3. E-'s from oxidized pyruvate are given to NADH's4. As the pyruvate is broken down 2 CO2 molecules are released.5. 2 ATP is generated again, but most energy goes to NADH and FADH2 to the ETCETC1. ETC accepts all the E-'s from NADH's from first 2 steps.2. These E-'s get passed down the chain to more electronegative molecules.3. O2 is the final accepter and it forms with E-'s and H+ to make Water.Oxydative Phosphorylation1. H+ gradient, which was formed from ETC is used to make energy as the H+ is pumped out through ATP Synthase.2. This process of creating ATP from ATP Synthase is called Chemiostasis.3. Protons attach to sides of rotor causing it to spin and catalyze ATP from ADP+Pi.38 ATP is generated from this whole process.
Okasaki Fragments
newly formed DNA making up the lagging strand in DNA replication. DNA ligase links Okasaki Fragments together to give a continuous strand.
Small intestine
Vast majority of digestion takes place in this organ
How would you express PREDATION in the non-linear model?
F12=f'12(x1x2)therefore f'12=F12/[(x1)(x2)]
A plant's first line of defense against infection is
its epidermis.
the structure that forms from the tissues of a ruptured ovarian follicle; secretes female hormones
corpus luteum
anal canal
the terminal part of the large intestine.
It is situated between the rectum and anus, below the level of the pelvic diaphragm. It lies in the anal triangle of perineum in between the right and left ischiorectal fossae.
In humans it is approximately 2.5 t
How is body temperature maintained
the hypothalamus maintains body temperature
Apical Side
The side of the epithelial tissue that faces away from other tissues and toward the environment
Cell theory
1. All organisms are composed of one or more cells2. The cell is the smallest unit of life3, Only living cells give rise to new cells
The basic rhythm of the heartbeat is set by the ______.
SA node
What is the host range determined by?
Determined by attachment
active transport
use of energy to transport a molecule through a transport protein against its concentration gradient. requires atp.
Central Nervous system
is composed of the brain and the spinal cord
I am an animal with:gill slits and a mouth on my ventral sidelarge pectoral fins fused to my headand im a filter feeder
manta ray
Which of the following is specifically a part or a function of the central nervous system?
interpretation of sensory signals
How do fungi obtain nutrients?
They are heterotrophs that obtain their food by absorption from outside their body.
Zone of Elongation
Region of root behind the Zone of Cell Division where cells elongate. Provides force behind the movement of the root through the soil.
A catalyst (enzyme)
is often a protein, and is not altered by the reaction process
Resource partitioning is;name examples (3)
a way to avoid competition
- eat something else so you don't have to compete for the same food source
- find your niche
- hunting at night vs. day (ex. hawks/owls)

ex. Robert McArthur - warblers
What are decomposers?
Give two examples
Break down organic matter found in dead plants and animals.
Ex: fungi and bacteria
What is the logistic model for population?
Model for populations that includes the carrying capacity of a population.
during positive control, the CAP-cAMP complex binds to ______
CAP binding site; as long as a repressor isn’t bound to operator, complex increases efficiency of transcription
What is are the two "fates" of cells?
Definition of fate....
!. Indeterminate: Fate of these cells is not irreversibly determined. Has the ability to do different things in the same situation.
2. Cells have the ability to regulate or adjust their development.
Fate= What an area of younger embryos will become in an older embryo.
Who takes care of a National Wildlife Refuge?
What does the US Fish &amp; Wildlife service take care of?
rhin-
nose
mega
very large
rubella
virus, rubella
Coffee Berry
Rhames californica
Animalia
the animal kingdom
Lipids/Fats
Nonpolar, uncharged, hydrophobic molecules composed primarily of H and C atoms.
discrete particles are called 
photons 
dr. crane is delivering
gascromadagraph
Phylogenetic Trees
–relatedness of organisms •Fossil•Molecular evidence •Both give similar results
Eumetazoa
-includes animals w/ true tissues
 
-a clade comprising all major animal groups except sponges, placozoa, and several other little known animals
domain eukarya
protist, fungi, plant, animal
gene flow
reduces differences between populations

is genetic exchange due to migration of fertile individuals or gametes between populations.

