Biology 1a Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Class Cestoda-
two names
Phylum Annelida: symmetry
High Power is...
a usually nonphotosynthetic free-living protozoan with whiplike appendages; some are pathogens of humans and other animals
Extend the abbreviation: 1/2P
subunit of nucleic acid
agglutinogens; generate an immune response against something; the antigens generate glutination or coagulation (clumps); to type a person type A or B is an antigen
specific characteristic that varies from one individual to another
misfolded of the PrP protein
Strep algalactie
-Beta Hemolytic
-Group B
-Catalase negative
CAMP positive
-contagious mastitis in cattle
-mammary glands permenet damage
Species-Cattle and neonatal humans
prevention- Can scan milk,cull infected cattle and test preg. woman%Pr
Fungi provide ____for the algae
a radioactive isotope, usually artificially produced: used in physical and biological research, therapeutics, etc.
diffusion of molecules through a semipermeable membrane from a place of higher concentration to a place of lower concentration until the concentration on both sides is equal
Since crocodiles and alligators lay eggs, they are both what?
carbon and hydrogen (fat oil wax)
female sex hormone; promotes uterine lining growth and 2ndary sex characteristics.
specialized hyphae can extract nutrients from living plant cells. grown by some mutualistic and parasitic fungi.
class of mollusks containing squids and octopuses
a three-nucleotide sequence in DNA or RNA that encodes an amino acid or signifies a stop signal
evidence exists to support evolution (developmental/molecular)
-synthesizes lipids-metabolizes carbohydrates-detoxifies poison
functions of smooth er
nucleotides consist of
-5 carbon sugar-phosphate group-nitrogenous base
permeable only to certain small molecules:
Habitat degradation
anthropogenic changes that reduce the quality of habitiat for many, if not all species
deeper and thicker than epidermis. Elastic and collangenous fibers within the dermis are arranged in definite patterns, producing lines of tension in the skin providing skin tone. Highly vascular, glands, nerve endings and hair follicles.
One long extension (ex. sperm), move whole cell
Describe neurons
Nerve cells that carry electrical signals from one part of the body to another
first generation hybrids are fertile but when they mate with another species or with parent species, offspring of next generation are feeble or sterile (postzygotic)
hybrid breakdown
ionic bond
cations and anions attract eachother. when one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to another.
Potential Energy
Energy that matter possesses because of its location or structure. Ex: water behind a dam
Most selective reabsorbtion occurs immediately in the ___________ of the nephron.
proximal convoluted tubule
organisms that cannot make their own food are called __________
direction of plant growth in response to gravity
A three-nucleotide sequence of DNA or mRNA that specifies a particular amino acid or termination signal; the basic unit of the genetic code
root hair
tiny projection from the outer surface, or epidermis, of a root
scince some fungi obtain food from dead organisms they are referred to as
substance in which a solute is dissolved to form a solution
a formal expression of opinion or intention made, usually after voting, by a formal organization, a legislature, a club, or other group.
Eukaryotic Cells
A cell with distinct, membrane-bounded organelles
Light Reactions
The steps in photosynthesis that occur on the thylakoid membranes of the chloroplast and that convert solar energy to the chemical energy of ATP and NADPH, evolving oxygen in the process.
born small travel to pouch feed on yolk sac, 334: 1 NA, 113C/SA, 200 Aus
the simplest unit of an element that retains the element's characteristics
The acquired immune response          with repeated exposure.
note: this entails the recognition of antigens and the production of antibodies.
in arachnida how many pair od waking legs
Contractile Vacuoles
a membranous sac that helps move excess water out of certain cells
This enzyme binds to CO2 and fixes it
the fused head and thorax of spiders and some other arthopods
microfilaments and microtubules
contribute to the support, movement, and division of cells.
 Greenhouse Effect
The ability of greenhouse gases to trap the sun's energy in a planet's atmosphere as heat. Effects global warming because of overwhelming consensus among the atmosphere that human activities have amplified the natural greenhouse effect producing global warming
"new life-big or small- is not spontaneously generated from inanimate matter" is the conclusion concerning...
spontaneous generation
What is norepinephrine?
causes vasoconstriction to raise blood pressure - secreted by adrenal gland
measure of the total amount of kinetic energy due to molecular motion in a body of matter
a sequence of three nucleotides in a region of transfer RNA that recognizes a complementary coding triplet of nucleotides in messenger RNA during translation by the ribosomes in protein biosynthesis.
Acid Rain
rain containing acids that form in the atmosphere when industrial gas emissions (especially sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides) combine with water
dna polymerases
catalyze teh elongation of new dna at the replication fork
Bacterial Artificial Chromosome
An artificial version of a bacterial chromosome that can carry inserts of 100, 000 to 500, 000 base pairs.
