Biology 127 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
glycoprotein
logy
study of
adaptive radiation
Fertilization
sperm meets egg
-al
Having character of
polysaccharide
macromolecules made of monosaccharides * insoluble long polymers of monosaccharides formed by dehydration synthesis * starch - used to store energy; consists of linked glucose molecules * cellulose - used for structural material in plants; consists of linked glucose molecules * amylose - simplest starch; all glucose connected in unbranched chains * amylopectin - plant starch; branches into amylose segments * glycogen - animal version of starch; has more branches than plant starch
competition
survival of the fittest
What hydrolyzes starch?
Amylase (ptyalin)
prophase
chromosomes (2 sister chromatids) condense, nucleolus shrinks, and the spindles assemble outside the nucleus
Unsaturated Fats
Fats with double bonds.
Phosphorylation of protein ___ determines direction of c-ring and therefore direction of flagellar rotation
Y
Chemoheterotrophs
Chemoheterotrophs obtain both energy and carbon from organic compounds—most known bacteria and archaea, all animals, all fungi, and many protists
Potential energy
capacity to do work
ribosome
a tiny, somewhat mitten-shaped organelle occurring in great numbers in the cell cytoplasm either freely, in small clusters, or attached to the outer surfaces of endoplasmic reticula, and functioning as the site of protein manufacture.
gametophyte
the haploid generation of a plant
Embryology
study of multicellular organisms as they develop from fertilized eggs to fully formed organisms
capsule
in some cellwalls, gelatinous on outside
larva
sexually immature form
eats diff food than adult
sometimes diff habitat than adult
EXPLAIN DARWINS THEORY OF NATURAL SELECTION.
N
Chromatin
combination of DNA and protein molecules
specialized cells that facilitate the transport of water and minerals
tracheids
heredity
transmission of genetic traits from parents to offspring
Synaptic Cleft
• Neurotransmitter diffuses across synaptic cleft.• Neurotransmitter removed from synaptic cleft.
Domain Archea
is composed of prokaryotic cells
phenotype
the observable constitution of an organism.
plasmolysis
shrinking of the cytoplasm and plasma membrane away from the cell wall due to outflow of water in a hypertonic environment, observed only in cells with rigid walls
Ectoderm
The outermost of the three primary germ layers, which gives rise to the skin and the nervous system
What kind of cellular communication? uses active transport. releases hormones from a cell and then affects other cells throughout the body. ligands travel through the blood.
endocrine signaling
Plants that are homozygous for a characteristic are described as?
true-breeding
muscular system
give its shapesupport body skeletal musclescardiac musclessmooth muscles
Monosaccharides
-water soluble, sweet taste, and have at least 2 OH groups and one aldehyde or ketone group
Osmosis
The diffusion of water across a semipermeable membrane. (Passive transport)Water moves from a region of high concentration to an area of low concentration.
releasing hormone---FSH---LH
peptides from hypothalamus in brain released to pituitary gland---stimulates spermogenisis; Follicle Stimulating Hormone---causes secretion of testosterone
Codon
A three-base sequence on an mRNA strand; it codes for a specific tRNA anticodon, and thus for a specific amino acid.
X or Y chromosome carry more information?
X
Pseudocoelomate
Body cavity lacks lining of true coelomates
endomysium
thin sleeve of loose connective tissue surrounding each muscle fiber; allows room for capillaries and nerve fibers to reach each muscle fiber
polymers
are long chains or branching chains based on repeating subunits (monomers)ex. proteins(polymer) made from amino acids (monomer)
group of similar organism that can breed and produce fertile offspring
Species
Microtubes
shape the cell, guide movement of organelles, and separate chromosome copies in division
cytoplasm
the cell substance between the cell membrane and the nucleus, containing the cytosol, organelles, cytoskeleton, and various particles.
isotonic
describes a solution that has the same solute concentration as another solution
Quiz 6
 
