Biological Psychology Exam 3 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
formation of new neurons
dopamine transporter
inhibited by cocaine
chemical messengers that cross synaptic gaps between neurons
What neurotransmitter do pyramidal neurons synthesize and release?
helps you begin movements smoothly
Ware is norepinherin produced?
brain stem
How many meninges are there?
action potential
neural impulse. brief electrical charge that travels down an axon
“water brain” disease; blockage of drain for spinal fluid so it is forced to be compressed
What makes myelin?
Glial cells and Oligodendroglia
Superchiasmatic nucleus
smaller in homosexual men-testosterone depletion produces similar effects in male rats (smaller SCN), advances towards male rats
efferent neurons
motor neurons in spinal chord
___ are receptors on presynaptic terminals that are sensitive to the same transmitter they release.
What is the main excitatory transmitter in the Brain?
biological psychology
interactions between brain and behaviour that is reciprocal; relates behaviour to bodily processes
Who demonstrated that nerves conduct electricity?
What was Descartes famous for realizing?
brain adapts its chemistry to offset the drug's effect
Parasympathetic nervous system (Describe functions and location)
(function) Constricts pupil, stimulates salivation, constricts airways, slows heartbeat, stimulates glucose production and release, stimulates digestion, stimulates gallbladder to release bile, dilates blood vessels in intestines, dilates blood vessels in skin, contracts bladder, stimulates penile erection and clitoral engorgement
(location) Neurons originate from the brain stem
Which system is this?
______ can be an input and output
-suggest that the drug will increase pain-worsen pain by increasing anxiety
Through which colliculus does auditory information travel on the way to the auditory cortex?
inferior colliculus
fiber that receives signals from axons of other neurons and carries those signals to the cell body
endorphins, GABA
neuropeptides knoown as _______ are the brain's endogenous morphines. they inhibit ventral tegmental neurons that release ______, and therby inhibit an inhibitor of dopamine neurons.
Define Homunculi
Pictoral representation of the amount of brain space associated with body parts
What is responsible for thinking and language?
neural plasticity
experience has been demonstrated to affect the number or size of neurons or the number or size of connections between neurons
dendritic spines
increase surface area of dendrites allow for extra synaptic contacts; number/structure of spines can be altered by experience
gross neuroanatomy
anatomical features of the nervous system that are apparent to the naked eye
can act as neuromodulators and alter sensitivity to transmitters
glial cells
cells in nervous system that support, nourish and protect neurons. Provide nutrients and myelin
Neural Degeneration
(two forms: list and describe them)
Retrograde degeneration: destruction of the nerve cell body following injury to its axon (prevents message from forming; before being made)
Anterograde degeneration: (wallerian degeneration) loss of the distal portion of an axon resulting from injury to the axon (prevents message from arriving; after being made)
What is the aging degenerative disease we talked about in class?
Alzheimer's Disease
Oval window
-membrane of outer ear, adjacent to stirrupvibrations are transmitted here from tympanic membrane
What happens if damage selectively occurs to the ventromedial hypothalamus?
overeating (HYPER-PHAGIA)more meals
Top of a four legged animal. Only dorsal when referring to spine
less, greater, amygdala
sons of an alcoholic fathers show______ intoxication after drinking a moderate amount of alcohol, report ______decrease in stress after drinking, and have a smaller than normal _______ in the right hemisphere.
What is Unipolar disorder?
varying between normality and depression
How is SAD treated?
Light therapy (affects biological clock)
Below the cortex are several subcortical areas-name them
limbic system, thalmus,hypothalmus,pituitary gland,hippocampus.
Temporal lobe
Lies belo the lateral fissure contains the auditory area
integration zone
cell body region usually at axon hillock that initiates nerve activity to create an action potential
exogenous ligands
drugs and toxins from outside the body
What autoimmune disease attacks the acetylcholine recepters at the neuromuscular junctions? What does this cause?
acetylcholine; causes progressive weakness and rapid fatigue of the skeletal muscles.
Central nervous system:
portion of the nervous system that includes the brain and the spinal cord
How do substances damage nervous system?
Neuronopathy - damage neuronsAxonopathy - damage axonsmyelinopathy - myelin damagetransmission toxicities - interferes with neurotransmission
What does the reticular formation do regarding cortical arousal?
increases cortical arousal
Hard problems
a.Concerns why and how any kind of brain activity is associated with consciousness b.Why does brain activity feel like anything at all?