Polar Molecules
A molecule in which opposite ends have a slight charge*Water is polar*O end is slightly negativeH end is slightly positive
What is NOT considered to be a innate non specific defense mechanism against infection?
Ti (tumor inducing) plasmid is the most used vector for plant ___ ___
normally infects __ ___
bacterium doesn't infect __, ___ and ___
genetic engineering
broadleaf plants
corn, rice, and wheat
Flowers that are open, fragrant, and produce copious amounts of pollen are characteristic of this typed of pollinated flower
Beetle pollination syndrome
D) 10.0°C
10) The nutritional information on a cereal box shows that one serving of a dry cereal has 200 kilocalories. If one were to burn one serving of the cereal, the amount of heat given off would be sufficient to raise the temperature of 20 kg of water how many degrees Celsius? 
A) 0.2°C 
B) 1.0°C 
C) 2.0°C 
D) 10.0°C 
E) 20.0°C
one of the small bodies that are found in the cytoplasm of a cell and that are specialized to perform a specific function
What is the main cell type of antibody mediated immunity...
B cells
Making Recombinant DNA
Restriction enzymes are used to cut up DNA of interest and a vector into which you want to place the DNA, making restriction fragments.Particularly when sticky ends are involved, the target DNA restriction fragment can form basepairs with the vector.DNA ligase is then used to join the DNA strand backbones.
Common usage of haplotype data
bases present at polymorphic sites that are genetically linked on a DNA molecule
cyclic electron flow
a route of electron flow during the light reactions of photosynthesis that involves only photosystem I and that produces ATP, but not NADPH or oxygen.
How long does it take an annual plant to complete its life cycle?
one year
Which of these p airs of processes are anaerobic?
fermentation and glycolysis
What us the notochord?
Located just below the nerve cord, it is responsible for the vertebral column.
Type 2: Survivorship Group Types
individuals equally likely to die at any age. 
ex: small mammals, song birds.
Enzyme function is influenced by ____
D.All of the abovea. changes in temperature b. changes in ph c. changes in salinity
According to the theory of island biogeography, which of the following statements is most accurate?
Both a) and b) are correct.
THe three types of connections between bones are joints that allow what?
joints that allow no movement, joints that allow slight movement and joints that allow free movement
The sea star "pisaster" is considered a "keystone species" because...
its removal results in a dramatic reduction in the number of other species in this environment
NADPH and ATP are used in the ________ to synthesize carbohydrate.
light independent reaction of the Calvin Cycle.
(2) Stage Clip (5 Parts of microscope)
Holds the slide in place while on the stage.
Blastomyces Dermatitidis
kind of lipid
Two identical alleles.
An organism's genetic makeup.
Phylum Nematoda: gut
tube-like (complete)
spermatogenesis-1 diploid=4 haploid spermoogenesis-1 diploid-1 haploid ovum
cell eating ( solids )
Does mammal hair regulate insulin?
Dracunuclus medinensis
-guinea worm-very long slender-ulcerated skin lesions
building up and breaking down
six kingdoms
archaebacteria, eubacteria, protista, fungi, plantae, animalia
an attraction between molecules of different substances
placental mammals evolved a _____ which allows them to develop a fertilized egg into a fully formed animal
Australopithecus anamensis
Slightly built individuals represent the true base of our family tree
Semicircular Canals
Detect rational and angular movements.
-Movement in the correct plane causes movement within the canal
organic compound made of sugar molecules
Small, membrane enclosed vesicles that provide a contained environment for reaction in which hydrogen peroxide is generated and degraded.
Name the neurologic structure: three protective membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord.
what assists alveolis in air exchange
Muscle Fiber
Consists of actin and myosin.
stages in mitosis
Interphase (G1 S G2)
ribosome: cluster of proteins and nucleic acids that constructs proteins in a cell
a progressive, malignant disease of the blood-forming organs
organism that can capture energy from sunlight or chemicals and use it to produce its own food from inorganic compounds; also called a producer
Which germ layer gives rise to connective tissues and most muscle tissues?
breakdown of complex food molecules to simplier molescules
In cilia and flagella, a large contractile protein extending from one microtubule doublet to the adjacent doublet ATP hydrolysis drives changes in dynein shape that lead to bending of cilia and flagella.
Bilateral Nervous System
nerve cells concentrate, form:-nerves, nerve cords, ganglia, brainSense Organs:-typically concentrated in head Increased # of interneurons, more complex synaptic contacts:-permit wide range of responses
A hollow, cylindrical strand, found in eukaryotic cells, this is composed of the protein tubulin; part of the cytoskeleton used in the movement of organelles, cell growth, and the construction of cilia and flagella.
