Biology 26 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
therm
heat
Papillomavirus.
Warts
Pleomorphic
Shape varies
punnett square
cross square
sporotype
multicellular diploid stage
Ovary
Highly protected reproductive structure filled with ovules. key feature that defines angiosperms, gymnosperms have little protection of ovules in comparision
presynaptic cell
releases the signal
solvent
greater part of solution
R plasmid
term denotes resistance plasmid
lysosomes
animal cellsbreaks down and digests
Thiols
Compounds containing a sulfhydrl group
neutrotransmitters
electrical impulses & chemical compounds. transmit signals from receptors to brain in nervous system
c6h12o6 is the formula for...
glucose
Periosteum
Tough membrane that surrounds bone
Producer
Autotroph
Makes its own food, usually by photosynthesis
Ecosystem
A community and its abiotic environment.
starch
A storage polysaccharide in plants, consisting entirely of glucose monomers joined by glycosidic linkages.
Urea
Waste after breaking down amino acids
conservation
wise management of natural resources, including preserving habitats and wildlife. conservation efforts focus on protecting entire ecosystems as well as single species. protecting an ecosystem will ensure that the natural habitats and the interactions of many different species are preserved at the same time
True
There are potential risks in performing recombinant DNA research on humans. True or False?
gamete
specialized cell involved in sexual reproduction
phylogeny
the relationships by ancestory among groups of organisms
where the flowers follow the sun
phototaxis
How are all organisms named?
Genus Species
What did he look at?
Cork slices
sympatric speciation
Enter your back text here.
Basidiospore
The zygote dipolid product of the basidium.
Krabbe (crab a) Disease
a galactocerebrosidase deficiency. GALC is needed for myelin synthesis.
molecular biology dogma
1. DNA-transcription2. Pre mRNA-RNA processing3. mRNA-Translation4. Ribosomes and stuff
parathenogenesis
A form of asexual reproduction in which a new individual develops from an unfertilized egg.
class __ has
-no eyes, tentacles
-8 dorsal shell valves
-mantle forms thick gridle, in which vavles are embedded
-scarpe algae off rocks in intertidal zone-radula with iron salts
polyplacophora
implantation
the blastocyst adheres to the uterine lining, some of its cells send out projections that invade the mothers tissues, and connections start to form that will metabolically support the developing embryo through the months ahead.
lophotrochozoans
1 of 2 major protostome groups: characterized by lophophore feeding structure and trochophore larval types in many species
nuclear pores
small holes in the nuclear envelope
genotype
the genetic makeup of an individual; for a particular trait, you cant always tell the genotype by looking at the phenotype 
A substance prpared from killed or weakened microorganisms.
Vaccine
Amino Acids
An organic molecule containing a carboxyl group and an amino group.
___occurs in humans when tissues grow or when repair occurs.
mitosis
A community together with its physical and chemical environment
Ecosystem
cytoplasm
The contents of the cell, excluding the nucleus
hypotonic
noting a solution of lower osmotic pressure than another solution with which it is compared (
nitrogenous base
an organic base that contains nitrogen, such as a purine or pyrimidine; a subunit of a nucleotide in DNA and RNA
Algal bloom
An intermediate increase in the amount of algae and other producers that results from a large input of a limiting nutrient
Fibrinogen
Plasma protein made in liver and used to make clots
nuclear envelope
The double membrane in a eukaryotic cell that encloses the nucleus, separating it from the cytoplasm.
What is the strongest stuff on Earth?
spider silk
Amnion
encloses the embryo in a fluid filled sac, protecting it from drying it out.
G1 phase
the first gap phase interval between cell division and DNA replication, accumulates materials needed to replicate DNA
 