How does amphetamine (speed) work?
stimulates dopamine synapses by increasing the release of dopamine from presynaptic terminal
therefore accumulation of dopamine in the synaptic cleft.
How is bipolar disorder treated?
lithium salts
Block synthesis of arachidonic acid (associated with brain inflammation)
How does a phylogenetic explanation explain behaviour?
evolutionary history of structure/behaviour
Define threshold
Each nuron has a thershold, the cell will not fire until the threshold is reached
Postganglionic autonomic neurons
run from autonomic ganglia to targets within the body
absolute refractory period
for 1-2 seconds after an action potential another one cannot be generated no matter how much stimulation
psychological dependence
mental need to use a drug because of associations made with it
Hindbrain (composed of 2 parts)
Medulla: contains many cranial nerves and lot of information for the parasympathetic nervous system
Mentencephalam: composed of
What is parallel processing?
the ability of the brain to simultaneously process incoming stimuli.
prefrontal cortex, premotor cortex, supplementary motor cortex and primary motor cortex. Sort out the roles in these regions play in eliciting a motor response.
Prefrontal cortex: beginning of motor signal; responds to sensory info and plans movements accordinglyPremotor cortex: Preparations for movementSupplementary motor cortex: preparation for rapid series of movementsprimary motor cortex: precentral gyrus ~ elicits movement
Compare the dependence upon hormone for sexual activity in rodents, cats, dogs, non-human primates and humans
rats: no sexual activitydog/cat: reduced sexual activitynonhuman primates: semi-reducedhumans
nitric oxide, anandamide, and 2 AG
chemicals released from the postsynaptic neuron that provide negative feedback to the presynaptic neuron inclued ___, ___, ___
Amygdala activation to angry and fearful expressions suggests that the amygdala responds most stongly____________?
When emotional interpretation is unclear.
Nervous System-Central Nervous System-Brain-Forebrain-Cerebral Cortex-Neocortex- Define Temporal Lobe
Lower part of the cerebral cortex below the temples, which plays roles in hearing, understanding language, and memory
Deficnes of sertonin are linked to what?
eating dissorders, deppresion, alcholsim, agression and insominia
what are ligands?
molecules of the right shape that fit into a receptor (key and lock)
Segments of the spinal cord
(list all 5 and how many of each segment)
8 cervical
12 thoracic 5 lumbar5 sacral1 coccyx
Are all parts of the...
Where is serotonin produced and released to? List four of its major functions. What type of receptors does serotonin have?
Serotonin is produced throughout the brain stem and goes to the cerebral cortex and brain stem. Different kind of monoamine.1) Sleeping/waking - deep sleeping (not arousal side)2) Mood3) Anxiety4) Emotion (aggression!)Possess all inhibitory (metabotropic receptors) except one which is excitatory and helps you vomit.
Type I v.s. Type II alcoholism
Type 1: develop alcohol problems graduallyType II: rapid onset, before age 25, most have relatives with alcohol problems
4 stages of sleep
with the first stage being less sleepy and the fourth stage being a deep sleep. After the fourth stage, REM (rapid eye movement) sleep occurs, during which dreams often occur.
What memory disorder is associated with the hippocampus?
Alzeimers disease the hippocampus isn one of the first regions to be damaged. First symptoms are memory problems and disorientation.
How do opiates (morphine and heroine) work?
Mimic endorphines (naturally occuring chemicals in the brain).
Opiates attach to specific endorphin receptors
- Inhibits GABA, so increases dopamine
-But also blocks a hindbrain area that usually releases norephinepherine
Reduction in norepinepherine reduces memory storage and reduces stress
what are the two forces that cause ions to flow in and out of the membrane?
diffusion and electrostatic pressure
what are the three types of conduction?
saltatory conduction, orthodromic and antidromic
what 3 parts of the brain does the term BRAINSTEM refer to?
midbrain, pons, medulla
K+ ions are stable at ___ mV
___ ions are stable at -80mV
List and describe the two primary areas of functional organization. List and describe the two association areas of functional organization.
Primary Areas1) Sensory - receive converging afferents (incoming info). 5 areas2) Motor - send specific efferents (outgoing) with collaterals. 1 area - precisely organized and mapped. Specific places control specific things.Association Areas - you need these areas to get complex processing (integrating sensory and motor)1) Input & Output: -Cortical afferents - incoming to cortex-Cortical efferents - outgoing from cortex-Both convergence and divergence2) Function - motor planning-Sensory/perceptual processing-Motor planning-Other complex
List the 8 levels of analysis.