Glial cells found surrounding the cell bodies of peripheral neurons are:
 
a. astrocytes
b. ependymal cells
c. microglia
d. satellite cells
 
 
a. astrocytes
b. ependymal cells
c. microglia
d. satellite cells  
Double Helix
The coiled ladder structure of DNA developed by Watson and Crick
Resource subsidy
resources produced in one habitat that support consumers in a second habitat
Meiosis II: Metaphase II
chromosomes line up along equator
Hinge Joints
Allow flexion and extension in just one place
population density
number of individuals of a particular species per unit area or volume (Concept 35.1)
translation
cell uses info from messenger RNA to produce protiens
Which of the following groups is made up solely of carnivores?
arachnids
carbohydrate
consist of C6 H12 O6 C(H20) carbo hydrate
C:H:O
1:2:1
suplly quick energy
one gram wil relase 4 calories
3 clasess:
-monosaccarides: C6H12O6; glucose, galactose, fructose [isomers of each other(same molecular formula but with differ. structures)] 
-dissaccarides C12 H22 O11; maltose, sucrose, lactose, 2 monosaccharides, joined by dehydration synthesis
polysaccaride: plymers of carb. many mono. joined toghether; cellulose, starch (plants), chitin,  glycogen(animals)
Q.
Glycogen is the storage form of polysaccharides in animals.
The organic compounds that contain the elements carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen ONLY are carbohydrates.
A polysaccaride that strengthens plant cells is cellulose.
Bilaterally symmetric
two mirrored halves, symmetric around the central plane
bolus
a mass of matter, especially food or feces traveling through the digestive tract
Hydrophobic or Non-polar
substances that are insoluble in water.
nucleus
a mass of protoplasm found in most cells, directing their growth, metabolism, reproduction, and functioning in the transmission of genic characters
homeobox
a DNA sequence within a homeotic gene that regulates development in animals
Transgenic Organism
Has one or more genes from another organism inserted into its genome.
Differential Reproductive Success
bad traits dont survive, good traits survive.
Mutation
An alteration in the DNA, which may or may not alter the function of a cell.  If it occurs in a gamete, it may be passed from one generation to the next
Organ Systems
A group of organs that work together to perform a certain task.
Haploid
Term used to refer to a cell that contains only a single set of chromosomes and therefore only a single set of genes.
deletrious recessive allele
gene variant that causes side effects (diseased phenotype)
What are some uses for plants?
wood, medicine, lumber, clothing
heartwood
older xylem near the center of a woody stem that no longer conducts
Chorionic Villus Sampling (CVS)
A technique where a physician inserts a narrow tube through the cervix into the uterus and suctions out a tiny sampling of fetal tissue from the placenta.
What is speciation?
The division of one species into two or more.
How do we describe something that is alive?
something that breaths
Slime molds are found primarily in
rotting wood and compost piles
identify some organisms that belong to the classification echinoidea
sea urchin, sand dollars
The Cell Theory
The cell is the basic unit of life, cells make up all living things, one cell must arise from another previously existing cell
What advantages do angiosperms have?
o Stems, roots and leaveso More efficient material transfero Diversity of leaveso Diversity of root types
The smaller the number of map units between linked alleles, the:
smaller the recombination frequency
Surveyor William Smith (1769-1839) discovered that
Some fossils were always found on the same layers of rocks..i.e. certain species from certain time periods
In captivity, tigers and lions have been known to interbreed and produce hybrids, known as ligers. Why does this NOT make them the same species, according to the biological species concept?
Captivity is not a natural condition.
Quiz 1
 
How many carbon atoms are there in a sucrose molecule (tabe sugar)?
 
a. 4
b. 6
c. 8
d. 12
e. 16
 
 
a. 4
b. 6
c. 8
d. 12e. 16  
The primary goal of human gene therapy is __________.
to correct genetic disorders by inserting normal genes in place of defective ones
What Happens in the last 30 weeks of Prenatal development? 
what is the period called?
organ systems grow and mature
fetal period
Which of the following was NOT one of Darwin’s observations?
Most individuals have an equal chance to survive and reproduce
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Term:
Definition:
Definition:

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