 
 
nervous tissue
-found in brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves
-nerve cells=neurons
-highly specialized: can sense changes in surroundings and respond by transmitting nerve impulses along cellular processes to other neurons, muscles, or glands
Autosomal Recessive Disorders
*Affected children can have unaffected parents.*Heterozygotes have a normal phenotype.*Two affected parents will always have affected children.*Close unaffected relatives are more likely to have affected children if they have joint affected relatives. *Males and females affected with equal frequency.
Atoms of the same element with a differing number of neutrons.
Added neutrons add mass
Some are "stable"
Some are unstable and decay. They give off energy in the form of rays and subatomic particles (radioactive).
Can be used as tracers.
Can cause ca
Isotopes
current theory of the structure of the plasma membrane
fluid-mosaic
competitive inhibition
inhibitor is similar in structure to a substrate; competes with substrate for binding to the active site
sign of delta G during an exergonic reaction
negative
polar head and 2 nonpolar tails - polar heads face up towards water - single or double layered sphere - membrane lipid bilayer - membrane proteins - form a semipermeable membrane
phospholipids
prey
an animal hunted or seized for food, esp. by a carnivorous animal.
Secondary growth
the method of growth in which stems increase in width is called
pigmentation in the body
melanin is the substance responsible for
The best way to know the structure of extinct organisms is to study the ____ record
Fossil
Vessels that bring blood to or take blood away from the heart
great vessels
Peptide bond
The bond between two amino acids that resuts from a condensation reaction between the carboxyl end of one amino acid and the amino end of the other.
eukaryotes
Organisms made up of one or more cells that have a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles.
What are nephrons?
Nephrons are tubules in the renal pyramid that are responsible for filtrating, reabsorbing and secreting solutes
Name four traits of Chloroplasts
Photosynthesis, has inner membranes, has own DNA and replicates, increased with sunlight
active site
the part of an enzyme that interacts with the substrate during catalysis.
Body Plans Radial (center)/ Bilateral (F2B)
1. Body Symmetry2. Cephalization: sensory cells in head/ anus3. Embryo tissue layers4. Type of gut5. Body cavities: Acoelomate6. Segmentation: repetitive units
location where an enzyme binds
a attachment site or binding site
linkage group
all loci on a chromosome form it and thus do not assort independently
Active Transport
- Requires energy from a cell to move a sustance across its concentration gradient
- Actvationenergy uses energy and Passive Transport does not
deletion
the loss of a part of DNA from a chromosome

Transmission electron microscopes (TEMs)

 

 

 


 

 

 

 
focus a beam of electrons through a specimen
- TEMs are used mainly to study the internal structure of cells
When two wild type alleles are on one homolog and the two recessive mutuant alleles are another homolog what is this arrangement called?
w+m+
 
w m
 
cis = Coupling
What is the difference between active & passive transport?
Active needs energy.
Passive does not.
Identify carbon skeletons and functional groups in organic molecules.