1) Social level - individuals behaving in social interaction2) Organ level - Brain, spinal cord, etc.3) Neural Systems level - Eyes and visual brain regions4) Brain region level - Visual cortex5) Circuit level - local neural circuit6) Cellular level - single neuron7) Synaptic level8) Molecular level - membrane receptors
How do the basal ganglia “select” a movement?What is the feedback pathway from cortex to the basal ganglia and then back to cortex?
-receives cortex info-info routed to motor and prefrontal cortex-selects movements that should be activated-takes away inhibitors
Researchers have assumed that even though you might be conscious of something and unable to report it in words, if you can...
describe something you saw or heard, then you must have been conscious of it
What processes to drugs initiate in the brain to cause activity in the nucleus accumbens?
Drug> Sustained bursts of dopamine (usually inhibitory)> Inhibits GABA (Inhibitory transmitter)> Increases activity in nucleus accumbens
What did Tyron (1934) find in selective breeding experiment with maze dull and bright rats?
after 8th generation of selective breeding no overlap of task effectiveness, evidence genes influence the development of behaviour
Autonomic Nervous system ( ANS)
is a set of nerons that recives infomationa and sents commands to the heart intestines and other organs
what are 5 ways drug tolerance is developed?
metabolic tolerance (body eliminates drug before it affects brain), functionl tolerance (target tissues shows altered sensitivity to drug), down regulate (decrease of available receptors), up regulate (increase number of receptors), cross tolerance (toler
In regards to neural plasticity, what does D.O. Hebb think the driving force behind changes in the brain is?
D.O. Hebb thinks that the brain changes based on increasing the strength of synapses! He thinks this is what underlies learning.
In regards to Glia and Satellite Cells, where are each found? List the 5 different types.
Glia are found in the CNSSatellite cells are found in the PNS1) Astrocyte - Stars - blood brain barrier2) Oligodendroglia - Make myelin3) Schwann cells - Make myelin4) Microglia - move around - attack foreign stuff and break down dead stuff.5) Radial Glia - provides scaffolding so cells can get to places they need to be.and more.....
What is the mechanism of action for marijuana’s reinforcing effects?
act at cannabinoid receptors, increase dopamine release in NAC, decrease level of leptin (appetitite suppressing hormone)
What happened to H.M (1953) when his hippocampus removed to treat servere epilepsy?
Intellect and language intact, working memory intact but severe impairment on forming new long-term memories. both anterograde and reterograde amnesia. Intact procedural memory but poor declarative memory (Semantic memory-specific facts, episodic memory-personal experience)Intact implicit memory but poor explicit memory
People with more recptor sites are prone to what, explain.
schizophernia beacuse they the more recptor sites for dopamin leas to confusion and false perceptions
why does the nernst equation yield slight overestimations?
the membrane is not impermeable to sodium ions (NA+), small numbers leak in drawn to the cell's negative interior
Dopamine is created in the ___ and ___
and is released prominently in the ___ and ___
_____ is created in the substantia nigra and hypothalmus
and is released primarily in the striatum and frontal lobe
True or False: Everyone has different sulsi and gyri.
False. Everyone has the same basic sulsi and gyri, but they are slightly varied in everyone.
What did Cooper and Zubek (1958) find with environment and maze dull and bright rats?
Adult maze-dull rats only made more errors when raised in impoverished as opposed to enriched conditions therefore experience can overcome effects of genes
ware is gray matter found and what does it consits of?
non myelinated nurons found in brain and spinal cord
What was Galen a roman physician famous for?
concluded that the brain was the organ of the mind, not the heart
Do the neural cells actually come into contact with capillaries? How are nutrients obtained by the brain? What kind of immune defense exists to protect the brain?
No, neural cells do not actually come into contact with capillaries so they don't get nutrients this way. Astrocytes are used to shuffle stuff in. Astrocytes connect the capillary and the brain/nueron. This is a small form of immune defense to protect the brain from the outside world.
What did the eyes in the dark study find?
Amygdala responds more to fearful eye whites than happy eye whites.
Where is NE produced and released? Two functions? What type of receptors does NE have?
NE is produced in the brain stem and is released in the forebrain.1) Arousal/waking - goes directly to cortex and sets level of arousal2) Mood function (transmitter)NE has metabotropic receptors.
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