Biology 228 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
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double stranded molecules
amines (purines and pyrimidines)
body cellundergoes mitosis2N diploidorgans
extremely small, single-celled organisms that usually have a cell wall and that usually reproduce by cell division (singular, bacterium)
where one lives home
epididymis structure
-functions in _______ _____ and ______
single tube about ____ feet long
-sperm starts at the _____ of the epididymis and is mature at the _____
-_______ process
sperm maturation/storage
What are misfolded proteins called?
how one reacts to stimulus
monohybrid cross
cross with one traits
Fungi do NOT..
carry out photosynthesis
macrophages and other leukocytes circulate in body to eat bacteria and other pathogens
A scientific theory explains something in...
Same function and same basic structure, indicating a common ancestor
Natural selection

The differential contribution of offspring to the next generation by various genetic types belonging to the same population. The mechanism of evolution proposed by Charles Darwin.
- an extensively branched glucose storage polysaccharide found in the liver and muscles of animals, the animal equivalent of starch
sugar molecule (lactose) which binds repressor proteins
In multicelled organisms, a grouping of tissues engaged in a collective task.
dihybrid cross
looks at (predicts) two traits;
without our conscious intent or awareness
The degree of a solution's acidity
The chloroplast is a specialized member of a family of closely related plant organelles.
any ciliated freshwater protozoan of the genus Paramecium, having an oval body and a long, deep oral groove.
Genetic Structure
Frequencies of different alleles at each locus and the frequencies of genotypes in a Mendelian population
type of growth that increases length of plant
5 cells of immunity:
neutrophils, monocytes, basophils, lymphocytes, eosinophils
slerenchyma cells
cell in plants
provide support with lignin
Two monosaccharide rings joined by a glycosidic linkage; maltose and sucrose.
an opening in the exoskeleton through which air enters some spiders is called a ______
Change in DNA sequence that affects genetic information

intramembranous bones
-layers of unspecialized conn. tissues appear at future bone sites
- blood vessels perforate tissue
-cells enlarge and differentiate into osteoblasts
-osteoblasts deposit bony matrix around themselves
-surrounded osteoblasts become osteocytes in lacunae
-osteoblasts on inside of periosteum create compact bone
Name the term: Small mucus-secreting exocrine glands at the vaginal orifice.
Bartholin glands
anaerobic respiration
(an-er-o´-bik) The use of inorganic molecules other than oxygen to accept electrons at the “downhill” end of electron transport chains.
quantitative character
expressed in "degrees"; gradient; skin color
a possible explanation for a natural event
Are elements rare outside of our bodies?
great apes, also called -, include gibbons, orangutans, gorillas, chimpanzees, and humans
a region characterized by a specific feature, type of growth or wildlife, etc.:
the cell substance between the cell membrane and the nucleus, containing the cytosol, organelles, cytoskeleton, and various particles.
the skeleton of the human embryo is composed almost entirely of this
Insulin is the hormone to...
Reduce blood glucose levels
genetic drift
change in gene pool due to chance
the process of becoming adapted to an environment; an anatomical,physiological, or behavioral trait that improves an organism's ability to survive and reproduce.
For CAM plants when do CO2 molecules enter the plant?
6. Sex chromosomes
chromosomes that determine the sex of the organism.
When a carbon chain has all the hydrogens it can hold, it is an unsaturated triglyceride.
True or False
Signs and symptoms may recur in all their severity in a period of
reducing agent
The electron donor in a redox reaction.
competitive exclusion
- one species excludes another through competition
they hormones regulate nutrition by regulating feeding behavior and food preferences
insulin and glucagon
A nitrogenous purine base that is a component of nucleic acid.
nutrients is moved through what part of the plant?
phloem tube
profound change in form from one stage to the next in the life of an organism, as from the caterpillar to the pupa and then to the adult butterfly
Tryptophan Present (Repressible Operon)
repressor active, operon off, as tryptophan accumulates, it inhibits its own production by activating the repressor protein, which binds to the operator, blocking transcription
The range of traits which occurs in a populations as a result of mutation.
Relationship with variables
independent is manipulated so it can effect the deoendent variable
Central Vacuole
a membranous sac in a mature plant cell with diverse roles in reproduction, growth, and development
when the cell has so much water the cell bursts
Protein kinase
enzyme that adds a phosphate to a protein
iodine solution
nuclei of human cheek cells can be more readily observed under a compound microscope if the cells are first stained with what??
flat edged teeth used to bite off and cut food
functional group
a group of atoms responsible for the characteristic behavior of the class of compounds in which the group occurs, as the hydroxyl group in alcohols.
semi-conservative DNA Replication
daughter DNA has 1 parental + new strand
What happens 18-36 hours after fertilization?
Zygote divides to form 2 cells.
Give the correct term: sac on outside of the body enclosing the testes
scrotum; scrotal sac
functions of digestive system
Break up, mix, and move food materialSecrete enzymes to facilitate digestionDigest (break down) food particles into smaller moleculesAbsorb nutrients and fluidsEliminate wastes and residues
What is a community?
all of the populations of different species living together in one place
first thing to occur in the first division (meiosis)
homologous chromosomes are seperated
Fungi can associate with other organisms to form closely tied symbiotic relationships. A common example is when fungi associate with ___________ to form _____________.
Only a) and b) are correct.
What is Temporal isolation?Habitat isolation?Behav
Mating happens at different times of the year or d
what kind of digestive system and circulatory system does phylum annelida have
complete digestive system and closed circulatory system
Name the three basic parts of a cell
1. plasma membrane2. genetic information3. cytoplasm
What does parental conflict hypothesis state?
It states that the father is more interested in growth of offspring at the expense of mom, whereas mom has to balance her own and offsprings survival
D) They are nonpolar.
21) Which of the following is a false statement concerning amino groups? 
A) They are basic in pH. 
B) They are found in amino acids. 
C) They contain nitrogen. 
D) They are nonpolar. 
E) They are components of urea.
Which of the following is NOT true about secondary growth seen in trees?
Cells of the vascular cambium produce a ring of cells toward the inside of the trunk called the lateral meristem.
If I say someones blood type what am I saying
Their phenotype, which is what an organism or trait looks like
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