Bonds with one or more other carbon atoms that produce an endless variety of carbon skeletons.
Functional groups are groups of atoms within a molecule that interacts in predictable ways with other molecules
4 elements that make 96% of the mass of living things
O H C N
What are the phases of the bacterial growth curve?
lag phase, growth phase, stationary phase, death phase
The electron pairs on oxygen in an H2O molecule
carry a partial negative charge
Name the other ways that oxygen is removed from the air.
ozone formation, rusting of metals and mineral, and fire
how is the growth of number of cells calculated
two to the n where n is the number of generations
Arrangement:
cluster
staph-
Adenosine Diphosphate
ADP
Fluke, Planaria
Platyhelminthes/Flatworm
fibrous
collagen-provides flexibility, structure, and plumpness to the cell.
Chloroplast
function in photosynthesis
glomerlus
part of the nephron
filtration
network of special capillaries inside boman's capsule
The study of bacteria
Bacteriology
Gene Theory
• “Life’s Blueprint” – all living organisms usethe same code (Universal Triplet Code)• A cell’s “blueprint” is contained in its genome• The genome is the sum total of DNAmolecules in a cell• DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid) moleculesare made of nucleotide subunits• Through the process transcription andtranslation, the sequence of nucleotides cancode for different proteins• Proteins are complex molecules used forphysical structure, but also make enzymes whichcatalyze chemical reactions in living organisms.
Threonine
ACU, ACA, ACC, and ACG
Jane Goodall
world famous chimp researcher
the correct equation demonstrating Hamilton's rule is
BR>C
Systolic
just after ventricles contract; pressure in system is highest
are formed by phagocytosis
food vacuoles
ribosome
a tiny, somewhat mitten-shaped organelle occurring in great numbers in the cell cytoplasm either freely, in small clusters, or attached to the outer surfaces of endoplasmic reticula, and functioning as the site of protein manufacture.
Nitrogenous bases held together by
hydrogen bonds
Competition
A struggle for survival between organisms for space, food, water, light, minerals, or other limited resources
Regeneration
Replacement or regrowth of missing body parts by mitosis.
have definite volume and definite shape
solids
molting
shedding of exoskeleton or external covering
Sermatogenesis
Gametogenesis in the testes, leading to spem formation.
glycolysis
the splitting of glucose into pyruvate. Glycolysis is the one metabolic pathway that occurs in all living cells, serving as the starting point for fermentation or aerobic respiration.
Multicellular
Many(more than 1) celled living thing.
the phylum that consists of platforms
Platyhelminthes
plankton
the aggregate of passively floating, drifting, or somewhat motile organisms occurring in a body of water, primarily comprising microscopic algae and protozoa.
Equilibrium theory
An explanation for (usually local) species richness that relies on trade-offs, resulting in resource partitioning.
Genetic Mutation
(genetics) any event that changes genetic structure
displays organization
cells- tissues- organs- organ system- organism
Inorganic Molecules
usually contains positive and negative ions. Usually ionic binding. small number of atoms. Non Living Matter.
Small Intestine
Completes the digestion of food, absorbs nutrients from digested food
dominant allele
fully expressed gene in organisms appearance
plant photoreceptors
-use family of cryptochromes and phytochromes as photoreceptor molecules involved in transduction-the photoreceptor that initiates phototropism is phototropin-when it absorbs blue light, phototropin initiates a signal transduction pathway leading auxin redistribution, proton secretion, and the plant grows toward the light-plants also hace receptors for red light called phytochromes that regulate responses to light like seed germination and control of flowering
aneploides
single extra chromosme or the absence of a chromosome
gametes
a haploid reproductive cell, such as an egg or sperm. gametes unite during sexual reproduction to produce a diploid zygote
mutations
- changes in the nucleotide sequence of DNA- weak evolutionary force
food web
network of complex interactions, links all food chains
BETTER HEARTS
FISH-2 CHAMBERS, AMPHIBIONS- 3 BLOOD MIXES, REPTILES 3 NOT MUCH MIXING, MAMMALS BIRDS CROCS-4 CHAMBERS, SEPTUM NO MIXING
gene
section of a chromosome that codes for a protien or RNA molecule
where does photosynthesis take place?
in the chloroplast
Fungi are not classified as plants because they lack true tissues and organs. T/F
true
Random Dispersion
the pattern in which individuals are spread throughout a habitat in an unpredictable and patternless manner
What is the functional cell of the nervous system- which cell carries the neural impulses?
neuron
when sick, lymph nodes...
-_____ of nodes
-defense ______ to pathogens
-when infection diminishes, nodes _____ ___ _____
-inflammation
