Biology Regents Review Flashcards

Terms Definitions
achondroplasia
Dwafism
a bladder infection
thrombosis
what is single-stranded
RNA
what has a DNA
nucleus
Zoology
The study of animals
what breaks down polymers
hydrolysis
food and oxygen produced
photosynthesis
this has no ribosomes
smooth ER
autosome
chromosomes that arent sex chromosomes
phenylketonuria
Accumulation of phenylalanine in tissues; lack of normal skin pigment; mental retardation
ribosomes are sites of
protein synthesis
tetrad
structure contianing four chromatids that forms during meiosis
Flowers
The reproductive structures of plants
what is sugar in milk
lactose
Carnivore
an organism that eats animals
segrigation
seperation of alleles during gamete formation
number of proteins = ___
atomic number
Dicot
Contain 2 cotyledons, have branching veins, petals in multiples of 4 or 5, have taproot systems
mitochondria and chloroplast have
DNA and ribosomes
inbreeding
continued breeding of individuals with simular chacteristics
Atoms
the smalest particles of an elementthat have the properties of that element; consist of electrons, protons, and neutrons
base
when dissolved in water a substances
Kingdom Animalia
the classification kingdom containing complex, multicellular organisms that lack cell walls, are usually able to move around, and possess specialized sense organs that help them quickly respond to their environment
hypha
a nonreproductive filament of a fungus
denitrification
the liberation of nitrogen from nitrogen-containing compounds by bacteria in the soil.
mitochondrion
in eukaryotic cells, the cell organelle that is surrounded by two membranes and that is the site of cellular respiration, which produces ATP
true-breeding
describes organisms or genotypes that are homozygous for a specific trait and thus always produce offspring that have the same phenotkype for that trait
what is composed of one glucose molecule joined by a glycosidic linkage to one galactose molecule
lactose
what stores energy in complex organic molecules
photosynthesis
Exocytosis
The process by which vesicles move from the interior to the exterior of a cell
cystic fibrosis
Excess mucus in lungs, digestive tract, liver; increased susceptibility to infections; death in childhood unless treated
transfer RNA
RNA molecules that transfer amino acids into ribosomes during protein synthesis
clone
number of a population of genetically identical organisms produced from a single cell
transcription
process in which part of the nucleotide sequence of DNA is copied in a complmentary sequence of RNA
Stems
Give support to the plant, transport nutrients and store food
punnett square
diagram showing the gene cobinations that might result from a genetic cross
Bran
The shell-like fruit covering of a wheat kernel
protons
positively charged particles found in the nuclei of all atoms have roughly thesame same mass as neutrons
nucleotide
in a nucleic-acid chain, a subunit that consists of a sugar, a phosphate, and a nitrogenous base
gene expression
the manifestation of the genetic material of an organism in the form on specific traits
Kingdom Protista
a kingdom of mostly one-celled eukaryotic organisms that are different from plants, animals, bacteria, and fungi
mollusks
an invertebrate that has a soft, bilaterally symmetrical body that is often enclosed in a hard shell made of calcium carbonate,; examples include snails, clams, octopuses, and squids
mychorrizza
a symbiotic association b/t fungi and plant roots
genetic diversity
the genetic variation within a population
probability
the likelihood that a possible future event wil occur in any given instance of the event; the mathematical ratio of the number of times one outcome of any event is likely to occur to the number of possible outcomes of the event
Biological Magnification
the accumulation of increasingly large amounts of toxic substances within each successive link of the food chain.
Biogeochemical Cycle
The circulation of substances through the living organsims from or to the enviroment
resolution
in microscopes, the ability to form images with fine detail
photosynthesis
the process by which plants, algae, and some bacteria use sunlight, CO2 and H20 to produce carbohydrates and 02
Codon
in DNA, a three nucleotide sequence that encodes an amino acid or signifies a start signal or a stop signal.
Consumer
an organism that eats other organisms or organic matter instead of producing its own nutrients from inorganic sources.
Ammonification
the formation of ammonia compounds in the soil by the action of bacteria on decaying matter.
phospholipid
a lipid that contains phosphorus and that is a structural component in cell membranes
Ecosystem
A community of organisms and their abiotic enviroment.
