Biology 164 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
upon, above
Requires oxygen
Beta cells produce
Male sex chromosome
Spinal Chord
"Central Nervous System"
Natrual Selection
an editing mechanism
Dicot Seed Leaves
Two Cotyledons
Neurotransmitter crosses the synaptic cleft & bind to the _______ receptors
very large terrrestrial ecosystems that contain a number of smaller but related ecosystems within them.
community interacting with its physical and chemical environment
Contain two monosaccharides joined during dehydration reaction (Carbohydrate)
Sucrose (glucose + fructose)
water comes in when
turgid (normal
the opening of an archenteron.
chemical building blocks of all matter
Chemicals used to kill insect pests
A spore-containing structure like a sac or case in shich spores are produced.
proteins found in hemoglobin [red blood cells]
what produces the hormones that regulate the anterior pituitary?
The subdivision of the autonomic nervous system involved in restoring nervous system homeostasis; it is antagonistic to the sympathetic nervous system.
muscle attachment, flexible at the joints
one of a family of compounds, including fats, phospholipids, and steroids, that are insoluble in water.
Which of the following secretes releasing and inhibiting hormones?
growth and development of insects usually involve - , which is a process of changing shape and form. insects undergo either incomplete -or complete -
cell membrane
the semipermeable membrane enclosing the cytoplasm of a cell.
process in which the number of chromosomes per cell is cut in half through the separation of homologous chromosomes in a diploid cell
natural selection
natural process resulting in the evolution of organisms best adapted to the environment
Composed of 4 carbon rings fused together with functional groups attached to the rings. Signals molecules and is a membrane component.
is a single large macromolecule of DNA, and constitutes a physically organized form of DNA in a cell. It is a very long, continuous piece of DNA (a single DNA molecule), which contains many genes, regulatory elements and other intervening nucleotide sequences. A broader definition of "chromosome" also includes the DNA-bound proteins which serve to package and manage the DNA.
Type I Diabetes
Insulin dependent
-Pancreas does not produce insulin, no way to maintain blood sugar level
-grows optimally at 90 degrees Celsius -metabolism is H2/elemental S based -hyperthermophilic -has an outer membrane, present at some distance from the cytoplasm of the cell wall -host to small, parasitic prokaryote (like Nanoarchaeum with a genomic size of .49 mbp)
Organisms make many proteins with highly specialized properties. These molecules illustrate the amazing range of functions that proteins can perform. The antifreeze proteins in Arctic and Antarctic fishes protect their blood against freezing
Special-purpose protein
rare genetic disease that made the patient's pee turn black when exposed to air
in organisms that have alternation of generations, the multicellular diploid form that results from teh union of gamets. The sporophyte produces haploid spores by meiosis that develop into gametophytes
A localized group of individuals of the same species that can interbreed, producing fertile offspring.
How many electron pairs does carbon share in order to complete its valence shell?

a chain of molecules called amino acids linked together
survive and reproduce sucseccfully
survival of the fittest
belief that life comes from only living matter.
an insect in the nonfeeding, usually immobile, transformation stage between the larva and the imago.
explain modeling
used to gain insight into complex phenomena such as the effects of global warming on ecosystems.
stroke volume
volume of blood pumped by left ventricle per beat
con gradient
diif in concentration of a substance accross a space
meaning each of the 4 chromosomes from the male parent has a corresponding chromosome from the female parent.
in which phylum is there a coelom reduced to region around gonads, heart
pure culture
a culture containing only a single species of microorganism
Whe Hemoglobin releases oxygen it becomes desaturated and changes color to :
A)Dark Blue
B) Deep Red
C) Deep Purple
D) Red, white, and blue
C) Deep purple
Oxygen debt
The amount of oxygen needed to reconvert lactic acid to pyruvate following strenuous exercise of muscle tissue.
the first word of a scientific name indicates the ______ to which the organism belongs
an allele that does not express its protein
a simple change in activity or turning rate in response to a stimulus
ovary - fruit
simple - one pistilcompound - aggregate (pistils from same flower) multiple (pistils from different flower)fleshydry
Cell Theory
-Cells are the basic structural and physiological units of all living organisms. -Cells are both distinct entities and building blocks of more complex organisms
the act or state of cohering, uniting, or sticking together.
a particle that in comprised of one or more atoms held together by chemical bonds; the smallest particle of a compound that displays all the properties of that compound
particulate hyphothesis (genes)
idea that parents pass down heritable traits
Independent variable
this is the only factor that effects the outcome of the experiment
What may regulate movement of cations?
Gram positive cell walls
photosystem I
consists of a pair of chlorophyll a molecules with an absorption peak at 700 nm and is referred to as P700
a protein that gets its name from its cyclically fluctuating concentration in the cell
What is consumed/produced in Glycolysis and where does the reaction enter the point of no return? 
Consumed: Glucose, NAD+, ADP, H2O(?)
Produced: 2 net ATP, 2 net NADH, and 2 pyruvates
The glycolysis pathway can be shut off at the step where the second phosphate group is added to make a symmetrical molecule. Phosphofructokinase can be inhibited by ATP at a regulatory site.
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) ch.4
Network of folded membranes in cytosol
What is another name for the dark reactions?
Calvin Cycle
Quiz 2
The lining of the nasal cavity is normally moist, contains numerous goblet cells, and rests on a layer of connective tissue called the lamina propria. Which type of membrane is this?
a. mucous
b. serous
c. cutaneous
d. synovial
a. mucous
b. serous
c. cutaneousd. synovial  
Benign Proximal Positional Vertigo (BPPV)
a brief, intense sensation of spinning
Causes by the otilths being moved into semicircular canals
Describe a Anaerobic Pathway:
Do not use oxygen
Produces less ATP than earobic pathways
Have some kind of landing platform and are open during the day. A common form is tubular flowers where the organism crawls into the flower to collect nectar and thereby gets coated with pollen. The showy flowers of the aster family are usually pollinate t
Bee pollination syndrome
Electron Microscope
forms an image of a specimen using a beam of electrons rather than light.
What happens in the S stage?
Synthesis of DNA, Chromosomes are replicated
terminal bud
the bud located at the end of a twig marking the end of that year's growth
What is the proper order of bonds strength, from strongest to weakest?A. Covalent> Hydrogen> IonicB. Ionic> Covalent> HydrogenC. Covalent> Ionic> Hydrogen
C. Covalent> Ionic> Hydrogen
Ascaris have longitudinal lines (Faint Lines) running the length of the ventral and dorsal surfaces what are they?
They are dorsal and ventral NERVE CORDS
Of the following possibilities, the best way to estimate an organism’s evolutionary fitness is to measure the
number of offspring it produces over its lifetime that survive to breed
1.What is the purpose of the horseshoe shaped cartilages?
Protecting the trachea from collapsing when the pressure in the thoracic cavity becomes negative
How are genes transmitted to offspring?
Each parent gives one gene for each trait in a diploid cell.
all isotopes of a given element must have the same what? and therefore have the same....?
atomic number; number of electrons and protons
A) hydrogen ions is equal to the concentration of hydroxide ions.
54) In a neutral solution the concentration of 
A) hydrogen ions is equal to the concentration of hydroxide ions. 
B) water molecules is less than the concentration of hydrogen ions. 
C) hydrogen ions is less than the concentration of hydroxide ions. 
D) water molecules is less than the concentration of hydroxide ions. 
E) hydrogen ions is greater than the concentration of hydroxide ions.
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