-response
-return to normal
if a molecule contains nitrogen the is is polar or nonpolar?
polar
what are the subphylum under chordata
subphylum urochordata
subphylum cephalochordata
subphylum vertebrata
Photosynthesis Formula
6CO2 + 12H2O + Light -> C6H12O6 + 6H2O + Energy (Heat and ATP)
Antibacterials/Antibiotics
Must be targeted & specific to avoid development of resistance by bacteria
Ganglion
A mass of neuron cell bodies; ganglia integrate and coordinate impulses.
binomial nomenclature
the two name naming system that involves identifying organisms by their genus and species
translation
process of rna using genetic codes to asssemble amino acids into protein
Open Circulatory System
System where fluid (called hemolymph) bathes the organs with nutrients and oxygen. No distinction between blood and interstitial fluid.
Density
number of individuals per unit area or volume.
root dependency
depend on stems and leaves for energy
interphase
the period of the cell cycle during which the nucleus is not undergoing division, typically occurring between mitotic or meiotic divisions.
chemical reaction
the process by which atoms or groups of atoms in substances are reorganized into different substances
non spec chemical
lysozyme- will attack and kill any bacteria found in saliva sweat and tears, H+ acid- stomach, vagina
why does ice float?
ice is less dense than liquid
cell theory
states that all organisms are made up of the basic living units called cells, and that all cells come only from previously existing cells.
26.11. Which of the following technologies replace or enhance the normal neurological functions?A) Boston Digital Arm.B) Chip produced by Cyberkinetics that allow one to use a computer using thoughts alone.C) Cochlear Implant produced by Boston Scientific
all of the above.
The closest relative to fungi are ___________, which diverged about _____________ years ago.
animals; 1 billion
a bod that forms between hydrogen and another atoms is called an
hydrogen bond
Indirect active transport ch.5
Carrier protein - co-transports 2 solutes (1 solute down its concentration gradient) (1 solute against its concentration gradient)ATP- powered pump - maintains concentration gradient
LDLs acts as _____, (a term for any molecule that binds specifically to a receptor site of another molecule) by binding to LDL receptors on plasma membranes and then entering the cells by endocytosis.
ligands
Butterflies and Moths as Pollinators
-Both butterflies and moths as pollinators.
-The butterflies and moths probe these corolla tubes with their long mouth parts to search for nectar that is usually produced at the base of the corolla. 
sodium potasium pump
releases Na+ for K+ that are outside cell keeps [K+] inside greater than extracellular fluid & [Na] inside less than outside
22.7. By studying family members of HIV positive hemophiliacs, the CDC found that AIDS could be transmitted by:A) sharing a towel.B) sharing a toilet seat. C) sharing a toothbrush.D) casual kissing and hugging. E) none of the above.
none of the above.
what is NOT true about enzymes
that they raise activation energy
What are the macronutrients?What ph is best?What are nutrient ions?
Macronutrients - Nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, sulfur, calcium, magnesiumPlants grow best in soil that is ph 7NUTRIENT IONS – active transport – going against concentration gradientWater enters through osmosis
Define ‘gradual adaptation’ What is an exaptation?
Structures that evolve in one context but become co-opted for another function
Digestive System of Vertebrates: Herbivore adaptations in the large intestines (cecum)
rabbits
rabbits have two types of feces
-one is material from cecum, which they reingest (poop out and eat again)
-other type is waste (so I guess it bypasses the cecum this time) that they don't eat
What does an atom contain?
A nucleus made out of protons (+)Neutrons (uncharged)Surrounded by a could of electrons (-)
What are the main habitats of Phylum Nematoda?
Marine, freshwater and moist terrestrial, many parasites(animal and plant)
Polyploidy may instantly produce a new species of . . . 
Polyploidy may instantly produce new species of plants, often larger and stronger than diploids.
how do troponin and tropomyosin regulate muscle contraction?
actin has a single binding site and myosin and tropomyosin compete for it. if tropomyosin is bound, myosin can't interact and the crossbridge can't occur.... if troponin moves tropomyosin away by Calcium binding to troponin and changing its shape to pull tropomyosin away and myosin can bind to actin
Give an example of parasitic symbiosis
A tapeworm lives in the intestines of a human
What is the job of the tRNA molecule?
To recognize mRNA codons and assemble amino acids into proteins accordingly.
What are the two main assumptions of the scientific method?
1. Any phenomenon can be understood as an effect of the laws of nature.2. Natural laws occur everywhere.
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