Ecology
the study of interactions of living organisms with one another and with their enviroment.
both glucose and does have the same formula but different structures therefore they are
isotopes
what is the process by which water passes into or out of his cell
osmosis
Monoecious plant
Plant that produces both staminate and pistillate flowers
single gene trait
trait controlled by a single gene
what forms a framework for the cell like the skeleton in your body
cytoskeleton
Chromosomes
Bundles of DNA and protein that appear in the nucleus of a cell during cell divisionbehavior. Also known as ethological isolation.
law of segrigation
segrigation of alleles during gamete formation
codominance
situation in which both alleles of a gene contribute to the phenotype of the organism
Charles Lyell
In seond and final volume of "Principles of Geology" Lyell explained that processes occuring now have shaped earth's geological features over long periods of time
non disjunction
error in mieosis in which homologous chromosomes fail to seperate
anticodon
group of three bases on a tRNA molecule that are complementary to a mRNA codon
selective breeding
process of only allowing organism with desired traits to mate and reproduce
hox gene
series of genes that controls the organs and tissuse that develop in various parts of the embryo
Annual
Plant that develops from a seed and produces a new seed in a single growing season
what is the scientific study of plant life
botany
what opens and closes its leaves depending on rainfall
Resurrection Fern
chemical reaction
the process of which chemical bonds are broken and the atoms form new bonds , producing replaces each statement
global warming
a gradual increase in the average global temperature that is due to a higher concentration og gases such as carbon dioside  in the atmosphere
Chromosome
in a eukaryotic cell, one of the structures in the nucleus that are made up of DNA and protein; in a prokaryotic cell, the main ring of DNA,
primordial soup
a solution of chemicals hypothsized to be present on Earth at the time of the origin of life
ion
an atom, radical or molecule that has gained or lost one or more electrons and has a negative or positive charge
Kingdom Fungi
a classification kingdom made up of nongreen, eukaryotic organisms that get food by breaking down organic matter and absorbing the nutrients, reproduce by means of spores, and have no means of movement
polygenic trait
a characteristic of an organism that is determined by many genes
operator
a short sequence of viral or bacterial DNA to which a repressor binds to prevent transcription (mRNA synthesis) of the adjacent gene in an operon
organ
a collection of tissues that carry out a specialized function of the body
niche
the position (way of life) of a species in an ecosystem in terms of teh physical characterisitcs (such as size, location, temperature, and pH) of the are where the species lives and the function of the species in the biological community
natural selection
the process by which individuals that have favorable variations and are better adapted to their environment survive and reproduce more succssfully than less well adapted individuals
molecule
the smallest unit of a substance that keeps all the physical and chemical properties of that substance, it can consist of one atom or two or more atoms bonded together
Endocytosis
the process by which a cell membrane surrounds a particle and encloses the particle in a vesicle to bring the particle into the cell.
Dispersion
in optics, the process of seperating a wave (such as white light) of different frequencies into its individual component waves (the different colors).
sexual reproduction
reproduction in which gametes from two parents unite
uracil
one of the four bases that combine with sugar and phosphate to form a nucleotide subunit RNA; uracil pairs with adenine
Atom
the smallest unit of an element that maintains the properties of that element.
protein
an organic compound that is made of one or more chains of amino acids and that is a principal component of all cells
Cancer
a tumor in which the cells begin dividing at an uncontrolled rate and become invasive
the atomic number of an nonreactive stable inert gas could be it any multiple of
eight and two
started with a fertilized egg, a series of ____ cell divisions would produce in early embryo with ____ cells
5 and 32
what is the movement of a substance across a biological membrane against its concentration grandient, with the help of energy input is
active transport
mass number - number of proteins =
number of neutrons
Nitrogen Cycle
The movement of nitrogen from the air into the soil and back into the air
Husk
The rough outer covering of a grain of wheat, also known as chaff
ionic bond
the force of attraction between 2 ions that form are attracted to each other
seedless vascular plants
a vascular plant that reproduces with spores rather than seeds ( ferns are the most common examples)
Allele
One of the alternative forms of a gene that governs a characteristic; such as hair color.
messenger RNA or mRNA
a single-stranded RNA molecule that encodes the infor to make a protein
exponential growth curve
logarithmic growth, or growth in which numbers increase by a certain factor in each successive time period
Eukaryote
an organism made up of cells that have a nucleus enclosed by a membrane, multiple chromosomes, and a mitotic cycle; eukaryotes include animals, plants, and fungi but not bacteria or cyanobacteria.
half-life
the time required for half of a sample of radioactive substance to disintegrate by radioactive decay or by natural processes
flowering seed plants
plants the produce seeds in fruits (a.k.a angiosperms)
gastric juices at pH to have a large concentration of
hydrogen ions
ribosomal RNA
type of RNA that makes up the major part of ribosomes
covalent bond
a chemical bond that is formed by the sharing of electrons
law of independent assortment
the law that states that genes separeate independently of one another in meiosis
James Watson & Francis Crick
developed double helix model of DNA structure
trophic level
one of the steps in a food chain or food pyramid; examples include producers and primary, secondary, and tertiary consumers
what is and example of adaption
A. rabbits fur color changing with the seasons
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