This reduces differences between populations (makes them more similar)
DNA primase
creates short RNA temp
steroids
a lipid with four carbon rings
Light Independent reaction
Required:CO2, ATP, NADPH, RUBPProduced: Sugar, RUBP
radial cleavage
Deuterostomes: mitotic spindles of dividing cells orient parallel/perpendicular to main axis of cells. directly stacked on eachother
streptomycin
inhibits the synthesis of bacterial proteins and kills bacteria by selectively acting on the bacterial ribosome
In negative–sense viruses, the base sequences in the genome are complementary to those in viral mRNAs.
chorion
an embryonic membrane that surrounds all the other embryonic membranes in reptiles, birds, and mammals; used for gas exchange
Atom
the smallest fragment of an element
automorphies
uniquiley derived. species are defined by these.
Oviparity
Amniotic eggs encased in a hard, calcium-containing shell
population ecology
concentrates mainly on factors that affect population density and growth
What examples of active and passive immunity was discussed in class?
– Polymers
molecules made of a repetitive series of identical or similar subunits (monomers)
Ecosystem Ecology
the scientific study of interactions between organisms and the non-living world (abiotic environment)
what is another histone involved with the nucleosome (other than H2A, H2B, H3, and H4)?
H1
Carbohydrate structures Simple
Monosaccarides = one sugar unit
cadherins
• any of a class of cell-surface proteins involved in cell adhesion and important for coordinating movements of cells during embryological developmento facilitate selective adhesion of similar cells to each other
plants that have one cotyledon are know as:
monocots
trait expressed in presence of only one allele:
dominant
ectoparasites
feed on exterior surface of an organism
A systems approach to viewing the world is perfect accounting according to ____ _____.
Mass balance
Heterozygous
one allele is dominant and the other is recessive
Macronutrients
Any element that is required in large quantities for normal growth, reproduction, and living of an organism
Exergonic
A reaction in which energy is released and ATP is hydrolyzed.
teeth
-break down food with teeth or rocks (in bird crops) -homodont dentition (teeth are same)-reptiles and fish -heterodont dentition (specialized types of teeth)=incisors (chisel-shaped nipping teeth), canines (sharp, pointed teeth for tearing), and premolars/molars (grinding) -tooth is living organ:enamel, dentin, pulp, gingiva, bone, cemetum, root canal (nerve and blood vessels)
Integrating (Control) Center
control center that processes the sensory information, ‘makes a decision’, and directs the response
Myosin
One of the twho protein components of microfilaments (the other is Actin); a principle component of vertebrate muscle
codon
group of 3 bases in mRNA that specifies an amino acid
A population is
the smallest unit that can evolve.
meat eaters, which range in size form spiders to polar bears
- carnivores
covalent bond
Chemical bond in which two atoms share a pair of electrons.
If your BMI is between _______ & ________you would be considered overweight.
25, 29
process of breathing
air enters nostrils, where filtered & warmed
 
 passes through the pharynx
 
larynx moves up and tips the epiglottis over
 
travel down trachea
 
trachea branches into bronchi
 
gas exchange takes place across alveoli
Wax
can be defined as a lipid composed of a single fatty acid linked to a long-chain alcohol
frontal lobeof the brain
conscious thought; damage can result in mood changes
Age Class
A group of organisms of the same species that were born around the same time
diploid body cells. any cell but sex cells
somatic cells
Pineal gland
Pitutary gland
parathyroid
supraneal gland
kidney
pancreas
gonads
testies
ovaries
PG-timing of repro and set day night bio rhythms
pitutary gland- control other endocrine glands, regulates growth & fluid balance
Parathyroid- regulates calcium w/ thyroid
supraneal gland-adj h20 bal, tissue metabolism, cardiovascular & resp act
kidney- control RBC producion & elevate BP
Pancreas- regulates blood glucose level
testes
ovaries
The cell wall does what
limits growthadds supportIts a rigid structure around cell
mitral or bicuspid valve
left AV valve that has 2 cusps
All nucleotides have 3 components:
Organic Phosphate Group, Pentose Sugar and Nitrogenated Base
F1 Generation: AA 320 Aa 160 aa 20
 
Determine if this population is in equilibrium.
Genotype#|Gen.Freq|Loci #A|Loci #a
AA 320 | 320/500=.64 | 640 | 0
Aa 160 | 160/500=.32 | 160 | 160
aa 20 | 20/500=.04 | 0 | 40
500  |  500/500=1.00 | 800+200=1000
 
Freq of A allele: 800/1000= .8
Freq of a allele 200/1000= .2
 
F2 : AA .64 Aa .32 aa .04
Same as F1
modern technology lets us classify by
DNA sequence & mutations between species
peptide bonds are formed
by linking the carboxyl group of the first amino acid to the amino group of the second amino acid
How does the size of prokaryotic genome compare to the human genome?
Prokaryotic: 9 million base pairs, human: 3 billion base pairs
what is phenotype frequency equal to?
the number of individuals with a particular phenotype divided by the total number of individuals in the population
16) What are the advantages of Ground-source heat pumps?
B) b) They can be used for residential and commercial operations
Scientific humanism(a) Is grounded on the belief that all "legitimate" human problems can be solved by mechanistic analysis collaborating with "the scientific method"(b) Is the positivistic defiant choice to completely suppress participatory consciousness
(e) All three a, b, and c are true
Which of the following is an important distinction between the measurement of basal metabolic rate (BMR) and standard metabolic rate (SMR)?
C) SMRs must be determined at a specific temperature.
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Term:
Definition:
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