RNA Transcription
DNA never leaves the nucleus
RNA faciliates gene expression
mRNA is assembled by RNA polymerase in 5' to 3' direction
The large group of nerves that function involuntarily without conscious control is the __________ nervous system.
Poa pratensis, Poa annua, and Poa atumnalis are all members of the same genus
site of protein transcription, makes proteins headed for membrane or for secretion
Rough ER
An attraction between two atoms resulting from a sharing of outer-shell electrons or the presence of opposite charges on the atoms; the bonded atoms gain complete electron shells.
chemical bond
a category or "level" in Linnaeus's classification system
carrying capacity
the maximum, equilibrium number of organisms of a particular species that can be supported indefinitely in a given environment.
A virus that infects bacteria; also called a bacteriophage.
Mast Cells
A vertebrate body cell that produces histamine and other molecules taht trigger the inflammatory response.
Dermal tissue (epidermis)
covers and protects, secretes the cuticle on leaves and stems.
Binary Fission
Prokaryotes carry out this simple form of splitting into two cells
a factor in an experiment that can change
Water potential a measurement that combines the effects of solute concentration and physical pressure.
The formation of the earth was ____________________ years ago.
________~4.6 billion___________
cells that change in form and develop a tail to become male gametes.
atoms that have lost or gained an electron
Cambrian Explosion
period in which fossils of current phyla of living animals appear suddenly during Cambrian period (535-525).
a structual change in a gene or chromosone
made of actin; like a strand of pearls; aid in cell movement, provide support to microvilli
the process that distributes a copy of each chromosome to each new cell during eukaryotic cell division
nucleus: in an atom, the central core that contains protons and neutrons ; in a cell, the part that houses the cell's genetic material in the form of DNA
a blood vessel that conveys blood from the heart to any part of the body.
Loss of water from a plant through its leaves
What is the respiratory membrane surface area?
70 m2 per lung
limits of biological species (does not apply to)
-asexual organisms-fossils-organisms with little known about their reproduction
F1 Generation
the offspring of the P generation the first filial generation
Radiometric dating
technique that is based on the decay of radioactive isotopes. Each radioactive isotope has a fixed rate of decay.
When there are three or more leaves per node
Whorled arrangement
if a hypothesis can not be disproven then we
accept it
What is an example of phsiological adaptation?
blood clotting/venom production
medulla oblongata
the lowest or hindmost part of the brain, continuous with the spinal cord.
what are triglycerides?
lipids made up of 3 fatty acid chains
Antigen Presenting Cells (APCs)
ingest bacteria and bruises and then destroy
Which of the following choices does NOT correctly categorize the biological kingdom with the form of reproduction used by the organisms within it?
Fungi: asexual reproduction only
1. CONDENSATION: (also called “Dehydration Synthesis”)Assembly of a polymer –Anabolism!!As each two monomers are joined together to form the polymer chain, a molecule of water is removed.2. HYDROLYSIS: (hydro-“water” lysis-“break apart”)Disassembly of large polymers back into monomers (reverse of condensation!)
Ion Channel Protein
a complex of protein molecules in a cell membrane that form a pore thru which ions can pass
How does meiosis guarantee that each gamete formed is genetically unique?
By Crossing over and Independent-Assortment
Mendel's 5 part hypothesis
1. every gene will have two alleles; (alternate forms or variations of a gene)2. Law of Segregation - alleles seperate during meiosis.3. Law of Independent Assortment - allele seperation is random;4. Dominant allele - mask/hide the expression of another allele; recessive allele - masked/hidden in the presence of another allele;5. Homozygous - same alleles for a gene (2 dominent or 2 recessive); hederozygous - different alleles for a gene;
some researchers think that ppl with add have
lower amounts of dopamine .
What can you learn from a life table?
age @ maturity, # offspring/reproductive event, life span, death rate
When the Ventricles contract, the blood flows into the______ and to the ------
attached blood vessels, lungs and the body
Proteins make the same number of ATP as what other organic molecule?
carbohydrates, but organisms tend to breakdown carbohydrates more because it more readily available
When a population grows what does exponential growth mean?
rate of population growth stays the same as a result the population size increases steadily.
If it is saturated, name the characteristics of this lipid.
Has more than 1 double bond b/t carbonsdouble bonds produce kinksliquid @room temp
How old is the Earth. How do we know the age of the planet?
4.5 times 10 to the 9th.
4.6 BYA
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